Fig. 242.   Pectoral limb (arm) of Chimpanzee (after Owen). c Clavicle; s Scapula or shoulder blade; h Humerus ; r Radius; u Ulna ; d Bones of the wrist, or carpus; m Metacarpus; p Phalanges of the fingers.

Fig. 242. - Pectoral limb (arm) of Chimpanzee (after Owen). c Clavicle; s Scapula or shoulder-blade; h Humerus ; r Radius; u Ulna ; d Bones of the wrist, or carpus; m Metacarpus; p Phalanges of the fingers.

The digestive system of Vertebrates will be spoken of at greater length hereafter; but a brief sketch may be given here of the general phenomena of digestion. All Vertebrate animals are provided with a mouth for the reception of food, and in the great majority of cases the mouth is furnished with teeth, which are used sometimes merely to hold the prey, but more commonly to cut and bruise the food, and thus render it capable of digestion. The food is also generally subjected in the mouth to the action of "salivary" glands, the secretion of which serves not only to moisten the food, and thus mechanically assist deglutition, but also to render soluble the starchy elements of the food. The food is next swallowed, or, in other words, is transferred from the mouth to the stomach, this being effected by a complicated arrangement of muscles, whereby the food is forced down the gullet (oesophagus) to the proper digestive cavity or stomach. In the stomach (fig. 244, s) the food is subjected to two sets of actions; it is mechanically triturated and ground down by the constant contractions of the muscular walls of the stomach; and it is subjected to the chemical action of a special fluid secreted by the stomach, and called the "gastric juice." This fluid has the power of reducing albuminoid substances to a soluble form, and by its action the food is ultimately reduced to a thick acid fluid, called the "chyme." Leaving the stomach by its lower aperture (the pylorus), the chyme passes into the intestine, the first portion of which is divided into several sections, but is collectively known as the "small intestine." Here the chyme is subjected to the action of three other digestive fluids; the bile, secreted by a special organ, the liver; the pancreatic juice, secreted by another gland, the pancreas; and the intestinal juice, secreted by certain glands situated in the mucous membrane of the intestine itself. The result of the whole process is that the "chyme" is ultimately converted into a white, alkaline, milky fluid, which is called "chyle." The indigestible portions of the food pass from the small intestine into a tube of larger dimensions, called the "large intestine." Such portions of the food as are still soluble, and capable of being employed in nutrition, are here taken up into the blood, the useless remainder being ultimately expelled by an anal aperture. The last portion of the large intestine is usually less convoluted than the rest, and is called the "rectum."

Fig. 243.   Pelvic limb (hind   limb) of Chimpanzee (after Owen). i Innominate bone; f Femur or thighbone ; t Tibia; s Fibula ; r Tarsus ; m Metatarsus; p Phalanges of the toes.

Fig. 243. - Pelvic limb (hind - limb) of Chimpanzee (after Owen). i Innominate bone; f Femur or thighbone ; t Tibia; s Fibula ; r Tarsus ; m Metatarsus; p Phalanges of the toes.

Fig. 244.   Diagram of the digestive system of a Mammal. g Gullet; s Stomach; sm Small intestine; lm Large intestine; r Rectum, terminating in the aperture of the anus.

Fig. 244. - Diagram of the digestive system of a Mammal. g Gullet; s Stomach; sm Small intestine; lm Large intestine; r Rectum, terminating in the aperture of the anus.

The fluid and originally soluble portions of the food, and the chyle which is formed in the process of digestion, are taken into the blood, the losses of which they serve to repair. Part of the nutritive materials of the food is taken up directly by the blood-vessels, and is conveyed by the "vena portae" to the liver, whence it ultimately reaches the great veins which go to the heart. The greater part, however, of the liquefied food, constituting the chyle, is taken up, not by the blood-vessels, but by a special set of tubes, which form a network in the walls of the intestine, and are known as the "lacteals." In these vessels, and in certain glands which are developed upon them, the chyle undergoes still further elaboration, and is made more similar in composition to the blood itself. All the lacteal vessels ultimately unite into one or more large vessels which open into one of the veins, so that all the chyle is thus finally added to the mass of the circulating blood.

The blood, then, or nutrient fluid from which the tissues are built up, is formed in this way out of the materials which are taken into the alimentary canal as food. In all the Vertebrata, with the single exception of the Lancelet (Amphioxus), the blood is of a red colour when viewed in mass. This is due to the presence in it of an incredible number of microscopical bodies, which are known as the "blood-corpuscles," the fluid in which these float being itself colourless (fig. 245).

In all the Vertebrata the blood is distributed through the body by means of a system of closed tubes, which constitute the "blood-vessels;" and in all except the Lancelet, the means of propulsion are derived from a Contractile muscular cavity or "heart," furnished with valvular apertures. In the most complete form of circulation, as seen in Birds and Mammals, the heart is essentially a double organ, composed of two halves, each of which consists of two cavities, an auricle and a ventricle. The right side of the heart is wholly concerned with the "lesser" or pulmonary circulation, whilst the left side is concerned with driving the blood to all parts of the body (systemic circulation). The modifications of the circulatory process will be noticed in speaking of the different classes of Vertebrates, but a brief sketch may be given here of the circulation, in its most complete form, as in a Mammal. In such a case, the venous or impure blood, which has circulated through the body and has parted with its oxygen, is returned by the great veins to the right auricle. From the right auricle (fig. 246, a) the blood passes by a valvular aperture into the right ventricle (v), whence it is driven through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The right side of the heart is therefore wholly respiratory in its function. Having been submitted to the action of the lungs, and having given off carbonic acid and taken up oxygen, the blood now becomes arterial, and is returned by the pulmonary veins to the left auricle (a'), From the left auricle the aerated blood passes through a valvular aperture into the left ventricle (v'), whence it is propelled to all parts of the body by means of a great systemic vessel, the "aorta." The left side of the heart is therefore wholly occupied in carrying out the "greater" or systemic circulation.