We have now arrived at some definite notion of the essential characters of living beings in general, and we have next to consider what are the characteristics of the two great divisions of the organic world. What are the characters which induce us to place any given organism in either the vegetable or the animal kingdom? What, in fact, are the differences between animals and plants?

It is generally admitted that all bodies which exhibit vital phenomena are capable of being referred to one of the two great kingdoms of organic nature. At the same time it is often extremely difficult in individual cases to come to any decision as to the kingdom to which a given organism should be referred, and in many cases the determination is purely arbitrary. So strongly, in fact, has this difficulty been felt, that some observers have established an intermediate kingdom, a sort of no-man's-land for the reception of those debatable organisms which cannot be definitely and positively classed either amongst vegetables or amongst animals. Thus, Dr Ernst Haeckel has proposed to form an intermediate kingdom, which he calls the Regnum Protisticum, for the reception of all doubtful organisms. Even such a cautious observer as Dr Rolleston, whilst questioning the propriety of this step, is forced to conclude that "there are organisms which at one period of their life exhibit an aggregate of phenomena such as to justify us in speaking of them as animals, whilst at another they appear to be as distinctly vegetable."

In the case of the higher animals and plants, there is no difficulty; the former being at once distinguished by the possession of a nervous system, of motor power which can be voluntarily exercised, and of an internal cavity fitted for the reception and digestion of solid food. The higher plants, on the other hand, possess no nervous system or organs of sense, are incapable of independent locomotion, and are not provided with an internal digestive cavity, their food being wholly fluid or gaseous. These distinctions, however, do not hold good as regards the lower and less highly organised members of the two kingdoms, many animals having no nervous system or internal digestive cavity, whilst many plants possess the power of locomotion; so that we are compelled to institute a closer comparison in the case of these lower forms of life.

A. Form

A Form. As regards external configuration, of all characters the most obvious, it must be admitted that no absolute distinction can be laid down between plants and animals. Many of our ordinary zoophytes, such as the Hydroid Polypes, the Sea-shrubs and Corals - as, indeed, the name zoophyte implies - are so similar in external appearance to plants that they were long described as such. Amongst the Molluscoida, the Common Sea-mat (Flustra) is invariably regarded by seaside visitors as a sea-weed. Many of the Protozoa are equally like some of the lower plants (Protophyta); and even at the present day there are not wanting those who look upon the sponges as belonging to the vegetable kingdom. On the other hand, the embryonic forms, or "zoospores," (fig. 1, a and b) of certain undoubted plants (such as the Protococcus nivalis, Vaucheria, &c), are provided with ciliated processes with which they swim about, thus coming so closely to resemble some of the Infusorian animalcules as to have been referred to that division of the Protozoa.