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Instrumental Insemination Of Queen Bees | by Otto Mackensen, Kenneth W. Tucker



This manual is intended to introduce instrumental insemination of honey bees to beekeepers, scientists, and technical workers in apiculture who want to learn the technique. A prior knowledge of bees, bee equipment, management procedures, and queen rearing is desirable for the student. However, an untrained person can master instrumental insemination and gain adequate experience in rearing queens and drones in a relatively short time, under the guidance of one who is already experienced. This publication brings together current information on instrumental insemination in easily readable form. This information has been gathered from the technical literature, the most important of which is listed under Bibliography, on page 27, for those who want to study the subject in detail.

TitleInstrumental Insemination Of Queen Bees
AuthorOtto Mackensen, Kenneth W. Tucker
PublisherEntomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service
Year1970
Copyright1970, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service
AmazonInstrumental Insemination Of Queen Bees

Agriculture Handbook No. 390

-Control Of Mating. Development Of Instrumental Insemination, Structure And Function Of The Reproductive Organs
Control Of Mating. The purpose of instrumental insemination in honey bees is to control matings. Since queens in nature mate away from the hive and in free flight, natural mating cannot be controlled...
-Female Reproductive Organs
The female reproductive organs are illustrated schematically in figure 1. Figure 2 shows a posterior exterior view of the genital opening with the sting chamber opened as in preparation for inseminati...
-Male Reproductive Organs
The male reproductive system is illustrated schematically in side view in figure 3, with the right-hand members of the paired structures not shown. Its principal paired structures are testes, vasa def...
-Natural Mating, Equipment For Instrumental Insemination, Microscope And Light, Carbon Dioxide Equipment, Queen Holder
Natural Mating The natural act of copulation has been difficult to study, but considerable information has been obtained by examining queens immediately after their return from the mating flight. Th...
-Syringe, Sting Hook And Ventral Hook, Valvefold Probe And Sting Depressor
Syringe Various types of syringes have been used during the development of the insemination technique. The Mackensen syringe (fig. 7) is the one most commonly used today. The barrel and plunger are m...
-Manipulating Apparatus
A good manipulating apparatus will not only support the parts already described but will hold the syringe and holding hooks so that their functioning ends can be moved in any direction smoothly and ea...
-Use Of Carbon Dioxide, Insemination Procedure, Preparing The Anesthetic, Preparing The Syringe
Use Of Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide not only serves as an anesthetic, but also stimulates queens to begin laying. Proper treatment with this gas causes virgin queens, as well as instrumentally inse...
-Preparing The Queen, Ejaculation Of Drones, Filling The Syringe
Preparing The Queen The queen is made to walk into a tube similar to the queen holder. When she reaches the constricted end she backs up, and if the queen holder is quickly put in place, she usually ...
-Injection, Cleaning And Sterilizing The Syringe Tips, Disease As A Factor In Insemination
Injection The microscope is again positioned over the queen and the magnification changed to a higher power if desired. The sting hook is drawn dor-sally until the sting chamber appears as in figure ...
-Estimating The Number Of Sperm In The Spermatheca
The success of an instrumental insemination can be measured by the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. To dissect out the sperma-theca for examination, the last visible segment of the abdomen is...
-Laidlaw Apparatus And Method
The Laidlaw apparatus for instrumental insemination (fig. 11) differs from that of Roberts and Mackensen in the way the queen is held and in the way the movement of the holding hooks and syringe is co...
-Age Of Queen For Insemination, Procedure For Various Objectives
Age Of Queen For Insemination Whenever possible, inseminations should be made at the normal mating age of the queen, around the seventh to 10th day after emergence. We have inseminated queens succes...
-Storing And Shipping Semen, Maintenance Of Queens, Maintaining Queens In Nuclei, Maintaining Queens In Nursery Colonies
Storing And Shipping Semen Semen can be shipped long distances for use in instrumental insemination. Successful inseminations have been made with semen shipped between the United States and Europe ...
-Rearing And Maturing Drones
Inducing a colony to produce drones is not always easy. Young queens are often more reluctant to lay drone eggs than older ones. There is considerable variability among stocks and individual queens in...
-Collection Of Drones For Insemination, Control Of Parentage
Collection Of Drones For Insemination In collecting drones for insemination, we make use of a screen cage 4 by 4 by 1 1/2 inches (fig. 13, A) with a 1-inch hole that can be closed with a rubber stop...









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