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Manual Of Zoology | by Henry Alleyne Nicholson



For the use of students with a general introduction on the principles of Zoology

TitleManual Of Zoology
AuthorHenry Alleyne Nicholson
PublisherWilliam Blackwood And Sons
Year1880
Copyright1880, William Blackwood And Sons
AmazonA manual of zoology

For The Use Of Students With A General Introduction On The Principles Of Zoology

By Henry Alleyne Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, Ph.D. (Gott.), F.R.S.E., F.L.S., F.G.S. Professor Of Natural History In The University Of St Andrews.

Sixth Edition Revised And Enlarged

MDCCCLXXX

-Preface To The Sixth Edition
The present edition has been submitted to thorough revision, and it is hoped that the most important facts which have been brought to light since the appearance of the last edition will be found to be...
-Preface To The Fifth Edition
The present edition of this work, in its general ground-plan, is essentially identical with those which have preceded it; but it has, nevertheless, been subjected to very considerable modifications in...
-General Introduction. 1. Definition Of Biology And Zoology
Natural History, strictly speaking, and as the term itself implies, should be employed to designate the study of all natural objects indiscriminately, whether these are endowed with life, or exhibit n...
-2. Differences Between Organic And Inorganic Matter
The terms organic and inorganic, as applied to the various kinds of matter of which the universe is composed, had, to begin with, a very definite signification; the latter being applied to all tho...
-3. Differences Between Dead And Living Bodies
Whilst all living bodies, whether animal or vegetable, are composed essentially of organic substances, there are nevertheless associated with the living organism larger or smaller amounts of matter wh...
-4. Nature And Conditions Of Life
Life has been variously defined by different writers. Bichat defines it as the sum total of the functions which resist death; Treviranus, as the constant uniformity of phenomena with diversity of e...
-4. Nature And Conditions Of Life. Continued
The higher manifestations of life are not, as a general rule, possible unless all the extrinsic conditions just mentioned are carried out, and the non-fulfilment of any of them generally causes death;...
-5. Differences Between Animals And Plants
We have now arrived at some definite notion of the essential characters of living beings in general, and we have next to consider what are the characteristics of the two great divisions of the organic...
-5. Differences Between Animals And Plants. Continued
B. Internal Structure B Internal Structure. Here, again, no line of demarcation can be drawn between the animal and vegetable kingdoms. In this respect all plants and animals are fundamentally simila...
-E. Nature Of The Food
E Nature Of The Food. Whilst all the preceding points have failed to yield a means of invariably separating animals from plants, a distinction which holds good almost without exception is to be found ...
-6. Morphology And Physiology
The next point which demands notice relates to the nature of the differences between one animal and another, and the question is one of the highest importance. Every animal - as every plant - may be r...
-7. Differences Between Different Animals
All the innumerable differences which subsist between different animals may be classed under two heads, corresponding to the two aspects of every living being, morphological and physiological. One ani...
-7. Differences Between Different Animals. Continued
B. Morphological Type B Morphological Type. The first point in which one animal may differ from another is the degree to which the principle of the physiological division of labour is carried. The se...
-Von Baer's Law Of Development
As the study of living beings in their adult condition shows us that the differences between those which are constructed upon the same morphological type depend upon the degree to which specialisation...
-8. Homology, Analogy, And Homomorphism
When organs in different animals agree with one another in fundamental structure, they are said to be homologous; when they perform the same functions they are said to be analogous. Thus the wing ...
-Homomorphism
Many examples occur, both among animals and among plants, in which families widely removed from one another as to their fundamental structure, nevertheless present a singular, and sometimes extremely ...
-9. Correlation Of Growth
This term is employed by zoologists to express the empirical law, that certain structures, not necessarily or usually connected together by any visible link, invariably occur in association with one a...
-10. Classification
Classification is the arrangement of a number of diverse objects into larger or smaller groups, according as they exhibit more or less likeness to one another. The excellence of any given classificati...
-Species
No term is more difficult to define than species, and on no point are zoologists more divided than as to what should be understood by this word. Naturalists, in fact, are not yet agreed as to whethe...
-Impossibility Of A Linear Classification
It has sometimes been thought that the animal kingdom can be arranged in a linear series, every member of the series being higher in point of organisation than the one below it. As we have seen, howev...
-Binomial Nomenclature
Since the time of Linnaeus it has been the practice of naturalists to designate all species by double designations, the first part of the title indicating the genus to which the animal belongs, whilst...
-11. Reproduction
Reproduction is the process whereby new individuals are generated and the perpetuation of the species insured. The methods in which this end may be attained exhibit a good deal of diversity, but they ...
-A. Gemmation And Fission
A Gemmation And Fission. Gemmation, or budding, consists in the production of a bud, or buds, generally from the exterior, but sometimes from the interior, of the body of an animal, which buds are dev...
-B. Reproduction By Internal Gemmation
B Reproduction By Internal Gemmation. Before considering the phenomena of alternate generations, it will be as well to glance for a moment at a peculiar form of gemmation exhibited by some of the Po...
-C. Alternation Of Generations
C Alternation Of Generations. In the case of the Hydra and the sea-mat, which we have considered above, fresh zooids are produced by a primordial organism by gemmation; the beings thus produced (as we...
-D. Parthenogenesis
D Parthenogenesis. Parthenogenesis is the term employed to designate certain singular phenomena, resulting in the production of new individuals by virgin females without the intervention of a male. ...
-12. Development, Transformation, And Metamorphosis
Development is the general term applied to all those changes which a germ undergoes before it assumes the characters of beyond reasonable doubt that the males are produced by a process of parthenogene...
-Retrograde Development
Ordinarily speaking, the course of development is an ascending one, and the adult is more highly organised than the young; but there are cases in which there is an apparent reversal of this law, and t...
-13. Spontaneous Generation
Spontaneous or Equivocal generation is the term applied to the alleged production of living beings without the pre-exist-ence of germs of any kind, and therefore without the pre-exist-ence of parent o...
-14. Origin Of Species
It is impossible here to do more than merely indicate in the briefest manner the two fundamental ideas which are at the bottom of all the various theories as to the origin of species; and it will be s...
-15. Distribution
Under this head come all the facts which are concerned with the external or objective relations of animals - that is to say, their relations to the external conditions in which they are placed. The g...
-15. Distribution. Continued
I. Palaeozoic Or Primary Rocks 1. Laurentian. (Lower and Upper.) 2. Cambrian. (Lower and Upper, with Huronian rocks?) 3. Silurian. (Lower and Upper.) 4. Devonian, or Old Red Sandstone. (Lower, Mid...
-Chapter I. Invertebrate Animals. Protozoa
1. General Characters of the Protozoa. 2. Classification. 3. Gregarinida. 1. General Characters General Characters. The sub-kingdom Protozoa, as the name implies, includes the most lowly organised m...
-3. Class I. Gregarinida
The Gregarinida may be defined as parasitic Protozoa, which are destitute of a mouth, and do not possess the power of emitting pseudopodia. They constitute the lowest class of the Protozoa, and comp...
-Psorospermiae
There occur as parasites on and within the bodies of fishes certain vesicular, usually caudate, bodies, termed Psorospermioe, the exact nature of which is very problematical. According to Lieberkuhn t...
-Chapter II. Rhizopoda. General Characters Of The Rhizopoda
The Rhizopoda may be defined as Protozoa which are destitute of a mouth, are simple or compound, and possess the power of emitting pseudo-podia They are mostly small, but some of the composite forms...
-Order I. Monera
This name has been proposed by Haeckel for certain singular organisms which may provisionally be regarded as the lowest group of the Rhizopoda. They are very minute in size, and are distinguished by t...
-Order II. Amoebea
This order comprises those Rhi-zopoda which are, with few exceptions, naked; have usually short, blunt, lobose pseudopodia, which do not anastomose with one another; and contain a nucleus and one or...
-Chapter III. Foraminifera. Order III. Foraminifera
The Foraminifera may be defined as Rhizopoda in which the body is protected by a shell or test, composed of carbonate of lime, or of sand-grains cemented together, or, rarely, of chitine ; there is ...
-Foraminifera. Order III. Foraminifera. Continued
Fig. 12. - Shells of Arenaceous Foraminifera. A, Test of Astrorhiza, greatly enlarged ; B, Test of Trochammina ringens, enlarged thirty times; C, Test of Trochammina lituiformis, enlarged eighteen t...
-Challengerida
In the neighbourhood of Gromia we may, perhaps, place the singular marine Rhizopods which Sir Wyville Thomson has raised to the rank of a distinct order under the name of Challengerida, from the type-...
-Classification Of The Foraminifera
The classification of the Foraminifera has proved a matter of considerable difficulty. The older arrangements were unnatural, as being based wholly on the form of the shell, a point in which the Foram...
-Distribution Of Foraminifera In Space
The Foraminifera (save Gromia, which occurs in both fresh and salt water, and the fresh-water forms allied to this) are marine, and are found in almost all seas, though more abundantly in those of the...
-Distribution Of Foraminifera In Time
Remains of Foraminifera have been found in Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Kainozoic formations. In the oldest stratified rocks with which we are acquainted - viz., the Laurentian rocks of Canada - there oc...
-Chapter IV. Radiolaria. Order IV. Radiolaria
The order Radiolaria was founded by Muller to include the Polycystina, the Acanthometrina, and the Thalassicollida, to which Dr Carpenter adds Actinophrys and its allies, chiefly on account of the for...
-I. Family Acanthometrina
I Family Acanthometrina. The Acanthometrae (fig, 18, a) are all minute, and are found floating near the surface in the open ocean, sometimes in great numbers. They consist of sarcode-bodies, which are...
-Heliozoa
The Heliozoa may be defined as Rhizopoda, which possess a contractile vesicle, and are devoid of a central capsule. The body is naked, or is provided with skeletal structures of a variable nature, but...
-Chapter V. Spongida. Order V. Spongida or Porifera
The true nature of sponges has long been a matter of dispute, but they are now universally referred to the animal kingdom, their precise systematic position being still a matter of dispute.* The Spon...
-Spongida. Order V. Spongida or Porifera. Part 2
In a living sponge a constant circulation of water is maintained by means of an aquiferous system (fig. 25), which is constituted by the oscula and pores - already alluded to - and by a system of cana...
-Spongida. Order V. Spongida or Porifera. Part 3
1. Hexactinellidae Hexactinellidae. In this group of the siliceous sponges the skeleton is composed of six-armed spicules, the rays of which are almost invariably at right angles to each other (fig. ...
-Distribution Of Sponges In Space
Sponges are almost exclusively marine, the Spongillae alone being inhabitants of fresh water; and they are of almost universal occurrence. The sponges of commerce are mostly obtained from the Grecian ...
-Distribution Of Sponges In Time
Remains of sponges are known to occur in formations belonging to the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Kainozoic epochs. The keratose or horny sponges are obviously incapable of leaving any evidence of their ...
-Affinities And Systematic Position Of The Sponges
Great doubts still exist as to the real relations and zoological place of the sponges; and though placed here with the Rhizo-poda, there are many considerations which render this collocation objection...
-Chapter VI. Infusoria
The Infusoria of many writers comprise many of the lowest forms of plants - such as the Diatoms - together with the Rotifera, a class of minute animals now known to belong to the Annulosa. By modern w...
-I. Order Ciliata
I Order Ciliata. This order comprises those Infusoria in which the outer layer of the body is more or less abundantly furnished with vibratile cilia, which serve either for locomotion or for the procu...
-I. Order Ciliata. Continued
Reproduction in Paramaecium may be effected non-sexually, by fission, the body dividing transversely into two halves, and the process of cleavage commencing first with the division of the nucleus (fig...
-II. Order Suctoria
This order includes a series of Infusoria of a very anomalous nature. In Acineta or in Podo-phrya (fig. 34, A), which may be taken as types, the body is provided with a number of radiating filamentous...
-III. Order Flagellata
This order comprises those Infusoria which, like Peridinium, find their means of locomotion in long, flexible, lash-like filaments, termed flagella; cilia occasionally being present as well. In some...
-Distribution Of The Infusoria In Space And In Time
The Infusoria have at the present day an almost universal distribution, being found in all collections of fresh and salt water, where decaying organic matter is present, and where the other conditions...
-Infusoria Literature
[In the subjoined list, as well as in those which will be subsequently given, it is hardly necessary to say that nothing further will be attempted than to furnish the student with a brief and limited ...
-Chapter VII. Coelenterata. The Sub-Kingdom Coelenterata
1. Characters of the Sub-Kingdom. 2. Divisions. 3. General Characters of the Hydrozoa. 4. Explanation of Technical Terms. The Sub-kingdom Coelenterata (Frey and Leuckhart) may be considered as a mode...
-Class I. Hydrozoa
The Hydrozoa are defined as Coelenterata in which the walls 0/ the digestive sac are not separated from that of the general body-cavity, the two coinciding with one another; the reproductive organs ar...
-General Terminology Of The Hydrozoa, Individual
We have already seen {see Introduction) that the term individual, in its zoological sense, must be restricted to the entire result of the development of a single fertilised ovum, and that in this ...
-Zooids
In continuous development, the partially independent beings which are produced by gemmation or fission from the primitive organism, to which they remain permanently attached, are termed zooids. In o...
-Chapter VIII. Divisions Of The Hydrozoa. Sub-Class Hydroida
The Hydrozoa are divided into five sub-classes - viz., the Hydroida, the Siphonophora, the Lucernarida, the Graptolitidae, and the Hydrocorallinae. Sub-Class I. Hydroida. - This sub-class comprises t...
-Order I. Hydrida (Eleutheroblastica, Allman; Gymnochroa, Hincks)
This order comprises those Hydrozoa whose hydro-soma consists of a single locomotive polypite, with tentacles and hydrorhiza and with reproductive organs which appear as simple external processes ...
-Order II. Corynida (Gymnoblaslica, Allman; Athecata, Hincks)
The order Corynida comprises those Hydrozoa whose hydrosoma is fixed by a hydrorhiza, and consists either of a single polypite, or of several united by a coenosarc, which usually develops a firm outer...
-Order II. Corynida (Gymnoblaslica, Allman). Part 2
In certain Corynida, however, we meet with a still higher form of structure, the gonophores being now said to be medusoid. In these cases the generative bud is primitively a simple sac - such as the...
-Order II. Corynida (Gymnoblaslica, Allman). Part 3
Fig. 43. - Diagram of sporosacs supported upon a gonoblastidion (or blastostyle). a Chitinous investment (periderm) of the colony; b Ectoderm; c Endoderm ; p Poly-pite; g Gonoblastidion, or columnif...
-Order III. Sertularida (Calyptoblaslica, Allman; The-caphora, Hincks)
This order comprises those Hydrozoa whose hydro soma is fixed by a hydrorhiza, and consists o several polypites, protected by hydrothecae, and connected by a coinosarc, which is usually branched and ...
-Order IV. Campanularida
The members of this order are closely allied to the Sertularida; so closely, indeed, that they are very often united together into a single group. The chief difference consists in the fact that the hy...
-Order V. Thecomedusae
Professor Allman has recently described under the name of Stephanoscyphus mirabilis, a very remarkable Hydrozoon, which he believes to form the type of a new order. This singular organism is invariabl...
-Order VI. MEDUSIDAE or Hydromedusidae (Acalephae in part)
The organisms included in this order have often been separated as a distinct sub-class of the Hydrozoa; but they are, perhaps, best regarded as a mere order of the Hydroid Zoophytes, characterised by ...
-Chapter IX. Siphonophora
Sub-class II. Siphonophora The members of this subclass constitute the so-called Oceanic Hydrozoa; and are characterised by the possession of a free and oceanic hydro-soma, consisting of several p...
-Order I. Calycophoridae
This order includes those Siphonophora whose hydrosoma is free and oceanic, and is propelled by nectocalyces attached to its proximal end. The hydrosoma consists of several polypites, united by an ...
-Order II. Physophoridae
This second order of the Oceanic Hydrozoa comprises those Siphonophora in which the hydrosoma consists of several polypites united by a flexible, contractile, unbran3ched or very slightly branched coe...
-Chapter X. Lucernarida, Graptolitidae, And Hydrocorallinae
Sub-class IV. Lucernarida (Acalephae, in part) The members of this sub-class may be defined as Hydrozoa whose hydrosoma has its base developed into an ' umbrella,' in the walls of which the reproduc...
-Order I. Lucernariadae
This order includes those Lucernarida which have only a single polypite, are fixed by a proximal hydrorhiza, and possess short tentacles on the margin of the umbrella. The reproductive elements are ...
-Order II. Pelagidae
This order is defined as including Lucernarida which possess a single polypite only, and an umbrella with marginal tentacles. The reproductive elements are developed in a free umbrella, which either ...
-Order III. Rhizostomidae
The members of this order are defined as being Lucertiarida in which the reproductive elements are developed in free zooids, produced by fission from attached Lucernaroids. The umbrella of the generat...
-Order III. Rhizostomidae. Continued
Fig. 59. - Hidden-eyed Medusae. Generative zooid of one of the Pelagidae (Chrysaora hyoscelld)) after Gosse. By a series of elaborate experiments, Mr G. J. Romanes has shown that the contractions o...
-Sub-class V. Graptolitidae (= Rhabdophora, Allman)
The organisms included at present under this head are all extinct, and they are in many respects so dissimilar, and their structure is so far from being entirely understood, that it is doubtful if any...
-Sub-class VI. Hydrocorallinae
This name has recently-been proposed by Mr Moseley for two groups of marine animals which produce a regular skeleton of carbonate of lime, often of large size, and which have been generally referred t...
-Chapter XI. Distribution Of The Hydrozoa. I. Distribution Of Hydrozoa In Space
I Distribution Of Hydrozoa In Space. The genera of Hydrozoa have a wide distribution, the mode of reproduction amongst the fixed forms being such as to insure their extension over considerable areas. ...
-Chapter XII. Actinozoa
1. General Characters of the Actinozoa. 2. Characters OF THE ZOANTHARIA. 3. ZOANTHARIA MALA-CODERMATA. 4. ZOANTHARIA SCLEROBASICA. 5. ZOAN-THARIA SCLERODERMATA. Class II. Actinozoa The Actinozoa are...
-Order I. Zoantharia
The Zoantharia, Hexacoralla, or Helianthoid Polypes, are defined by the disposition of their soft parts in multiples of five or six, typically the latter, and by the possession of simple, usually nu...
-Family I. Actinidae
The members of this family are commonly known as Sea-anemones, and are distinguished by having no corallum, or a spurious one, by being rarely compound, and by having the power of locomotion. The bod...
-Family II. Ilyanthidae
In this family there is no corallum, and the polypes are single and free, with a rounded or tapering base. Ilyanthus itself (fig. 71, B) is in all essential respects identical with the ordinary Actini...
-Family III. Zoanthidae
The polypes in this family form colonies united by a fleshy or coriaceous coenosarc, in the shape of a crust or of creeping roots, and they have no power of locomotion. The coenosarc may be strengthen...
-Family III. Zoanthidae. Part 2
A typical simple sclerodermic corallum (fig. 74) is secreted by a single polype, and its structure presents an obvious correspondence with that of the animal which produces it. It is generally more or...
-Family III. Zoanthidae. Part 3
1. Aporosa Aporosa. The calcareous tissue of the corallum is more or less compact and imperforate ; the septa usually constituting complete solid plates, and the theca being as a rule not pierced by ...
-Chapter XIII. Alcyonaria. Order II. Alcyonaria
The second great division of living Adinozoa is that of the Alcyonaria, defined by the possession of polypes with eight pinnately -fringed tentacles, the mesenteries and somatic chambers being also a ...
-Family I. Alcyonidae
This family is characterised by the possession of a fixed actinosoma, which is provided with a sclerodermic corallum in the form of calcareous spicula embedded in the tissues. The spicules are mostly ...
-Family II. Tubiporidae
In the Tubiporidae, or organ-pipe corals, of which T. musica (fig. 80) is a familiar example, there is a well-developed sclerodermic corallum, with thecae, but without septa. The corallum is compose...
-Family III. Pennatulidae
The Pennatulidae, or Sea-pens, are defined by their free habit, and by the possession of a sclerobasic, rod-like corallum, sometimes associated with sclerodermic spicules. Pennatula, or the Cock's...
-Family IV. Gorgonidae
In the Gorgonidae, or Sea-shrubs, there is an arborescent coenosarc permanently rooted and provided with a grooved, or sulcate, branched sclerobasis, associated with true tissue-secretions, termed ...
-Family V. Helioporidae
The Alcyonarians of this group possess a well-developed sclerodermic corallum, composed of tabulate tubes of two sizes, the larger ones being furnished with rudimentary septal laminae. The family Hel...
-Chapter XIV. Rugosa
The members of this order agree with the Zoantharia sclero-dermata in possessing a well-developed sclerodermic corallum, with a true theca, but generally possessing both tabulae and septa combined. Th...
-Chapter XV. Ctenophora. Order IV. Ctenophora
The Ctenophora comprise transparent, oceanic, gelatinous Actinozoa, swimming by means of 'ctenophores,' or parallel rows of cilia disposed in comb-like plates. No corallum (Greene). The members of ...
-Ctenophora. Order IV. Ctenophora. Continued
A. Eurystomata A Eurystomata. Oral aperture large, occupying the whole of the oral extremity of the body. 1. Beroidae. The paragastric canals opening into a circum-oral ring. No tentacles. Ex. Beroe...
-Chapter XVI. Distribution Of Actinozoa
1. Distribution of Actinozoa in Space. 2. Coral-reefs. 3. Distribution of Actinozoa in Time. Distribution Of Actinozoa In Space The Zoantharia malacodermata appear to have an almost cosmopolitan ran...
-Distribution Of Actinozoa In Time
With the single exception of the Mollusca, no division of the animal kingdom contributes such important and numerous indications of its past existence as the Actinozoa. In the Palaeozoic rocks the ma...
-Literature General Works
1. Manuel d'Actinologie et de Zoophytologie. De Blainville. 1834-37. 2. Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, vol. ii. 'Strahlenthiere.' Bronn. 1859-60. 3. Manual of the Coelenterata. Green...
-IV. Medusidae And Lucernarida
[The works quoted under this section deal not only with the above-mentioned groups as here understood, but also largely with the Medusoid Gonophores of other Hydrozoa.] 26. System der Acalephen. E...
-Chapter XVII. Echinodermata
The Echinodermata, including the Sea-urchins, Star-fishes, Sea-cucumbers, etc, form a very distinctly circumscribed group of the animal kingdom, and were formerly included in the old sub-kingdom Radia...
-Chapter XVIII. Echinoidea. Order Echinoidea
The members of this order - commonly known as Sea-urchins - are characterised by the possession of a subglobose, discoidal, or depressed body, encased in a test or shell, which is composed of numero...
-Echinoidea. Order Echinoidea. Part 2
Fig. 94. - Cidaris papillata. (After Gosse.) Sides the spines, which are sometimes of a very great length, the test hears curious little appendages, called pediiariae (fig. 93, F), and originally s...
-Echinoidea. Order Echinoidea. Part 3
Fig. 96. - A, The masticatory apparatus of an Echinoid (Toxopneustes lividus), viewed from above, with part of the alimentary canal attached to it: a OEsophagus; b Heart, with the sand-canal (c) in a ...
-Chapter XIX. Asteroidea And Ophiuroidea. Order Asteroidea (Stellerida)
This order comprises the ordinary Star-fishes, and is defined by the following characters: Fig. 97. - The common Star-fish (Uraster rubens), natural size, viewed from above. The body (fig. 97) is ...
-Asteroidea And Ophiuroidea. Order Asteroidea (Stellerida). Continued
Family I. Asteriadae or Asterocanthiidae Four rows of ambulacral feet. Fam. 2. Astropectinidae. - Two rows of ambulacral feet; back flattish, netted with tubercles, which carry radiating spines at th...
-Order Ophiuroidea
Body stellate, consisting of a central disc, in which the viscera are contained, and of elongated arms which are sharply separated from the disc, solid, not containing prolongations of the viscera...
-Chapter XX. Crinoidea, Cystoidea, And Blastoidea. Order Crinoidea
The members of this order are Echino-dermata, in which the body is fixed, during the whole or a portion of the existence of the animal, to the sea-bottom by means of a longer or shorter, jointed, and ...
-Crinoidea, Cystoidea, And Blastoidea. Order Crinoidea. Part 2
The dorsal surface of the calyx of the Crinoidea is corn posed of a number of calcareous plates, accurately fitted together, and having the following general arrangement (fig. 104). Resting directly...
-Crinoidea, Cystoidea, Blastoidea. Order Crinoidea. Part 3
The animal feeds upon very minute organisms which are conveyed to the mouth by the action of the cilia lining the brachial grooves. The mouth in C. rosacea is sub-central, but in some Comatulids (Acti...
-Order Cystoidea
Body generally spheroidal, pedunculate or sessile, enclosed by calcareous articulated plates, some of which are usually porous and are connected with respiration, and perhaps with reproduction also. A...
-Order Blastoidea
Body enclosed in an armour of closely fitting calcareous plates, attached to some foreign body by a slender stem. From the summit of the calyx radiate five transversely striated and longitudinally gro...
-Chapter XXI. Holothuroidea. Order Holothuroidea
Vermiform or slug - like Echino-derms, with a leathery skin, in which calcareous granules and spicules are generally developed. Mouth surrounded by a circlet of tentacles. Sexes mostly distinct. Larva...
-Chapter XXII. Distribution Of Echinodermata In Space And Time
Distribution Of Echinodermata In Space The Crinoidea are represented by comparatively few forms in recent seas, and these have mostly a very local distribution. More than one hundred and fifty specie...
-Distribution Of Echinodermata In Time
Numerous remains of Echinodermata occur in most sedimentary rocks, beginning with the Upper Cambrian rocks, and extending up to the recent period. The two orders Cystoidea and Blastoidea, which are th...
-Distribution Of Echinodermata In Time. Continued
5. Ophiuroidea Ophiuroidea. The brittle-stars are represented in the Silurian rocks by some anomalous genera, of which the best known is Protaster. In the Triassic, Oolitic, Cretaceous, and Tertiar...
-Chapter XXIII. Annulosa. Sub-Kingdom Annulosa
1. General Characters of the Annulosa. 2. Divisions of Annulosa. 3. General Characters of the Sco-lecida. 4. Characters of the Taeniada. The Annulose animals are characterised by the possession of a ...
-I. Scolecida
I Scolecida. This division includes the parasitic worms (Entozoa), the Wheel-animalcules, and some allied forms, and is characterised by having an elongated or a flattened body, which may have an annu...
-I. Scolecida. Continued
Division I. Platyelmia This section includes those Scole-cida which possess a more or less flattened body, usually somewhat ovate in shape, and not exhibiting anything like distinct segmentation. The...
-Order I. Taeniada (Cestoidea)
This order comprises the internal parasites, called Tape-worms (Cestoid worms), and the old order of the Cystic Worms (Cystica); the latter being now known to be merely immature forms of the Tapewor...
-Order I. Taeniada (Cestoidea). Continued
Having by one of these methods reached a suitable resting-place, the proscolex now proceeds to surround itself with a cyst, and to develop a vesicle, containing fluid, from its posterior extremity, wh...
-Chapter XXIV. Trematoda And Turbellaria. Order Trematoda
Leaf-like internal (sometimes external) parasites, provided with one or more ventral suckers; a mouth and alimentary canal, but no anus. No body-cavity. Integument of the adult not ciliated. Sexes gen...
-Order Turbellaria
Leaf-like or vermiform Scolecids, rarely parasitic, with a mouth and alimentary canal, and sometimes a body-cavity; integument ciliated. Sexes united or distinct. The members of this order are almost...
-Order Turbellaria. Continued
Section A. Rhabdoccela Intestine straight, not branched; body elongated, rounded, or oval. Section B. Dendrocoela Intestine branched or arborescent; body flat and broad. Sub-order II. Nemertida T...
-Chapter XXV. Nematelmia. I. Acanthocephala. 2. Gordiacea. 3. Nematoda
Division II. Nematelmia This section may be considered as comprising those Scolecids in which the body has an elongated and cylindrical shape. Strictly speaking, it should include the Nemertida, but ...
-Order I. Acanthocephala
Vermiform internal parasites, without mouth or alimentary canal, and having an anterior pro-trusible proboscis armed with recurved hooks. Sexes distinct. The Acanthocephala are entirely parasitic, ve...
-Order II. Gordiacea
Vermiform Scolecida, parasitic in insects during a portion of their existence. An imperfectly developed alimentary canal or none. Water-vascular system rudimentary or absent. Sexes distinct. The 'Gor...
-Order III. Nematoda (or Nematoidea)
Cylindrical vermi-form Scolecids, sometimes parasitic, sometimes free; integument not ciliated; a well-developed alimentary canal, with a mouth and anus, suspended freely in a body-cavity; sexes disti...
-Chapter XXVI. Rotifera. Sub-Class Rotifera (Rotatoria)
The Rotifera, or Wheel-animalcules, constitute a very natural group, the exact position of which has been a good deal disputed, and is still doubtful. They are looked upon here as a distinct divisio...
-Affinities Of Rotifera
In their external appearance the Rotifera approximate closely to the Infusoria, but the organisation of the former presents a very striking advance when compared with that of the latter. Thus, in the ...
-Rotifera Literature
1. Entozoa: an Introduction to the Study of Helminthology. T. Spencer Cobbold. 1864. 2. Entozoa: being a Supplement to the Introduction to the Study of Helminthology. T. Spencer Cobbold. 1869. ...
-Chapter XXVII. Anarthropoda
The division Anarthropoda includes the three classes of the Spoon-worms (Gephyred), the Ringed Worms (Annelida), and the Arrow-worms (Chaetognatha), and constitutes the highest section of the Vermes...
-Anarthropoda. Continued
In the higher Annelida each segment (fig. 126) consists of two arches, termed, from their position, respectively the dorsal arc and the ventral arc; and each bears two lateral processes, or foot-...
-Chapter XXVIII. Orders Of Annelida. Order I. Hirudinea (Discophora or Suctorid)
This order includes the Leeches, and is characterised by the possession of a locomotive and adhesive sucker, posteriorly or at both extremities, and by the absence of bristles and foot-tubercles. The ...
-Order II. Oligochaeta (Terricola)
The members of this order, comprising the Earth-worms (Lumbricidae) and the Water-worms (Naididae), are distinguished by the fact that their locomotive appendages are in the form of chitinous setae or...
-Order III. Tubicola (Cephalobranchiata)
Animal protected by a tube; locomotive organs in the form of foot-tubercles, carrying setae ; breathing-organs in the form of branchiae carried on or near the head. Sexes almost always distinct. A met...
-Order IV. Errantia (Chaetopoda, or Nereided)
This order comprises free Annelides,* which possess setigerous foot-tubercles. The respiratory organs are generally in the form of tufts of external branchiae, arranged along the back or the sides of ...
-Distribution Of Annelida In Time
Of the Annelida the only orders which are known to have left any traces of their existence in past time are the Tubicola and the Errantia; of which the former are known by their investing tubes, whils...
-Annelida Literature
Gephyrea. 1. History of British Starfishes and other Animals of the Class Echinodermata. Edward Forbes. 1841. 2. Memoire sur l'Echiure. Quatrefages. 'Annales Sci. Nat.' 1847. 3. Ueber Thalasse...
-Chapter XXIX. Arthropoda
Division II. Arthropoda, or Articulata The remaining members of the sub-kingdom Annulosa are distinguished by the possession of jointed appendages, articulated to the body; and they form the second p...
-Chapter XXX. Crustacea
Class I. Crustacea The members of this class are commonly known as Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimps, King-crabs, Barnacles, Acorn-shells, etc. They are nearly allied to the succeeding order of the Arachnida ...
-Crustacea. Part 2
Taking the common Lobster (fig. 136) as a good and readily obtainable type of the Crustacea, the body is at once seen to be composed of two parts, familiarly called the head and the tail, the latt...
-Crustacea. Part 3
Fig. 137. - Morphology of Lobster. 1. Lobster, with all the appendages, except the terminal swimmerets, removed, and the abdominal somites separated from one another : ca Carapace; t Telson. 2. Th...
-Chapter XXXI. Sub-Class Epizoa
The members of this sub-class are Crustaceans which in the adult state (except the males of some forms) are destitute of the power of locomotion, being fixed parasitically to the exterior of other ani...
-Order I. Ichthyophthira
Adult parasitic, deformed, often with rudimentary limbs; mouth suctorial; respiratory organs wanting; females with external ovisacs. Larvae locomotive, and undergoing retrograde metamorphosis. The me...
-Order II. Rhizocephala
Adult parasitic, attached by ramified roots (antennae ?). Body sac-like, unarticulated, without limbs. No mouth. Larva a locomotive nauplius. The Rhizocephala constitute a peculiar group of Crustac...
-Order III. Cirripedia
Adult attached, enclosed in an integumentary sac, within which a many-valved shell is typically developed. Antenna modified for adhesion. Abdomen rudimentary. Limbs usually present, in the form of mul...
-Order III. Cirripedia. Continued
After a brief natatory life, the pupa fixes itself by means of the disc-segments of the antennas to some foreign body, such as a rock, a piece of driftwood, the skin of a Cetacean, a Sponge, the carap...
-Divisions Of Cirripedia
(After Darwin.) Sub-order I. Thoracica. Carapace, either a capitulum on a pedicle, or an operculated shell with a basis. Body, formed of six thoracic segments, generally furnished with six pairs of ...
-Chapter XXXII. Sub-Class Entomostraca
Sub-class III. Entomostraca (Gnatnopoda, Woodward). -The term Entomostraca has been variously employed, and few authorities include exactly the same groups of the Crustacea under this name. By most th...
-Order I. Ostracoda
Small Crustaceans having the entire body enclosed in a shell or carapace, which is composed of two valves united along the back by a membrane. The branchiae are attached to the posterior jaws, and the...
-Order II. Copepoda
Small Crustaceans, having the head and thorax covered by a carapace, and furnished with five pairs of natatory feet. Usually there are two caudal locomotive appendages. A distinct heart is sometimes a...
-Order I. Cladocera
The members of this order are small Crustaceans, which have a distinct head, and have the whole of the remainder of the body enclosed within a bivalve carapace, similar to that of the Ostracoda. The f...
-Order II. Phyllopoda
Crustacea, mostly of small size, the carapace protecting the head and thorax, or the body entirely naked. Feet numerous, never less than eight pairs, mostly foliaceous or leaf-like, branchial in funct...
-Order III. Trilobita
This order is entirely extinct, none of its members having survived the close of the Palaeozoic period. The Trilobites are Crustaceans in which the body is usually more or less distinctly trilobed; th...
-Order IV. Merostomata
The members of this order are Crustacea, often of gigantic size, in which the mouth is furnished with mandibles and maxillae, the terminations of which become walking or swimming feet and organs of pr...
-Order IV. Merostomata. Continued
Sub-order 2. Eurypterida Crustacea with numerous, free, thoracico-abdominal segments, the first and second (?) of which bear one or more broad lamellar appendages upon their ventral surface, the rem...
-Chapter XXXIII. Malacostraca
Sub-class IV. Malacostraca (Thoracipoda, Woodward). -The Crustacea of this sub-class are distinguished by the possession of a generally definite nnmber of body-segments; seven somites going to make up...
-Order I. Laemodipoda
Small Crustaceans, with a rudi-mentary abdomen, the first two segments of the thorax amalgamated with the head, and carrying legs. Branchiae. as two or three pairs of vesicles, borne on the thorax. Th...
-Order II. Amphipoda
The members of this order resemble those of the preceding in the nature of the respiratory organs, which consist of membranous vesicles attached to the bases of the thoracic limbs. The first thoracic ...
-Order III. Isopoda
In this order the head is always distinct from the segment bearing the first pair of feet. The respiratory organs are not thoracic, as in the two preceding orders, but are attached to the inferior sur...
-Order I. Stomapoda
In this order there are generally from six to eight pairs of legs, and the branchiae, when present, are not enclosed in a cavity beneath the thorax, but are either suspended beneath the abdomen, or, m...
-Order II. Decapoda
The members of this order are the most highly organised of all the Crustacea, as well as being those which are most familiarly known, the Lobsters, Crabs, Shrimps, etc, being comprised under this head...
-Order II. Decapoda. Continued
The mouth leads by a short oesophagus into a globose stomach, in the cardiac portion of which is a calcareous apparatus, for triturating the food, which is commonly called the lady in the lobster. T...
-Chapter XXXIV. Distribution Of The Crustacea. Distribution Of Crustacea In Space
The Crustacea are distributed over the whole globe, some forms being terrestrial in their habits, but the majority inhabiting the sea or fresh water. As a rule, the development of the Crustacean fauna...
-Distribution Of Crustacea In Time
As regards the general distribution of the Crustacea in time, remains of the class are comparatively abundant in all formations except the very oldest; as might have been expected from the generally c...
-Chapter XXXV. Arachnida
Class II. Arachnida The Arachnida - including the Spiders, Scorpions, Mites, etc. - possess almost all the essential characters of the Crustacea, to which they are very closely allied. Thus, the body...
-Chapter XXXVI. Divisions Of The Arachnida. Order I. Podosomata (Pantopoda)
The class of the Arachnida may be divided into the following orders: Respiration effected by the general surface of the body; limbs four pairs in number, elongated; abdomen rudimentary, unsegmented; ...
-Order II. Acarina or Monomerosomata
The members of this order possess an unsegmented abdomen which is fused with the cephalothorax into a single mass. Respiration is effected by tracheae, or by the integument. Most of the Acarina are pa...
-Family 3. Acarida
This family includes the Mites, Ticks, and Water-mites, some of which are parasitic, whilst others are free, and some are even aquatic in their habits. The mouth is formed for suction, or for biting. ...
-Order III. Adelarthrosomata
The members of this order, comprising the Harvest-spiders, the Book-scorpions, etc, are distinguished from the preceding by the possession of an abdomen, which is more or less distinctly segmented, bu...
-Order IV. Pedipalpi
Abdomen segmented, with or without a post-abdomen Respiration by means of pulmonary sacs. In this order are the true Scorpions, together with certain other. animals which are in some respects interm...
-Order II. Araneida or Sphaerogastra
This order includes the true Spiders, which are characterised by the amalgamation of the cephalic and thoracic segments into a single mass, and by the generally soft, unsegmented abdomen, attached to ...
-Distribution Of Arachnida In Time
The Arachnida are only very rarely found in a fossil condition. As far as is yet known, both the Scorpions and the true Spiders appear to have their commencement in the Carboniferous epoch, the former...
-Chapter XXXVII. Myriapoda
Class III. Myriapoda The Myriapoda are defined as articulate animals in which the head is distinct, and the remainder of the body is divided into nearly similar segments, the thorax exhibiting no cle...
-Order I. Chilopoda
This order comprises the well-known carnivorous Centipedes and their allies, and is characterised by the number of legs being rarely indefinitely great (usually from 15 to 20 pairs), by the compositio...
-Order II. Chilognatha
This order comprises the vegetable-eating Millepedes (lulidae), the Galleyworms (Polydesmus), and other allied forms. The order is characterised by the great number of legs - each segment, except the ...
-Order III. Pauropoda
In this order is only an extraordinary little Myriapod, described by Sir John Lubbock under the name of Pauropus (fig. 172). The body is only one-twentieth of an inch in length, and consists of ten so...
-Order IV. Onychophora (Grube)
In the West Indies, South Africa, South America, and New Zealand occur examples of a peculiar genus of animals, which has been named Peripatus, and has been at different times referred to the Errant A...
-Distribution Of Myriapoda In Time
About twenty species of Myriapoda are known as fossils, the oldest examples of the order having been found in the Carboniferous epoch. From rocks of this age several species of Chilognathous Myria-pod...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Insecta. General Characters Of The Insecta
Class IV. Insecta The Insecta are defined as articulate animals in which the head, thorax, and abdomen are distinct; there are three pairs of legs borne on the thorax; the abdomen is destitute of leg...
-Insecta. General Characters Of The Insecta. Part 2
Of this nature are the ovipositors of Ichneumons and other insects, and the sting of Bees and Wasps. In the Earwig (Forficula) these caudal appendages form a pair of forceps; whilst in many Insects th...
-Insecta. General Characters Of The Insecta. Part 3
There is no regular and definite course of the circulation in the Insects. The propulsive organ of the circulation is a long contractile cavity, situated in the back and termed the dorsal vessel (f...
-Insecta. General Characters Of The Insecta. Continued
Section 1. Ametabolic Insects These pass through no metamorphosis, and also, in the mature condition, are destitute of wings. The young of these insects (Aptera) on escaping from the ovum resemble th...
-Sexes Of Insects
The great majority of Insects, as is the case with most of the higher animals, consist of male and female individuals; but there occur some striking exceptions to this rule, as seen in the Social Inse...
-Chapter XXXIX. Divisions Of Insecta
The class Insecta includes such an enormous number of species, genera, and families, that it would be impossible to treat of these satisfactorily otherwise than in a treatise especially devoted to ent...
-Order I. Anoplura
Minute Aptera, in which the mouth is formed for suction ; and there are two simple eyes. This order comprises insects which are commonly parasitic upon man and other animals, and are known as Lice (P...
-Order II. Mallophaga
Minute Aptera, in which the mouth is formed for biting, and is furnished with mandibles and maxillae. The members of this order (fig. 180, B) are commonly known as Bird-lice, being parasitic, somet...
-Order III. Collembola
Minute Aptera, with a semi-masticatory or suctorial mouth; the first abdominal segment furnished with a ventral tube or suctorial organ; the last abdominal segment but one with appendages for leaping....
-Order IV. Thysanura
Minute Aptera, with a masticatory mouth ; the end of the abdomen furnished with long bristlelike terminal appendages, used in locomotion. The Insects of this order are closely related to those of the...
-Order V. Hemiptera (Rhynchota)
Mouth suctorial, beak-shaped, consisting of a jointed rostrum, composed of the elongated labium, which forms a jointed, tubular sheath for the bristle-shaped, styliform mandibles and maxilla. Eyes com...
-Order VI. Orthoptera
Mouth masticatory; wings four, sometimes wanting ; the anterior pair mostly smaller than the posterior, semi - coriaceous or leathery, usually with numerous nervures, the interspaces between which are...
-Order VII. Neuroptera (Odonata)
Mouth usually masticatory; wings, four in number, all membranous, generally nearly equal in size, traversed by numerous delicate nervures, having a longitudinal and transverse direction, and giving th...
-Order VII. Neuroptera (Odonata). Continued
Sub-class III. Holometabola Metamorphosis complete; the larva, pupa, and imago differing greatly from one another in external appearance. ' The larva vermiform, and the pupa quiescent. ...
-Order VIII. Aphaniptera
Wings rudimentary, in the form of scales, situated on the mesothorax and metathorax. Mouth suctorial. Metamorphosis complete. This order comprises the Fleas (Pulicidae), which are parasitic upon diff...
-Order IX. Diptera
The anterior pair of wings alone developed; the posterior pair of wings rudimentary, represented by a pair of clubbed filaments, called u halteres or balancers (fig. 188). In a few the wings are al...
-Order X. Lepidoptera
Mouth suctorial, consisting of a spiral trunk or antlia, composed of the greatly-elongated maxillae, and protected, when not in use, by the cushion-shaped hairy labial palpi. Maxilla forming two sub...
-Order XL. Hymenoptera
Wings four, membranous, with few nervnres; sometimes absent. Mouth always provided with biting-jaws or mandibles; the maxillcae and labium generally converted into a suctorial organ. Females having th...
-Order XII. Strepsiptera
Females without wings or feet, parasitic. Males possessing the posterior pair of wings, which are large, membranous, and folded longitudinally like a fan. The anterior pair of wings rudimentary, repre...
-Order XIII. Coleoptera
Mouth masticatory, furnished with an upper lip or labrwn, two mandibles, two maxillae, with maxillary palpi (generally four-jointed), and a movable lower lip or labium, with two jointed labial palpi. ...
-Order XIII. Coleoptera. Continued
1. Trimera Trimera. Tarsus three-jointed. Ex. Lady-birds (Coccinellidae). 2. Tetramera Tetramera. Tarsus four-jointed. Ex. The Longicorn Beetles (Longicornia), the Weevils (Rhynchophora), etc. 3. ...
-Chapter XL. Mollusca. Sub-Kingdom Mollusca. Sub-Kingdom Mollusca
The Mollusca may be defined as including soft-bodied, unsegmented animals, which are usually provided with an exoskeleton. The intestinal canal is bounded by its own proper walls, and is completely sh...
-Chapter XLI. Molluscoida. Polyzoa
Division A. Molluscoida Nervous system consisting of a single ganglion, or of a principal pair with accessory ganglia; no distinct organ of the circulation, or an imperfect heart. This division incl...
-Molluscoida. Polyzoa. Part 2
To give, however, more actuality to our ideal Polyzoon, we may bear in mind that the immediately investing sac has the power, in almost every case, of secreting from its external surface a secondary ...
-Molluscoida. Polyzoa. Part 3
The mouth conducts by an oesophagus into a dilated stomach. In some cases a pharnyx may be present, and in others there is in front of the stomach a muscular proventriculus, or gizzard. From the stoma...
-Divisions Of The Polyzoa
According to the classification proposed by Nitsche, and now generally adopted, the Polyzoa are divided into the two primary sections of the Entoprocta and the Ectoprocta, to which a third must be add...
-C. Aspidophora
This division includes only the singular marine genus Rhabdopleura, in which the lophophore is crescentic, and carries a discontinuous series of tentacles; the mouth is lateral rather than terminal; a...
-Chapter XLII. Tunicata
Class II. Tunicata (Ascidioida) The members of this class of the Molluscoida are defined as follows: Alimentary canal suspended in a double-walled sac, but not capable of protrusion and retraction ;...
-Tunicata. Continued
As regards some points in the above description, Professor Allman does not agree with Huxley, but believes, on the other hand, that the walls of the atrium simply surround the branchial sac, without ...
-Homologies Of The Tunicata
The general resemblance between a solitary Ascidian and a single polypide of a Polyzoon is extremely obvious; each consisting of a double-walled sac, containing a freely suspended alimentary canal, wi...
-Distribution Of The Tunicata In Space And Time
The Tunicaries are exclusively marine in their distribution, and are principally littoral and shallow-water forms, though some are found at considerable depths, and many are pelagic in habit. The sing...
-Chapter XLIII. Brachiopoda
Class III. Brachiopoda (Palliobranchiata) The members of this class are defined by the possession of a body protected by a bivalve shell, which is lined by an expansion of the integument, or mantle....
-Brachiopoda. Continued
The mouth conducts by an oesophagus into a distinct stomach, surrounded by a well-developed granular liver. The intestine has a neural flexure, and either ends blindly in the middle line, or else t...
-Affinities Of The Brachiopoda
Great differences of opinion exist at the present day as to the affinities and precise systematic position of the Brachiopoda; but it is impossible to do more here than merely point out these differen...
-Divisions Of The Brachiopoda
The Brachiopoda may be divided into the two orders of the Inarticulata (or Tretenterata) and the Articulata (or Clistenterata). . In the first of these orders (Inarticulata), the valves of the shell ...
-Distribution Of Brachiopoda In Time
The Brachiopoda are found from the Cambrian Rocks up to the present day, and present us with an example of a group which appears to be slowly dying out. Nearly four thousand extinct species have been ...
-Chapter XLIV. Mollusca Proper. Lamellibranchia Ta
Division II. Mollusca Proper This division includes those members of the sub-kingdom Mollusca in which the nervous system consists of three principal pairs of ganglia ; and there is always a well-dev...
-Mollusca Proper. Lamellibranchia Ta. Part 2
Generally the hinge-line is curved, but it is sometimes straight. The beaks are mostly more or less contiguous, but they may be removed from one another .to a greater or less distance, and in some ano...
-Mollusca Proper. Lamellibranchia Ta. Part 3
The nervous system of the Lamellibranchiata is composed of the three normal ganglia - the cephalic, the pedal, and the parieto - splanchnic or branchial. The principal organs of sense are the tactile ...
-Mollusca Proper. Lamellibranchia Ta. Continued
Section A. Asiphonida Animal without respiratory siphons; mantle - lobes free; the pallial line simple and not indented (Integropallialia). This section comprises the families Ostreidae, Aviculidae,...
-Distribution Of The Lamellibranchiata In Time
The Lamellibranchs are known to have existed in the Upper Cambrian period, and have steadily increased up to the present day, when the class appears to have attained its maximum, both as regards numbe...
-Chapter XLV. Gasteropoda. Division Encephala, Or Cephalophora
The remaining three classes of the Mollusca proper all possess a distinctly differentiated head, and all are provided with a peculiar masticatory apparatus, which is known as the odontophore. For th...
-Shell Of The Gasteropoda
The shell of the Gasteropods is composed either of a single piece (univalve), or of a number of plates succeeding one another from before backwards (mul-tivalve). The univalve shell is to be regarded ...
-Chapter XLVI. Divisions Of The Gasteropoda
The Gasteropoda are divided into two primary sections or subclasses, according as the respiratory organs are adapted for breathing air directly or dissolved in water: termed respectively the Pulmonata...
-Order I. Prosobranchiata
The members of this order are defined as follows: Abdomen well developed, and protected by a shell, into which the whole animal can usually retire. Mantle forming a vaulted chamber over the back of t...
-Order II. Opisthobranchiata
This order is defined as follows: Shell rudimentary, or wanting. Branchiae arborescent or fasiculated, not contained in a special cavity, but more or less completely exposed on the back and sides, to...
-Order III. Nucleobranchiata or Heteropoda
This order is defined by the following characteristics: Animal provided with a shell, or not, free-swimming and pelagic ; locomotion effected by a fin-like tail or by a fan-shaped, vertically-flattene...
-Distribution Of The Gasteropoda In Space
As a class the Gasteropoda have a world-wide range, some forms being exclusively marine, others inhabiting fresh waters, while others, again, live upon the land. Amongst the Prosobranchiates, the enti...
-Distribution Of The Gasteropoda In Time
The Gasteropoda are represented in past time from the Lower Silurian rocks up to the present day. Of the Branchifera the Holostomata are more abundant in the Palaeozoic period, the Siphonostomata abou...
-Chapter XLVII. Pteropoda
Class III. Pteropoda The Pteropoda are defined by being free and pelagic, swimming by means of two wing-like appendages (epipodia), developed from each side of the anterior extremity of the body. The...
-Distribution Of Pteropoda In Time
The Pteropods are not largely represented in fossiliferous deposits, but they have a wide range in time, extending from the Upper Cambrian rocks up to the present day. The Theca and Conularia of the P...
-Chapter XLVIIL. Cephalopoda
Class IV. Cephalopoda The members of this class are defined by the possession of eight or more armsplaced in a a circle round the mouth ; the body is enclosed in a muscular mantle-sac, and there ar...
-Cephalopoda. Continued
The kidneys (fig. 226, rr)are in the form of spongy cellular organs developed upon the two posterior branches of the vena cava. The circulatory organs consist of a systemic central heart (fig. 226, c)...
-Chapter XLIX. Divisions Of The Cephalopoda
The Cephalopoda are divided into two extremely distinct and well marked orders, termed the Dibranchiata and Tetra-branchiata. The former comprises all the true Cuttle-fishes; whilst the latter, though...
-Order I. Dibranchiata
The members of this order of the Cephalopoda are characterised as being swimming animals, almost invariably naked, with never more than eight or ten arms, which are always provided with suckers. There...
-Order II. Tetrabranchiata
The members of this order of the Cephalopoda are characterised by being creeping animals, protected by an external, many-chambered shell, the septa between the chambers of which are perforated by a me...
-Shell Of The Tetrabranchiata
The shells of all the Tetrabranchiata agree in the following points: 1. The shell is external. 2. The shell is divided into a series of chambers by plates or septa, the edges of which, where they...
-Distribution Of The Cephalopoda In Space
All the Cephalopoda, without exception, are marine. Some of the Cuttle-fishes (such as the Octopi and Sepia) live in the vicinity of land, especially frequenting rocky bottoms; while others (such as A...
-Distribution Of Cephalopoda In Time
The Cephalo-pods are largely represented in all the primary groups of stratified rocks from the Upper Cambrian up to the present day. Of the two orders of Cephalopoda, the Tetrabranchiata is the oldes...
-Cephalopoda Literature
General. 1. Manual of the Mollusca. S. P. Woodward. 3d ed., with Appendix of Recent and Fossil Conchological Discoveries, by Ralph Tate. 1875. 2. Handbuch der Conchyliologie. Philippi. 1853....
-Cephalopoda Literature. Continued
67. On the Organisation of the Brachiopoda. Hancock. 'Phil. Trans.' 1858. 68. Anatomy of Brachiopoda. Gratiolet. 'Comptes Rend.,' 1853; and ' Journ. de Conchyliologie,' 1857, 1859, and 1860. 69...
-Chapter L. Vertebrate Animals
General Characters and Divisions of the Vertebrata. The five sub-kingdoms which we have previously considered - viz., the Protozoa, Coelenterata, Echinodermata, Annulosa, and Mollusca - were grouped ...
-Vertebrate Animals. Part 2
Fig. 239. - Embryology of Vertebrata. A, Portion of the germinal area of the ovum of a Bitch, showing the primitive groove (after Bischoff). B, Profile view of the same. C, Diagram representing the am...
-Vertebrate Animals. Part 3
Fig. 240. - A, Lumbar vertebra of a Whale : c Body or centrum; n n Neural arches ; s Neural spine; a a Articular processes; d d Transverse processes. B, Diagram of a thoracic vertebra: c Centrum; n ...
-Vertebrate Animals. Part 4
Fig. 242. - Pectoral limb (arm) of Chimpanzee (after Owen). c Clavicle; s Scapula or shoulder-blade; h Humerus ; r Radius; u Ulna ; d Bones of the wrist, or carpus; m Metacarpus; p Phalanges of the ...
-Vertebrate Animals. Part 5
Fig. 245. - Blood-corpuscles of Vertebrata. a Red blood-discs of man; b Blood-discs of Goose; c Crocodile; d Frog; e Skate. The purification of the blood is carried out in all Vertebrates b...
-Vertebrate Animals. Part 6
Many vertebrate animals possess an exoskeleton, formed by a hardening of one or other layer of the integument. The integument is composed of two layers - an external non-vascular epidermis, and a de...
-Divisions Of The Vertebrata
The sub-kingdom Vertebrata is divided into the five great classes of the Fishes (Pisces), Amphibians (Amphibia), Reptiles (Reptilia), Birds (Aves), and Mammals (Mammalia). So far there is perfect unan...
-I. Ichthyopsida
I Ichthyopsida. This section comprises the Fishes and the Amphibians, and is characterised by the presence at some period of life of gills or branchiae, the absence of an amnion, the absence or rudime...
-Vertebrate Animals Literature
1. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Vertebrates. Owen. 1866-68. 2. Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals. Huxley. 1872. 3. Principles of Comparative Physiology. W. B. Carpenter. 4...
-Division I. - Ichthyopsida. Chapter LI. Class I. - Pisces
The first class of the Vertebrata is that of the Fishes (Pisces), which may be broadly defined as including Vertebrate animals which are provided with gills throughout the whole of life; the heart, wh...
-Division I. Ichthyopsida. Class I. Pisces. Part 2
The ribs of a bony fish are attached to the transverse processes, or to the bodies of the abdominal vertebrae, in the form of slender curved bones which articulate with no more than one vertebra each,...
-Division I. Ichthyopsida. Class I. Pisces. Part 3
Fig. 250. - Os hyoides, branchiostegal rays, and scapular arch of the Perch (after Cuvier). ss Supra-scapula ; s Scapula ; co Coracoid ; cl Supposed representative of the clavicle ; a Glossohyal bon...
-Division I. Ichthyopsida. Class I. Pisces. Part 4
The caudal fin, or tail, of fishes is always set vertically at the extremity of the spine, so as to work from side to side, and it is the chief organ of progression in the fishes. In its vertical posi...
-Division I. Ichthyopsida. Class I. Pisces. Part 5
The heart of fishes is, properly speaking, a branchial or respiratory heart. It consists of two cavities, an auricle and a ventricle (fig. 257), and the course of the circulation is as follows: The ve...
-Chapter LII. Divisions Of Fishes. Pharynugobranchii And Marsipobranchli
The class Pisces has been very variously subdivided by different writers; but the classification here adopted is the one proposed by Professor Huxley, who divides the class into the following six orde...
-Order I. Pharyngobranchii (= Cirrostomi, Owen ; and Leptocardia, Muller)
This order includes but a single fish, the anomalous Amphioxus lanceolatus, or Lancelet (fig. 259), the organisation of which differs in almost all important points from that of all the other members ...
-Order II. Marsipobranchii (= Cyclostomi, Owen; and Cyclostomata, Muller)
This order includes the Lampreys (Petromyzonidae) and the Hag-fishes (Myxinidae), and is defined by the following characters: - The body is cylindrical, worm-like, and destitute of limbs. The skull is...
-Chapter LIII. Teleostei. Order III. Teleostei
This order includes the great majority of fishes in which there is a well-ossified endoskeleton, and it corresponds very nearly with Cuvier's division of the osseous fishes. The Teleostei are define...
-Teleostei. Order III. Teleostei. Part 2
Sub-order B. Anacanthini This sub-order is distinguished by the fact that the fins are entirely supported by soft rays, and never possess spiny rays; whilst the ventral fins are either wanting, o...
-Teleostei. Order III. Teleostei. Part 3
Sub-order D. Plectognathi This sub-order is characterised by the fact that the maxillary and praemaxillary bones are immovably connected on each side of the jaw. The endo-skeleton is only partially o...
-Chapter LIV. Ganoidei. Order IV. Ganoidei
The fourth order of fishes is the large and important one of the Ganoid fishes, represented, it is true, by few living forms, but having an enormous development in past geological epochs. For this rea...
-Ganoidei. Order IV. Ganoidei. Continued
IV. As to the structure of the respiratory organs, the Ganoid Fishes agree essentially with the Bony Fishes. They all possess free pectinated gills attached to branchial arches, and enclosed in a bran...
-Chapter LV. Elasmobranchii And Dipnoi. Order V. Elasmobranchii (= Selachia, Muller; Placoidei, Agassiz; Holocephali and Plagiostomi, Owen)
This order includes the Sharks, Rays, and Chimaerae, and corresponds with the greater and most typical portion of the Chondropterygidae or Cartilaginous fishes of Cuvier. The order is distinguished by...
-Elasmobranchii And Dipnoi. Order V. Elasmobranchii (= Selachia, Muller; Placoidei, Agassiz; Holocephali and Plagiostomi, Owen). Continued
Sub-order A. Holocephali This sub-order includes certain curious fishes, of which the only living forms are the Chimaeridae. The notochord is persistent; but the neural arches and transverse processe...
-A. Cestraphori
A Cestraphori. In this division there is a strong spine in front of each dorsal fin, and the back teeth are obtuse (fig. 270). The only living representatives of this group are the Port Jackson Shark ...
-B. Selachii
B Selachii. This group comprises the formidable Sharks and Dogfishes, and is characterised by the lateral position of the branchiae on the side of the neck, and by the fact that the pectoral fins have...
-C. Batides
C Batides. This group includes the Rays and Skates, and is distinguished by the fact that the branchial apertures are placed on the under surface of the body, forming two rows of openings a little beh...
-Order VI. Dipnoi ( = Protopteri, Owen)
This order is a small one, and includes no other living forms than Mud-fishes (Lepidasiren and Ceratodus); but it is nevertheless of great importance as exhibiting a distinct transition between the fi...
-Chapter LVI. Distribution Of Fishes In Time
The geological history of fishes presents some points of peculiar interest. Of all the classes of the great sub-kingdom Vertebrata, the fishes are the lowest in point of organisation. It might therefo...
-I. Ganoidei
I Ganoidei. As far as is yet known with certainty, the oldest representatives of the fishes belong to this order. The order is represented, namely, in the Upper Silurian rocks by the remains of at lea...
-Fishes Literature
[In addition to many of the systematic treatises quoted in the list of works dealing with the Vertebrata generally (p. 459) the student of recent and fossil fishes may consult the following: - ] 1. ...
-Chapter LVII. Division I. - Ichthyopsid. Class II. - Amphibia
The class Amphibia comprises the Frogs and Toads, the Sala-mandroids, the Caeciliae, and the extinct Labyrinthodonts, and may be briefly defined as follows: - As is the case with the Fishes, the embry...
-Chapter LVIII. Orders Of Amphibia
The Amphibia are usually divided by modern writers into four orders, the old order Lepidota, comprising the Mud Fishes, being now placed at the head of the Fishes, under the name of Dipnoi. Whilst the...
-Orders Of Amphibia. Part 2
Of the Sirenidae, the most familiar are the Sirens and the Axolotls. The Siren, or Mud-eel (fig. 277, A), is found abundantly in the rice-swamps of South Carolina, and attains a length of three feet. ...
-Orders Of Amphibia. Part 3
Fig. 282. - Skeleton of the common Frog (Rana temporaria). d Dorsal vertebrae, with long transverse processes. The hind-limbs usually have the digits webbed for swimming, and are generally much lar...
-Order IV. Laeyrinthodontia
The members of this, the last order of the Amphibia, are entirely extinct. They were Batrachians, probably most nearly allied to the Urodela, but all of large size, and some of gigantic dimensions, th...
-Distribution Of Amphibia In Time
From a geological point of view, by far the most important of the Amphibia are the Labyrinthodontia, the distribution of which has just been spoken of. The living orders of Amphibia are of much more m...
-Amphibia Literature
[In addition to many of the systematic works enumerated in the list of treatises relating to the Vertebrata generally (p. 459), the student may consult the following as to the living and extinct Amphi...
-Chapter LIX. Division II. - Sauropsida. Class III. - Reptilia
The second great division of the Vertebrate sub-kingdom, according to Huxley, is that of the Sauropsida, comprising the true Reptiles and the Birds. It is, no doubt, at first sight an almost incredibl...
-Chapter LX. Divisions Of Reptiles. Chelonia And Ophidia
The class Reptilia is divided into the following ten orders, of which the first four are represented by living forms, whilst the remaining six are extinct: 1. Chelonia (Tortoises and Turtles). 2. Op...
-Order I. Chelonia
The first order of living Reptiles is that of the Chelonia, comprising the Tortoises and Turtles, and distinguished by the following characters: - There is an osseous exoskeleton which is combined wit...
-Order I. Chelonia. Continued
Fig. 292. - Bones of the plastron of the Loggerhead Turtle (Chelone caouanna). s Entosternal; es Episternal; As Hyosternal; ps Hyposternal; xs Xiphisternal. (After Owen.) Both the carapace and plastr...
-Distribution Of Chelonia In Time
The earliest-known traces of Chelonians occur in the Permian rocks, in the lower portion, that is, of the New Red Sandstone of older geologists. These traces, however, are not wholly satisfactory, sin...
-Order II. Ophidia
The second order of Reptiles is that of the Ophidia, comprising the Snakes and Serpents, and distinguished by the following characters: The body is always more or less elongated, cylindrical, and wor...
-Order II. Ophidia. Continued
Fig. 296. - A, Diagram of the eye of a Serpent (after Cloquet): a Ball of the eye covered by a conjunctival sac, into which the lachrymal secretion is discharged; b Optic nerve ; d Antocular membr...
-Distribution Of Ophidia In Time
The Ophidia are not known to occur in any Palaeozoic or Mesozoic deposit The earliest-known traces of any serpent are in the Lower Kaino-zoic rocks, the oldest being the Palaeophis toliapicus of the L...
-Chapter LXI. Lacertilia And Crocodilia. Order III. Lacertilia
The third order of Reptiles is that of the Lacertilia, comprising all those animals which are commonly known as Lizards, together with some serpentiform animals, such as the Blind-worms. The Lacertili...
-Lacertilia And Crocodilia. Order III. Lacertilia. Continued
More important than any of the preceding is the large and widely distributed family of the Scincidae, comprising a number of small Lacertilians, some of which are completely snake-like, whilst others ...
-Distribution Of Lacertilia In Time
It is hardly possible, with our present knowledge, to speak very positively as to the exact range of the Lacertilia in time. This uncertainty arises from two causes, - firstly, that there is some doub...
-Distribution Of Lacertilia In Time. Part 2
Sub-order 1. Procoelia In this sub-order are all the living members of the Crocodilia, distinguished by having the bodies of the dorsal vertebrae concave in front (procoelous). Three distinct types m...
-Distribution Of Lacertilia In Time. Part 3
Sub-order 3. Opisthocoezlia The sub-order of the Opisthocoelian Crocodiles, including those forms in which the anterior trunk vertebrae are concave behind, is one which can be only provisionally reta...
-Chapter LXII. Extinct Orders Of Reptiles
It remains now to consider briefly the leading characters of six wholly extinct orders of Reptiles, the peculiarities of which are very extraordinary, and are such as are exhibited by no living forms....
-Order VIII. Pterosauria (Ornithosauria, Seeley)
This order includes a group of extraordinary flying Reptiles, all belonging to the Mesozoic epoch, and exhibiting in many respects a very extraordinary combination of characters. The most familiar mem...
-Order IX. Dinosauria, or Deinosauria
The last order of extinct Reptiles is that of the Dinosauria, comprising a group of very remarkable Reptiles, which are in some respects intermediate in their characters between the Struthious Birds a...
-Order X. Theriodontia
This order has been founded by Professor Owen for the reception of a number of carnivorous Reptiles from deposits of Triassic or Permian age. The Reptiles in question show some singular Mammalian affi...
-Extinct Reptiles Literature
[In addition to most of the systematic works quoted at p. 441, the following are some of the more important sources of information as to the structure of recent and fossil Reptiles: - ] 1. Erpetolog...
-Chapter LXIII. Division II. - Sauropsida. Class IV. - Aves
The fourth class of the Vertebrata is that of Aves, or Birds. The Birds may be shortly defined as being oviparous Vertebrates with warm blood, a double circulation, and a covering of feathers (Owen)...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 2
The feathers vary in different parts of the bird, and are generally divided into those which cover the body - clothing feathers - and those which occur in the wings and tail - quill-feathers. As r...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 3
1. Desmognathae Desmognathae. Maxillae sending inwards largely developed maxillo-palatine processes, which unite with one another to form a bony roof to the palate. The vomer truncated in front, smal...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 4
Fig. 323. - A, Breast-bone, shoulder-girdle, and fore-limb of Penguin (after Owen): b Sternum, with the sternal keel; s s Scapulae ; k k Coracoid bones ; c Furculum or merry-thought, composed of the u...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 5
Fig. 325. - A, Hind-limb of the Loon (Colymbus glacialis) - after Owen : i Innominate bone ; f Thigh-bone or femur ; t Tibia, with the proximal portion of the tarsus an-chylosed to its lower end; r Fi...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 6
Fig. 326. - Digestive System of the common Fowl (after Owen), o Gullet : c Crop ; p Proventriculus; g Gizzard; sm Small intestine; k Intestinal caeca; l Large intestine ; cl Cloaca. The intestinal ...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 7
The chief difference between Birds and Reptiles as regards the course of circulation is, that in the Birds the two sides of the heart are completely separated from one another, the blood sent to the l...
-Division II. Sauropsida. Class IV. Aves. Part 8
* The membrana nictitans is simply a fold of the conjunctiva on the inner side of the eye. It occurs in some Fishes (e.g., some Sharks), in some Reptiles and Amphibians, in Birds, in Monotremes and Ma...
-Distribution Of Birds In Time
As regards the geological distribution of Birds, there are many reasons why we should be cautious in reasoning upon merely negative evidence, and more than ordinarily careful not to infer the nonexist...
-Chapter LXIV. Divisions Of Birds. 1. General Divisions Of Aves. 2. Cursores
Owing to the extreme compactness and homogeneity of the entire class Aves, conditioned mainly by their adaptation to an aerial mode of life, the subject of their classification has been one of the gre...
-Order Cursores
The first order of Birds is that of the Cursores, or Runners, comprising the Ostriches, Rheas, Cassowaries, Emeus, and the singular Apteryx of New Zealand. The Cursores are characterised by the rudime...
-Chapter LXV. Sub-Class II. Carinatae. Order I. Natatores (Palmipedes)
Natatores, Grallatores, and Rasores The order of the Natatores, or Swimmers, comprises a number of Birds which are as much or even more at home in the water than upon the land. In accordance with the...
-Sub-Class II. Carinatae. Order I. Natatores (Palmipedes). Continued
Fam. 3. Totipalmatae, characterised by having the hinder toe or hallux more or less directed inwards, and united to the innermost of the anterior toes by a membrane (fig. 332, A). In this family are t...
-Order II. Grallatores
The birds comprising the order of the Grallatores, or Waders, for the most part frequent the banks of rivers and lakes, the shores of estuaries, marshes, lagoons, and shallow pools, though some of the...
-Order III. Rasores
The third order of Carinate Birds is that of the Rasores, or Scratchers, often spoken of collectively as the Gallinaceous birds, from the old name of Gallinae, given to the order by Linnaeus. The ...
-Order III. Rasores. Continued
Sub-order 2. Columbacei The second sub-order of the Rasores is that of the Columbacei or Gemitores, comprising the Fig. 340. - Columbidae. Rock-pigeon (Columba livia). Doves and Pigeons, and ofte...
-Chapter LXVI. Sub-Class Carinatae - Continued. Scansores, Insessores, And Raptores. Order IV. Scansores
The order of the Scansorial or Climbing birds is easily and very shortly defined, having no other distinctive and exclusive peculiarity except the fact that the feet are provided with four toes, of wh...
-Order V. Insessores
The sixth order of Birds is that of the Insessores, or Perchers - often spoken of as the Passeres, or Passerine Birds. They are defined by Owen as follows: Legs slender, short, with three toes befo...
-Order V. Insessores. Part 2
Sub-order 1. Conirostres In this section of the Insessores the beak is strong and on the whole conical, broad at the base and tapering with considerable rapidity to the apex (fig. 345, D). The upper ...
-Order V. Insessores. Part 3
Sub-order 2. Dentirostres The birds in this section are characterised by the fact that the upper mandible is provided with a distinct notch in its lower margin near the tip (fig. 345, B). They all fe...
-Order V. Insessores. Part 4
Sub-order 4. Fissirostres In this sub-order of the Insessores the beak is short but remarkably wide in its gape (figs. 345, C, and 347), and the opening of the bill is fenced in by a number of bristl...
-Order VI. Raptores (Aetomorphae)
All the members of this order are characterised by the shape of the bill, which is strong, curved, sharp-edged, and sharp-pointed, often armed with a lateral tooth (Owen). The upper mandible is the ...
-Chapter LXVII. Saurornithes And Odontornithes. Sub-class III. Saurornithes. Order I. Saururae
This order includes only the extinct bird, the Archaeopteryx macrura (fig. 351), a single specimen of which - and that but a fragmentary one - has been discovered in the Lithographic Slates of Solenho...
-Order I. Odontolcae
This order has been founded by Marsh for the reception of the extraordinary Hesperornis regalis, from the Cretaceous rocks of North America. In this wonderful fossil we have a gigantic diving-bird som...
-Order II. Odontotormae
This order has been founded by Marsh for the reception of two remarkable birds, which he has named Ichthyornis dispar and Apatornis celer, both from the Cretaceous rocks of North America. In Ichthyor...
-Saurornithes And Odontornithes Literature
[In addition to many of the works mentioned in the list of treatises relating to the Vertebrata in general, the following are some of the more important sources of information as to recent and fossil ...
-Chapter LXVIII. Division III. - Mammalia. General Characters Of The Mammalia
The last and highest class of the Vertebrata, that of the Mammalia, may be Shortly defined as including Vertebrate animals in which some part or other of the integument is always provided with hairs a...
-Mammalia. General Characters Of The Mammalia. Part 2
The thoracic cavity or chest in Mammals is always enclosed by a series of ribs, the number of which varies with that of the dorsal vertebrae. In most cases each rib articulates by its head with the bo...
-Mammalia. General Characters Of The Mammalia. Part 3
The fore-arm is succeeded by the small bones which compose the wrist or carpus. These are eight in number in Man, but vary in different Mammals from five to eleven. The metacarpus in Man and in mos...
-Mammalia. General Characters Of The Mammalia. Part 4
The tibia articulates with the tarsus, consisting in Man of seven bones, but varying in different Mammals from four to nine. The foot, or pes, consists normally of five toes, connected with the tarsu...
-Mammalia. General Characters Of The Mammalia. Part 5
According to Owen, the typical permanent dentition of a diphyodont Mammal would be expressed by the following formula: i 3-3 ; c 1 - 1 ; pm 4-4 ; m 3-3 =...
-Distribution Of Mammalia In Time
As a matter of course, the remains of Mammals are scanty, and occupy but a small space in the geological record, since the greater number of the Mammalia are terrestrial, and the greater number of the...
-Classification Of The Mammalia
Whilst there exists little divergence of opinion as to the orders into which the Mammalia may be divided, different authorities adopt different views as to the great primary divisions of the class. He...
-Chapter LXIX. Non-Placental Mammals. Monotremata And Marsupialia. Order I. Monotremata
The first and lowest order of the Mammalia is that of the Monotremata, constituting by itself the division Ornithodelphia, and containing only two genera, both belonging to Australia - namely, the Duc...
-Order II. Marsupialia
The order Marsupialia constitutes by itself the sub-class Didelphia, and forms with the Monotremata the division of the Non-placental Mammals. With the single exception of the genus Didelphys, which i...
-A. Rhizophaga
A Rhizophaga. In this section is the well-known Australian animal the Wombat (Phascolomys fossor), often called by the colonists the badger. The Wombat is a stout, heavy animal, which attains a leng...
-B. Poephaga
B Poephaga. In this section are the Kangaroos (Macropodidae) and the Kangaroo-rats or Potoroos (Hypsiprymnus), all strictly phytophagous. The Kangaroos are distinguished by the disproportionate length...
-C. Carpophaga
C Carpophaga. Intermediate between the Kangaroos and the typical members of the present section (the Phalangers) is the Phascolarctos - the native sloth or bear of the Australian colonists, and th...
-D. Entomophaga
D Entomophaga. In this section the jaws are always furnished with canine teeth, but these are not of very large size, and the animals composing the section are therefore not highly predaceous, but pr...
-E. Sarcophaga
E Sarcophaga. This is the last section of the existing Marsupials, and includes a number of predaceous and rapacious forms, which fill the place held elsewhere by the true Carnivora. They are distingu...
-Chapter LXX. Placental Mammals. Edentata. Order III. Edentata or Bruta
The lowest order of the placental or monodelphous Mammals is that of the Edentata, often known by the name of Bruta. The name Edentata is certainly not an altogether appropriate one, since it is only ...
-A. Myrmecophagidae
A Myrmecophagidae. This family is exclusively confined to South America, as are the two preceding, and it contains only the Hairy or true Ant-eaters. These curious animals feed chiefly upon Ants and T...
-B. Manidae
B Manidae. This family includes only the Scaly Ant-eaters or Pangolins, all exclusively confined to the Old World, and found in both Africa and Asia. The whole of the body, limbs, and tail in the Mani...
-C. Orycteropidae
C Orycteropidae. The last family of the living Edentata is that of the Orycteropidae, comprising only the single genus Orycteropus. This genus comprises two or three species, the best known being O. c...
-Chapter LXXI. Sirenia And Cetacea. Order IV. Sirenia
This order comprises no other living animals except the Dugongs and Manatees, which have been often placed with the true Cetaceans (Whales and Dolphins) in a common order. There is no doubt, in fact, ...
-Order V. Cetacea
In this order are the Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises, all agreeing with the preceding in their complete adaptation to an aquatic life (figs. 384, 386). The body is completely fish-like in form; the a...
-Order V. Cetacea. Part 2
The object of the whole series of baleen-plates with which the palate is furnished, is as follows : The Whale is a strictly carnivorous or zoophagous animal, but owing to the absence of teeth and the ...
-Order V. Cetacea. Part 3
The best-known species of this family is the great Cachalot or Spermaceti Whale (Physeter macrocephalus, fig. 384). This animal is of enormous size, averaging from fifty to seventy feet in length, but...
-Chapter LXXII. Ungulata. Order VI. Ungulata
The order of the Ungulata, or Hoofed Quadrupeds, is one of the largest and most important of all the divisions of the Mammalia. It comprises three entire old orders - namely, the Pachydermata, Solidun...
-Ungulata. Order VI. Ungulata. Continued
Section A. Perissodactyla The section of the Perissodactyle Ungulates includes the Rhinoceros, the Tapirs, the Horse and its allies, and some extinct forms, all agreeing in the following characters: ...
-Ungulata. Order VI. Ungulata. Continued. Part 2
Fig. 392. - Head of two-horned Rhinoceros (R. bicornis). African species is the White Rhinoceros (R. simus), distinguished from the preceding by its colour, the shortness of its upper lip, and the ...
-Ungulata. Order VI. Ungulata. Continued. Part 3
i 3 - 3 ; c 1 - 1 (or 0 - 0 ) ; pm 3 - 3 ; m 3 - 3 = 40 or 38. 3 - 3 1 - 1 0 - 0 3 - 3 3 - 3 ...
-Ungulata. Order VI. Ungulata. Continued. Part 4
Artiodactyle Ungulates. Section B. Artiqdactyla. - In this section of the Ungulates the number of the toes is even - either two or four - and the third toe on each foot forms a symmetrical pair with t...
-Omnivora
Fdm. 1. Hippo-potamidae. - This group contains only the single genus Hippopotamus, characterised by the massive heavy body, the short blunt muzzle, the large head, and the presence of teeth of three k...
-Ruminantia
The last section of the Artiodactyle Ungulates is the great and natural group of the Ruminantia, or Ruminant animals. This section comprises the Oxen, Sheep, Antelopes, Giraffes, Deer, Camels, etc, an...
-A. Camelidae (Tylopoda)
A Camelidae (Tylopoda). The Camels and Llamas constitute in many respects an aberrant group of the Ruminantia, especially as regards their dentition and the conformation of the feet. The upper jaw (fi...
-B. Tragulidae
B Tragulidae. This group comprises certain small Ruminants, the so-called Chevrotains (Tragulus), which have been generally associated with the true Musk-deer (Moschus) in a single family, under th...
-C. Cervidae
C Cervidae. This family is of much greater importance than that of the Tragulidae, including as it does all the true Deer. They are distinguished from the other Ruminants chiefly by the nature of the ...
-D. Camelopardalidae
D Camelopardalidae. This family includes only a single living animal - the Camelopardalis Giraffa, or Giraffe - sometimes called the Camelopard, from the fact that the skin is spotted like that of the...
-E. Cavicomia
E Cavicomia. The last family of the Ruminants is that of the Cavicornia, comprising the Oxen, Sheep, Goats, and Antelopes. This family includes the most typical Ruminants, and those of most importance...
-E. Cavicomia. Continued
The parent stock of our numerous breeds of cattle is not known with absolute certainty ; the nearest approach to British Wild Cattle being a celebrated breed which is still preserved in one or two pla...
-Chapter LXXIII. Dinocerata, Tillodontia, And Toxodontia. Order VII. Dinocerata
This order comprises certain extraordinary extinct Mammals from the Eocene of North America, which are regarded by Prof. Cope as an aberrant group of Ungulates, whilst Prof. Marsh considers them as a ...
-Order VIII. Tillodontia
This order has been established by Prof. Marsh for the reception of some singular Mammals from the Eocene Tertiary of the United States. The following are the characters of the order, so far as publis...
-Order IX. Toxodontia
This order includes certain large extinct Mammals from the later Tertiary deposits of South Fig. 414. - Tillodontia. Side-view of the skull of Tillotherium fodieus, with the lower jaw displaced dow...
-Chapter LXXIV. Hyracoidea And Proboscidea. Order X. Hyracoidea
This is a very small order which has been constituted by Huxley for the reception of two or three little animals, which make up the single genus Hyrax. These have been usually placed in the immediate ...
-Order XI. Proboscidea
The eleventh order of Mammals is that of the Proboscidea, comprising no other living animals except the Elephants, but including also the extinct Mastodon and Deinotherium. The order is characterised...
-Chapter LXXV. Carnivora. Order XII. Carnivora
The twelfth order of Mammals is that of the Carnivora, comprising the Ferae, or Beasts of Prey, along with the old order of the Pinnipedia, or Seals and Walruses, these latter being now almost univers...
-Section III. Digitigrada
This section comprises the Lions, Tigers, Cats, Dogs, etc, in which the heel of the foot is raised entirely off the ground, and the animal walks upon the tips of the toes (fig. 424, C). Fig. 425. -...
-Section III. Digitigrada. Part 2
Section II. Plantigrada (Arctoidea) The Carnivorous animals belonging to this section apply the whole or the greater part of the sole of the foot to the ground (fig. 424, A); and the portion of the s...
-Section III. Digitigrada. Part 3
Section III. Digitigrada In this section of the Carnivora the heel is raised above the ground, with the whole or the greater part of the metacarpus and metatarsus, so that the animals walk more or le...
-Section III. Digitigrada. Part 3. Part 2
The true Civet-cat is the Viverra civetta, a native of North Africa and Eastern Asia. It is a small nocturnal animal, which climbs trees with facility, and feeds chiefly upon small mammals, reptiles, ...
-Section III. Digitigrada. Part 3. Part 3
One of the most aberrant members of the Canidae is the curious Lycaon pictus or Hunting Dog of South Africa, which agrees with the Dogs in its dentition and osteology, but resembles the Hyaenas in t...
-Section III. Digitigrada. Part 3. Part 4
Of the smaller Felidae, the best known are the Lynxes and the Cats, properly so called. Of these the Lynxes are distinguished by their short tails, and by the fact that the ears are furnished with a p...
-Chapter LXXVI. Rodentia. Order XIII. Rodentia
The thirteenth order of Mammalia is that of the Rodentia, or Rodent Animals, often spoken of as Glires, comprising the Mice, Rats, Squirrels, Rabbits, Hares, Beavers, etc. The Rodentia are characteri...
-Rodentia. Order XIII. Rodentia. Part 2
Fam. 4. Hystricidae. - In this family are the well-known Porcupines, distinguished from the other Rodents by the fact that the body is covered with long spines or quills, mixed with bristly hairs. T...
-Rodentia. Order XIII. Rodentia. Part 3
The Rats (Mus rattus and Mus decumanus), the common Mouse (Mus musculus), the Field-mouse (Mus sylvaticus), and the Harvest-mouse (Mus messorius) are all well-known examples of this family, and are to...
-Chapter LXXVII. Cheiroptera
Order XIV. Cheiroptera.* - This order is undoubtedly the most distinctly circumscribed and natural group in the whole class of the Mammalia. The most obvious peculiarity of the Bats is the modificat...
-Cheiroptera. Part 2
Section A. Insectivora (Microcheiroptera) In this section are the four families of the Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Noctilionidae, and Phyllostomidae. Fam. 1. Vespertilionidae. - In this family ...
-Cheiroptera. Part 3
Section B. Frugivora (Megacheiroptera) In the fruit-eating section of the Cheiroptera are only the Pteropidae or the Fox-bats, so called from the resemblance of the head to that of a fox (fig. 444, B...
-Chapter LXXVIII. Insectivora. Order XV. Insectivora
The fifteenth order of Mammals is that of the Insectivora, comprising a number of small Mammals which are very similar to the Rodents in many respects, but want the peculiar incisors of that order, an...
-Insectivora. Order XV. Insectivora. Continued
i 2 - 2 1 - 1 ; Pm 5 - 5 ; m 3 - 3 = 44. 2 - 2 1 - 1 5 - 5 3 - 3 The central incisors and the lateral lower incisors a...
-Chapter LXXIX. Quadrumana. Order XVI. Quadrumana
The sixteenth order of Mammals is that of the Quadrumana, comprising the Apes, Monkeys, Baboons, Lemurs, etc, characterised by the following points: The hallux (innermost toe of the hind-limb) is sep...
-Quadrumana. Order XVI. Quadrumana. Part 2
Fig. 451. - Side-view of the skull of a Lemuroid (Nycticebus or Stenops tardigradus). (After Giebel.) The largest and most important of the families of the Strep-sirhina is that of the Lemuridae o...
-Quadrumana. Order XVI. Quadrumana. Part 3
i 2 - 2 c 1 - 1 ; pm 2 - 2 ; m 3 - 3 = 32. 2 - 2 1 - 1 2 - 2 3 - 3 The incisors, however, are projecting and prominent...
-Quadrumana. Order XVI. Quadrumana. Part 4
In the Orang or Mias (Simia satyrus) there are neither cheek-pouches nor natal callosities, and the hips are covered with hair. As in the Gibbons, the arms are excessively long, reaching considerabl...
-Chapter LXXX. Bimana. Order XVII. Bimana
This, the last remaining order of the Mammalia, comprises Man (Homo) alone, and it will therefore require but little notice here, the peculiarities of Man's mental and physical structure properly belo...
-Bimana Literature
[In addition to many of the works mentioned in the bibliographical list relating to the Vertebrata in general, and especially to Owen's Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Vertebrate Animals, and ...
-Glossary
Abdomen (Lat. abdomen; from abdo, I conceal. Sometimes regarded as a contraction of adipomen, from adeps, fat.) The posterior cavity of the body, containing the intestines and others of the viscera. ...
-Glossary. Part 2
Agamic (Gr. a, without; gamos, marriage). Applied to all forms of reproduction in which the sexes are not directly concerned. Allantoidea The group of Vertebrata in which the foetus is furnished wi...
-Glossary. Part 3
Anchylosis or Ankylosis (Gr. ankulos, crooked). The union of two bones by osseous matter, so that they become one bone, or are immovably joined together. Androgynous (Gr. aner, a man , gune,...
-Glossary. Part 4
Apterous Devoid of wings. Apteryx (Gr. a, without; pterux, a wing). A wingless bird of New Zealand, belonging to the order Cursores. Aquiferous (Lat. aqua, water ; fero, I carry. Water-bearing: a...
-Glossary. Part 5
Axis (Gr. axon, a pivot). The second vertebra of the neck, upon which the skull and atlas usually rotate. Azygous (Gr. a, without; zugon, yoke). Single, without a fellow. Bacterium (Gr. bakterion...
-Glossary. Part 6
Branchio-gasteropoda (= Branchifera). Branchiopoda (Gr. bragchia: and pons, foot). A legion of Crustacea, in which the gills are supported by the feet. Branchiostegal (Gr. bragchia, gills ; stego...
-Glossary. Part 7
Capitulum (Lat. dim. of caput, head). Applied to the body of a Barnacle (Lepadidae), from its being supported upon a stalk or peduncle. Carapace A protective shield. Applied to the upper shell of C...
-Glossary. Part 8
Cetacea (Gr. ketos, a whale). The order of Mammals comprising the Whales and Dolphins. Cretognatha (Gr. chaite, bristle; gnathos, jaw). An order of the Anarthro-poda, comprising only the oceanic ge...
-Glossary. Part 9
Cilia (Lat. cilium, an eyelash). Microscopic, hair-like filaments, which have the power of lashing backwards and forwards, thus creating currents in the surrounding or contiguous fluid, or subserving...
-Glossary. Part 10
Coelenterata (Gr. koilos, hollow; enteron, the bowel). The sub-kingdom which comprises the Hydrozoa and Actinozoa. Proposed by Frey and Leuckart in place of the old term Radiaia, which included other...
-Glossary. Part 11
Coralligenous Producing a corallum. Corallite The corallum secreted by an Actinozoon which consists of a single polype; or the portion of a composite corallum which belongs to, and is secreted by, ...
-Glossary. Part 12
Cuspidate Furnished with small pointed eminences or cusps. Cuticle (Lat. cuticula, dim. of cutis, skin). The pellicle which forms the outer layer of the body amongst the Infusoria. The outer lay...
-Glossary. Part 13
Diastole (Gr. diastello, I separate or expand). The expansion of a contractile cavity such as the heart, which follows its contraction or systole. Diatomaceae (Gr. diatemno, I sever). An order of...
-Glossary. Part 14
Dorsal (Lat. dorsum, back). Connected with the back. Dorsibranchiate (Lat. dorsum, the back; Gr. bragchia, gill). Having external gills attached to the back ; applied to certain Annelides and Mollu...
-Glossary. Part 15
Enderon (Gr. en, in; deros, skin). The inner plane of growth of the outer integumentary layer (viz., the ectoderm or epidermis). Endocyst (Gr. endon, within; kustis, a bag). The inner membrane or i...
-Glossary. Part 16
Equivalve (Lat. aequus, equal; valvae, folding-doors). Applied to shells which are composed of two equal pieces or valves. Errantia (Lat. erro, I wander). An order of Annelida, often called Nereide...
-Glossary. Part 17
Ganglion (Gr. gagglion, a knot). A mass of nervous matter containing nerve-cells, and giving origin to nerve-fibres. Ganoid (Gr. ganos, splendour, brightness). Applied to those scales or plates whi...
-Glossary. Part 18
Granivorous (Lat. granum, a grain or seed; voro, I devour). Living upon grains or other seeds. Graptolitidae (Gr. grapho, I write; lithos, stone). An extinct sub-class of the Hydrozoa. Gregarinida...
-Glossary. Part 19
Hemelytra (Gr. hemi, half; elutron, a sheath). The wings of certain Insects, in which the apex of the wing is membranous, whilst the inner portion is chitinous, and resembles the elytron of a beetle....
-Glossary. Part 20
Homogangliate (Gr. homos, like ; gagglion, a knot). Having a nervous system in which the ganglia are symmetrically arranged (as in the Annulosa, for example). Homologous (Gr. homos; and logos, a di...
-Glossary. Part 21
Ichthyomorpha (Gr. ichthus; morphe, shape). An order of Amphibians, often called Urodela, comprising the fish-like Newts, etc. Ichthyophthira (Gr. ichthus; phtheir, a louse). An order of Crustacea ...
-Glossary. Part 22
Invertebrata (Lat. in, without; vertebra, a bone of the back). Animals without a spinal column or backbone. Ischium (Gr. ischion, the hip). One of the bones of the pelvic arch in Vertebrates. Isop...
-Glossary. Part 23
Lingual (Lat. lingua, the tongue). Connected with the tongue. Lissencephala (Gr. lissos, smooth; egkephalos, brain). A primary division of Mammalia, according to Owen, in which the cerebral hemisph...
-Glossary. Part 24
Marsipobranchii (Gr. marsipos, a pouch; bragchia, gill). The order of Fishes comprising the Hag-fishes and Lampreys with pouch-like gills. Marsupialia (Lat. marsupium, a pouch). An order of Mammals...
-Glossary. Part 25
Metastoma (Gr. meta, after; stoma, mouth). The plate which closes the mouth posteriorly in the Crustacea. Metatarsus (Gr. meta,, after; tarsos, the instep). The bones which intervene between the bo...
-Glossary. Part 26
Myelon (Gr. muelos, marrow). The spinal cord of Vertebrates. Myriapoda or Myriopoda (Gr. murios, ten thousand; podes, feet). A class of Arthropoda comprising the Centipedes and their allies, charac...
-Glossary. Part 27
Nucleated Possessing a nucleus or central particle. Nucleolus 1. The minute solid particle in the interior of the nucleus of some cells. 2. The minute spherical particle attached to the exterior of...
-Glossary. Part 28
Operculum A horny or shelly plate developed, in certain Mollusca, upon the hinder part of the foot, and serving to close the aperture of the shell when the animal is retracted within it; also the lid...
-Glossary. Part 29
Ovisac The external bag or sac in which certain of the Invertebrates carry their eggs after they are extruded from the body. OVOVIVIPAROUS (Lat. ovum, egg; vivus, alive; pario, I produce). Applied ...
-Glossary. Part 30
Pectinate (Lat. pecten, a comb). Comb-like; applied to the gills of certain Gasteropods, hence called Pectinibranchiata. Pectoral (Lat. pectus, chest). Connected with, or placed upon, the chest. P...
-Glossary. Part 31
Perivisceral (Gr. peri; and Lat. viscera, the internal organs). Applied to the space surrounding the viscera. Petaloid Shaped like the petals of a flower. Phalanges (Gr. phalanx, a row). The smal...
-Glossary. Part 32
Planula (Lat. planus, flat). The oval ciliated embryo of certain of the Invertebrates. Plastron The lower or ventral portion of the bony case of the Chelonians. Platyelmia (Gr. platus, broad ; an...
-Glossary. Part 33
Polytrochal (Gr. polus, many; trochos, wheel). An epithet applied to those larvae of Annelides and other Invertebrates, in which there are successively-disposed circlets of cilia. Polyzoa (Gr. polu...
-Glossary. Part 34
Protoplasm (Gr. protos; and plasso, I mould). The elementary basis of organised tissues. Used synonymously with the sarcode of the Protozoa. Protopodite (Gr. protos, first; and pous, foot). The b...
-Glossary. Part 35
Quadrumana (Lat. quatuor, four; manus, hand). The order of Mammals comprising the Apes, Monkeys, Baboons, Lemurs, etc. Radiata (Lat. radius, a ray). Formerly applied to a large number of animals wh...
-Glossary. Part 36
Rotatoria ( = Rotifera). Rotifera (Lat. rota, wheel; and fero, I carry). A class of the Scolecida (Annuloida) characterised by a ciliated trochal disc. Rugosa (Lat. rugosus, wrinkled). An order...
-Glossary. Part 37
Sclerodermic (Gr. skleros; and derma, skin). Applied to the corallum which is deposited between the tissues of certain Actinozoa, and is called tissue-secretion by Mr Dana. Sclerotic (Gr. skler...
-Glossary. Part 38
Somite (Gr. soma). A single segment in the body of an Articulate animal. Spermarium The organ in which spermatozoa are produced. Spermatophores (Gr. sperma, seed; phero, I carry). The cylindrical...
-Glossary. Part 39
Stomapoda (Gr. stoma, mouth; pous, foot). An order of Crustacea. Stomatode (Gr. stoma). Possessing a mouth. The Infusoria are thus often called the Stomatode Protozoa. Strepsiptera (Gr. strepho, ...
-Glossary. Part 40
Teleostei (Gr. teleios, perfect; osteon, bone). The order of the Bony Fishes. Telson (Gr. a limit). The last joint in the abdomen of Crustacea; variously regarded as a segment without appendages,...
-Glossary. Part 41
Trochal (Gr. trochos, a wheel). Wheel-shaped ; applied to the ciliated disc of the Rotifera. Trochanter (Gr. trecho, I turn). A process of the upper part of the thighbone (femur) to which are attac...
-Glossary. Part 42
Varices (Lat. varix, a dilated vein). The ridges or spinose lines which mark the former position of the mouth in certain univalve shells. Vascular (Lat. vas, a vessel). Connected with the circulato...
-Glossary. Part 43
Zeuglodontidae (Gr. zeugle, a yoke; odous, a tooth). An extinct family of Cetaceans, in which the molar teeth are two-fanged, and look as if composed of two parts united by a neck. Zooecium (Gr. zo...









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