2 - 2
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The incisors, however, are projecting and prominent, and the canines - especially in the males - are large and pointed. Moreover, the teeth form an uneven series, interrupted by a diastema or interval. The tail is never prehensile, and is sometimes absent. Cheek-pouches* are often present, and the skin covering the tubera ischii is mostly callous and destitute of hair, constituting the so-called "natal callosities." With the single exception of a Monkey which inhabits the Rock of Gibraltar, all the Catarhina, as before remarked, are natives of Africa and Asia.
There are three well-marked groups or tribes of the Cata-rhine Monkeys. In the first of these the tail is long, and there are generally both cheek-pouches and natal callosities. In this tribe is the genus Semnopithecus, in which cheek-pouches are absent, the hind-limbs are long, and the thumb is small, and all the species of which are natives of Asia and the Indian Archipelago. One of the best-known species is the Sacred Monkey of the Hindoos (Semuopithecus entellus). Closely allied to the Semnopitheci is the genus Colobus of Africa, in which cheek-pouches are also absent, and in which, alone of all the Catarhine Monkeys, the pollex is either altogether absent or totally rudimentary. Closely allied to Semnopithecus also, is the Proboscis Monkey or Kahau (Presbytis nasalis), distinguished by its elongated proboscidiform nose, short pollex, and long tail. It is a native of Borneo. Here also come the little Guenons (Cercocebus and Cercopithecus, fig. 449), all of which are confined to Africa. Also referable to this division is the genus Macacus or Inuus (comprising the Macaques), which includes most of the Monkeys which are ordinarily brought to this country. It is a Macaque which occurs at the Rock of Gibraltar, and is the only wild Monkey which is found in Europe at the present day. Most of the Macaques are Asiatic, and. a good example is the Wanderoo (M. Silenus) of India. All the Macaques have cheek-pouches and callosities, and the tail is sometimes long, sometimes rudimentary, and sometimes wanting.
The second tribe of the Catarhine Monkeys is that of the Baboons (Cynocephalus). In these forms the tail is mostly short, and is often quite rudimentary. The head is large, and the muzzle (fig. 452) is greatly prolonged, having the nostrils at its extremity. The facial angle is about 300, and the whole head has much the aspect of that of a large dog. The natal callosities are generally large and conspicuous, and usually of some bright colour. The Baboons are large strong animals, extremely unattractive in outward appearance, and of great ferocity. The fore and hind limbs are nearly of equal length, and, more than any other of the Monkeys, they employ the fore-limbs in terrestrial progression, running upon all-fours with the greatest ease. They are mainly inhabitants of Africa, and one of them, the Mandrill (Cynocephalus Maimon), attains very nearly the height of a man. The best-known species are the Chacma (Cynocephalus porcarius), the Derrias or "Sacred Baboon" (C. Hamadryas), the common Baboon (C. papio), and the Mandrill. The Derrias is found in Arabia and Abyssinia, and occurs both embalmed and sculptured upon ancient monuments in Egypt and Nubia. The Mandrill is rendered probably without exception the most disgustingly hideous of living beings by the possession of large blood-red natal callosities and of enormous cheek-protuberances striped with brilliant colours in alternate ribs. The genus Cynopithecus includes a baboon-like monkey which is found in Celebes and the Philippine Islands.
* The cheek-pouches are sacs or cavities in the cheeks, which open into the mouth and serve to hold any superfluous food.
Fig. 452. - Side-view of the skull of a Baboon (Cynocephalus ursinus). (After Giebel.)
The third family of the Catarhine Monkeys is that of the Anthropomorphous or Anthropoid Apes, so called from their making a nearer approach in anatomical structure to Man than is the case with any other Mammal. The members of this family are Apes in which there is no tail, and cheek-pouches are absent, whilst in some cases there are also no natal callosities. They agree with Man in the possession of a broad flat sternum (whence their name of "Latisternal" Apes), in having an appendix vermiformis to the caecum, and in the fact that the liver, except in the Gorilla, is of a very simple structure. The hind-legs are short - shorter than the fore-limbs - and the animal can progress in an erect or semi-erect position. At the same time, the thumbs of the hind-feet (hallux) are opposable to the other digits, so that the hind-feet are prehensile hands. The spine shows a single curve, and articulates with the back part of the skull. The canine teeth of the males are long, strong, and pointed, but this is not the case with the females. The structure, therefore, of the canine teeth is to be regarded in the light of a sexual peculiarity, and not as having any connection with the nature of the food.
In this tribe are the Gibbons (Hylobates), the Orang-utan (Simia satyrus), the Chimpanzee, and the Gorilla.
The Gibbons form the genus Hylobates, and they belong to southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago. The anterior limbs are extremely long, and the hands nearly or quite reach the ground when the animal stands in an erect posture. There is no tail, but there are natal callosities. The body is covered with a thick fur. The sternum is wider than in the other Apes, and the chin is better developed. One of the best known of the Gibbons is the Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), which has been sometimes regarded as making a nearer approach to Man than any other of the Monkeys. It is a native of Sumatra. It is the largest of the Gibbons, and derives its specific name from the fact that the index and middle toes of the hind-foot are united to one another by skin as far as the nail-joint. Another well-known species is the common Gibbon (H. lar).