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The Bird Book | by Chester A. Reed



Illustrating in natural colors more than seven hundred north american birds; also several hundred photographs of their nests and eggs

TitleThe Bird Book
AuthorChester A. Reed
PublisherDoubleday, Page & Company
Year1914
Copyright1914, Charles K. Reed
AmazonThe Bird Book

By Chester A. Reed, B. S.

The Bird BookThe Bird Book 3TOPOGRAPHY OF A BIRD

Topography Of A Bird.

-Diving Birds. Order I. Pygopodes Grebes. Family Colymbidae
Grebes are birds having a ducklike body, but with pointed bills. Their feet, too, are unlike those of the Ducks, each toe having its separate web, and having a broad flat nail. Their wings are very sm...
-1. Western Grebe. Aechmophorus Occidentalis
Range. - Western parts of North America, from southern Alaska southward; east to Minnesota and south in winter to the southern parts of the United States and Mexico. Breeds from the Da-kotas and north...
-2. Holboell's Grebe. Colymbus Holboellii
Range. - Throughout North America, breeding from northern United States northward and wintering from the middle to the southern portions of the United States. In regard to size this Grebe comes next ...
-3. Horned Grebe. Colymbus Auritus
Range. - The whole of North America, breeding in the interior from North Dakota northwest; winters along the Gulf Coast. This species is one of the most beautiful of the Grebes, having in the breeding...
-4. Eared Grebe. Colymbus Nigricollis Californicus
Range. - North America west of the Mississippi, breeding from Texas to Manitoba and winter-ing along the Pacific Coast of the United States and from Texas southward. Eared Grebes differ from the prec...
-5. Mexican Grebe. Colymbusdominicus Brachypterus
Range. - Southern Texas and Lower California southward to South America, breeding throughout its range. The Least Grebe is by far the smallest of the Grebes in this country, being but 10 in. in lengt...
-6. Pied-Billed Grebe. Podilymbus Podiceps
Range. - From the British provinces southward to Argentine Republic, breeding locally throughout the northern portions of its range. The Dabchick, as this bird is called, is the most evenly distribut...
-Loons. Family Gaviidae
Loons may be likened to gigantic Grebes from which they differ externally, chiefly in the full webbed foot instead of the individually webbed toes of the Grebe, and in the sharper, more pointed and sp...
-7. Loon. Gavia Immer
Range. - North America north of the Mex- ican boundary, breeding from the northern parts of the United States northward. Unlike the Grebes, Loons do not build in colonies, generally not more than one...
-8. Yellow-Billed Loon. Gavia Adamsi
Range. - Northwestern North America, along the Arctic and northern Alaskan coasts. The Yellow-billed Loon with the exception of its whitish or yellowish bill in place of the black, is practically oth...
-9. Black-Throated Loon. Gavia Arctica
Range. - From northern United States northward, breeding along the Arctic Coast. This species can be easily separated from the Loon by the gray crown and white streaks down the back of the neck. Its ...
-10. Pacific Loon. Gavia Pacifica
Range. - Western North America along the coast chiefly, breeding from Alaska south to British Columbia. In winter, south along the coast to Mexico. This species differs from the Black-throated only i...
-11. Red-Throated Loon. Gavia Stellata
Range. - Northern Parts Of North America, breeding from southern Canada northward in the interior on both coasts. South to the middle portions of the United States in winter. This is the smallest of ...
-Puffins, Auks And Murres. Family Alcidae
Puffins, Auks and Murres are all sea birds and are only found inland when blown there by some severe storm of winter. At this season numbers of them are apt to lose their bearings and may sometimes be...
-12. Tufted Puffin. Lunda Cirrhata
Tufted Puffin Puffin. Range. - Pacific Coast from Alaska southward to southern California, breeding locally throughout their range. Tufted Puffins are the largest of the Puffins. In the breeding ...
-13. Puffin. Fratercula Arctica Arctica
Range. - North Atlantic Coast, breeding from the Bay of Fundy northward. Winters from breeding range along the New England Coast. The common Puffin has the cheeks, chin and underparts white; upper pa...
-14. Horned Puffin. Fratercula Corniculata
Range. - Pacific Coast from Alaska to British Columbia. The Horned Puffin differs from the common in that the blackish band across the throat extends upwards in a point to the bill. Their nesting habi...
-15. Rhinoceros Auklet. Cerorhinca Monocerata
Range. - Pacific Coast, breeding from British Columbia northward and wintering southward to Lower California. The Rhinoceros Auklet or Horned Auk has a much smaller bill than the Puffins; in the summ...
-16. Cassin Auklet. Ptychoramphus Aleuticus
Range. - Pacific Coast from Alaska to Lower California, breeding nearly throughout its range. A plain appearing bird about 9 in. in length, with blackish upperparts relieved only by a white spot over...
-17. Paroquet Auklet. - Phaleris Psittacula
Range. - The Alaskan Coast, casually farther south in winter. This bird is about the same size as the preceding, and the plumage is similar, except that it has no white spot over the eye, and the bre...
-18. Crested Auklet. Aethia Cristatella
Range. - Alaska Coast, Similar in form and plumage to the latter, except that the whole under parts are gray and it has a crest of recurved feathers. The nesting season begins in May, the birds nestin...
-19. Whiskered Auklet. Aethia Pygmaea
Range. - The Alaska Coast. Much smaller than the preceding; but 7.5 in. in length. Breast gray, belly white; a small tuft of recurved feathers on the forehead and slender white plumes from base of bi...
-20. Least Auklet. Aethia Pusilla
Range. - North Pacific on the islands and coast of Alaska. This is the smallest of the Auklets; length 6.5 in. This species has no crest, but has the slender white plumes extending back from the eye. ...
-21. Ancient Murrelet. Synthliboramphus Antiquus
Range. - Pacific Coast, breeding from the border of the United States, northward, and wintering south to southern California. The Murrelets have no crests or plumes and the bills are more slender tha...
-23. Marbled Murrelet. Brackyrampus Marmoratus
Range. - North Pacific Coast, breeding from Vancouver Island. South in winter to southern California. In the breeding plumage, this bird is brownish black above, barred with rusty and below is marble...
-24. Kittlitz Murrelet. Brachyramphus Brevirostris
Range. - North Pacific Coast in the Aleutian Islands and north to Unalaska, breeding on isolated islands throughout its range. This species is very similar to the Marbled Murrelet, the chief differenc...
-25. Xantus Murrelet. Brachyramphus Hypoleucus
Range. - Resident along the coast of southern and Lower California. This bird is blackish above and entirely white below, inculding the sides of the head below the eye. The whole of the under surface...
-26. Craveri's Murrelet. Brachyramphus Craveri
Range. - Both coasts of Lower California, breeding chiefly on the Gulf side. Craveri Murrelet is very similar to the last except that the under surfaces of the wings are dusky. Breeds on the islands n...
-27. Black Guillemot. Cepphus Grylle
Range. - Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, breeding from Maine northward to southern Greenland. Guillemots are larger birds than the Murrelets (length 13 inches) and their plumage is entirely ...
-28. Mandt's Guillemot. Cepphus Mandti
Range. - North Atlantic coast, more northerly than the preceding, breeding from Labrador to northern Greenland. The bird differs from the Black Guillemot only in having the bases of the coverts white...
-29. Pigeon Guillemot. Cepphus Columba
Range. - The Pacific Coast of North America, breeding from southern California north-ward. This bird is very similar to the Black Guillemot except that the under surfaces of the wings are dark. They b...
-30. Murre. Uria Troile Troille
Range. - North Atlantic coasts and islands, breeding from Bird Rock northward. Murres are similar in form to the Guillemots, but are larger, being about 16 inches in length. Entire head and neck sooty...
-31. Brunnich Murre. Uria Lomvia Lomvia
Range. - North Atlantic Coast, breeding range the same as the common Murre. Varies from white to greenish blue. This species differs from the common Murre in having a shorter and thicker bill, th...
-32. Razor-Billed Auk. Alca Torda
Range. - North Atlantic coast, breeding from Bird Rock northward and wintering south to the Middle States on the coast. Grayish white. The Razor-billed Auk is in form similar to the Murres, but t...
-33. Great Auk. Plautus Impennis
Range. - Formerly the whole of the North Atlantic coasts. Now extinct. These great auks formerly dwelt in large numbers on the islands of the North Atlantic, but-owing to their lack of the powers of ...
-34. Dovekie. Alle Alle
Range. - Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and East Arctic oceans, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering as far south as the Middle States. The little Dovekie or Sea Dove is the smallest...
-Long-Winged Swimmers. Order II. Longipennes Skua And Jaegers. Family Stercorariidae
Skuas and Jaegers are birds having a Gull or Tern-like form and with a hooked bill, the base of which is covered with a scaly shield. They have webbed feet and are able to swim and dive, but they comm...
-35. Skua. Megalestris Skua
Range. - Coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, chiefly on the European side; rare on the Atlantic coast of North America. Skuas are large (22 inches in length) and very powerfully built birds, ha...
-36. Pomarine Jaeger. Stercorarius Pomarinus
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle, more commonly in the Old World. In the breeding plumage, this Jaeger has the crown and face blackish; back and sides of head, throat a...
-37. Parasitic Jaeger. Stercorarius Parasiticus
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, wintering south to South America. The Parasitic Jaeger is very similar to the Pomarine except that the central tail feathers are pointed and are straight instead of twis...
-38. Long-Tailed Jaeger. Stercorarius Longicaudus
Range. - Arctic America; south in winter to South America. The long-tailed Jaeger is, according to length, the largest of the Jaegers, being 21 in. long; this is, however, due to the long sharp point...
-Gulls And Terns. Family Laridae
Gulls are webbed footed birds having a slight hook to the end of the upper mandible. Their plumage is generally a silvery gray above and white below. They nest in large colonies, some on the islands o...
-39. Ivory Gull. Pagophila Alba
Range. - Arctic regions; south in winter to the northern border of the United States. The little Snow Gull, as it is often called, is eighteen inches in length. In the breeding season the plumage is ...
-40. Kittiwake. Rissa Tridactyla Trydactyla
Range. - North Atlantic and Arctic regions, breeding from the Gulf of the St. Lawrence north-ward and wintering south to the Great Lakes and Long Island. The Kittiwake is sixteen inches in length, ha...
-41. Red-Legged Kittiwake. Rissa Brevi-Rostris
Range. - Northwestern coasts, breeding in high latitudes. This Kittiwake is similar to the preceding, with the exception that the legs are bright red, the mantle is darker, and the bill is shorter. T...
-42. Glaucous Gull. Larus Hyperboreus
Range. - Arctic regions, south in winter to Long Island, the Great Lakes, and San Francisco Bay. This Gull shares with the Great Black-backed Gull the honor of being the largest of the Gulls, being 2...
-43. Iceland Gull. Larus Leucopterus
Range. - Arctic regions, south in winter to the Middle States. This Gull in appearance is precisely like the two preceding ones but is considerably smaller; 24 inches in length. A very common bird in ...
-44. Glaucous-Winged Gull. Larus Glaucescens
Range. - North Pacific coast, breeding from British Columbia northwards and wintering from the same country to southern California. This Gull is very like the preceding except that the primaries are ...
-45. Kumlien's Gull. Larus Kumlieni
Range. - North Atlantic coast, breeding in Cumberland Sound and wintering as far south as Long Island. This bird differs from the Glaucous-winged only in the pattern of the gray markings of the prima...
-46. Nelson's Gull. Larus Nelsoni
Range. - Coast of Alaska. Plumage exactly like that of Kumlien Gull and questionably a new species. The nests and eggs are not to be distinguished from the preceding. ...
-47. Great-Black-Backed Gull. Larus Marinus
Range. - North Atlantic on both the American and European sides; breeds from Nova Scotia northward and winters south to the Great Lakes and the Middle States. The largest of the Gulls (thirty inches ...
-18. Slaty-Backed Gull. - Larus Schistisagus
Range. - North Pacific and Arctic Oceans. This Gull, which is similar to the Great Black-backed, but is smaller and has a lighter mantle, does not breed in any considerable numbers on the American si...
-49. Western Gull. Lotus Occidentalis
Range. - Pacific Coast, breeding from southern California to British Columbia. This bird, which is the most southerly distributed of the larger Gulls is twenty-four inches in length. Mantle slate col...
-50. Siberian Gull. Larus Affinis
This bird does not nest in North America, and has a place on our list, by its accidental occurrence in Greenland. It is an Old World species and its nesting habits and eggs are like those of the Herri...
-51. Herring Gull. Larus Argentatus
Range. - Whole of the Northern Hemisphere, breeding from Maine and British Columbia northward and wintering south to the Gulf. This Gull, which formerly was No. 51a, a subspecies of the European vari...
-52. Vega Gull. Larus Vegae
Range. - Coast of Alaska, south in winter to California. Similar to the Herring Gull, but with the mantle darker, but not so dark as in the Western Gull. The nesting habits and eggs are the same as t...
-53. California Gull. Larus Californicus
Range. - Western North America, breeding in the interior. A smaller Gull than the Herring with the primaries grayish instead of black; length twenty-five inches. This Gull is found in winter on the c...
-54. Ring-Billed Gull. Larus Delarvarenis
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding from the United States northward and wintering south to the Gulf States. Ring-billed Gull. California Gull. RING-BILLED GULL - Gray. ...
-55. Short-Billed Gull. Larus Brachy-Rhynchus
Range. - Breeds from the interior of British Columbia northward to Alaska; south in winter to Lower California. The Short-billed or American Mew Gull is seventeen inches in length, has a short, stout...
-56. Mew Gull. Larus Canus
This is the European variety of the above species, breeding commonly both in the British Isles and northern Europe. This species is given a place in our avifauna because of its accidental appearance i...
-57. Herrman's Gull. - Larus Heermanni
Range. - Pacific Coast of North America from British Columbia south to Panama, breeding chiefly south of the United States border. A very handsome species, often called the White-headed Gull, and who...
-58. Laughing Gull. Larus Atricilla
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the Gulf to Nova Scotia, chiefly on the coast. A beautiful Gull, 16 inches long, with a dark slate colored head, gray mantle, black primaries, and white n...
-59. Franklin's Gull. Larus Franklini
Range. - Interior North America, breeding from middle United States northward. Like the last but smaller and with the primaries light. Underparts rosy in breeding season. Nests very abundantly in the...
-60. Bonaparte's Gull. Larus Philadelphia
Range. - Breeds in the northern parts of North America; winters from Maine and British Columbia to the southern border of the United States. Smaller than the last; 14 inches long. Plumage similar, bu...
-61. Ross Gull. Rhodostethia Rosea
Range. - The Arctic Regions, South In Winter to Alaska, Greenland, northern Europe and Asia. This beautiful bird is the most rare of all the Gulls, being very difficult to obtain because of its extrem...
-62. Sabine's Gull. Xema Sabinii
Range. - Arctic Regions, Breeding From Alaska and Greenland and northward, and wintering south to New England. A handsome bird, having the slaty hood bordered behind with a black ring, the primaries ...
-63. Gull-Billed Tern. Gelochelidon Nilotica
Range. - Found in North America along the Gulf Coast and on the Atlantic Coast north to Virginia and casually farther. This is one of the largest of the Terns, is 14 inches long, has a short, thick, ...
-64. Caspian Tern. Sterna Caspia
Range. - Like the preceding species, this bird is nearly cosmopolitan in its range, in North America breeding from the Gulf Coast and Texas northward to the Arctic Regions. This beautiful bird is the...
-65. Royal Tern. Sterna Maxima
Range. - Temperate North and South America, breeding in the United States locally from Texas and the Gulf States northward to the northern boundary of the United States. The Royal Terns nest in great...
-66. Elegant Tern. Sterna Elegans
Range. - Pacific Coast of South and Central America; north to California in summer. A similar bird to the Royal Tern, but easily distinguished by its smaller size, slender bill, and more graceful for...
-67. Cabot Tern. Sterna Sandvicensis Acuflavida
Range. - A tropical species breeding regularly-north to the Bahamas and Florida; casually farther north. A beautiful bird distinguished from the three preceding ones by its smaller size (sixteen inche...
-68. Trudeau's Tern. Sterna Trudeaui
Range. - South America; accidentally along the coast of the United States. A rare and unique species with a form similar to the following, but with the coloration entirely different. About fifteen in...
-69. Forster's Tern. Sterna Forsteri
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from Manitoba, Mass., and California, south to the Gulf Coast and Texas. Length about fifteen inches; tail long and deeply forked; crown black, back and win...
-70. Common Tern. Sterna Hirundo
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding both on the coast and in the interior from the Gulf States northward. This bird differs from the preceding chiefly in having a bright red bill tipped with bla...
-71. Arctic Tern. Sterna Paradisaea
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding from New England northward to the Arctic Regions and wintering south to California and the South Atlantic States. A similar bird to the last, differing in having...
-72. Roseate Tern. Sterna Dougalli
Range. - Temperate North America on the east coast, breeding from New England to the Gulf. These are the most beautiful birds, having a delicate pink blush on the under parts during the breeding seas...
-73. Aleutian Tern. Sterna Aleutica
Range. - Found in summer in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. South in winter to Japan. This handsome Tern is of the form and size of the Common Tern, but has a darker mantle, and the forehead is whit...
-74. Least Tern. Sterna Antillarum
Range. - From northern South America to southern New England, Dakota and California, breeding locally throughout its range. These little Sea Swallows are the smallest of the Terns, being but 9 inches...
-75. Sooty Tern. Sterna Fuscata
Range. - Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States. This species measures 17 inches in length; it has a brownish black mantle, wings and tail, except the outer feathers of the latter which ...
-76. Bridled Tern. Sterna Anaetheta
Range. - Found in tropical regions of both hemispheres; casual or accidental in Florida. This Tern is similar to the last except that the nape is white and the white of the forehead extends in a line ...
-77. Black Tern. Hydrochelidon Nigra Surinamensis
Range. - Temperate America, breeding from the middle portions of the United States northward to Alaska; south in winter beyond the United States Border. The identity of these Terns cannot be mistaken ...
-78. White-Winged Black Tern. Hydrochelidon Leucoptera
Range. - Eastern Hemisphere, its addition to American birds being made because of the accidental appearance of one bird in Wisconsin in 1873. They lest very abundantly among the lakes and marshes of s...
-79. Noddy. Anous Stolidus
Range. - Tropical America, north to the Gulf and South Atlantic States, A peculiar but handsome bird (about fifteen inches long), with a silvery white head and the rest of the plumage brownish, and th...
-Skimmers. Family Rynchopidae
Skimmers are Tern-like birds having a very strangely developed bill. The lower mandible is much longer than the upper and very thin, the upper edge being as sharp as the lower. The lower mandible is r...
-80. Black Skimmer. Rynchops Nigra
Range. - The South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, breeding from New Jersey southward. The Black Skimmer is about eighteen inches in length, and besides the remarkable bill is a bird of striking plumage; th...
-Tube-Nosed Swimmers. Order III. Tubinares. Albatrosses. Family Diomedeidae
Albatrosses are the largest of the sea birds and have an enormous expanse of wing, the Wandering Albatross, the largest of the family, sometimes attaining an expanse of fourteen feet. Their nostrils c...
-81. Black-Footed Albatross. Diomedea Nigripes
Range. - North Pacific from California northward. This Albatross is thirty-two inches in length; it is of a uniform sooty brown color shading into whitish at the base of the bill, which is rounded. Li...
-82. Short-Tailed Albatross. Diomedea Albatrus
Range. - North Pacific Ocean in summer, from Lower California to Alaska. With the exception of the Wandering Albatross, which is now regarded as doubtful as occurring off our coasts, the Short-tailed ...
-83. Yellow-Nosed Albatross. Tludassogeron Culminatus
This is a species which inhabits the South Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is said to rarely occur on the California coast. They breed during our winter on some of the small islands and during our summ...
-84. Sooty Albatross. Phoebetria-Palpebrata
Range. - Southern seas, north in our summer along the Pacific coast of the United States. This species is entirely sooty brown except the white eyelids. It is similar to the Black-footed Albatross fr...
-Fulmars, Shearwaters And Petrels. Family Procellaridae
Fulmars, Shearwaters and Petrels are Gull-like birds with two nostril tubes located side by side, in a single tube, on the top of the bill at it's base. The Fulmars are mostly northern birds while th...
-85. Giant Fulmar. Macronectes Gigantea
Range. - This Petrel is a native of the southern seas and is only casually met with off the Pacific coast. It is the largest of the family, being about three feet in length, and is normally a uniform...
-86. Fulmar. Fulmarus Glacialis Glacialis
Range. - North Atlantic coasts from New England northward, breeding from Hudson Bay and southern Greenland northward. This bird which is 19 inches in length, in the light phase has a plumage very sim...
-87. Slender-Billed Fulmar. Priocella Glacialoides
Range. - Southern seas, appearing on the Pacific coast of the United States in the summer. This species has a paler mantle than the others of the family, and the primaries are black. The make-up and p...
-88. Cory's Shearwater. Puffinus Borealis
This species probably breeds in the far south. It has been found only off the coast of Massachusetts and Long Island. This is the largest of our Shearwaters, and can be distinguished from the next spe...
-89. Greater Shearwater. Puffinus Gravis
Range. - The whole of the Atlantic Ocean. Thousands of them spend the latter part of the summer off the New England coast, where they are known to the fishermen as Haglets. Their upper parts are brow...
-90. Manx Shearwater. Puffinus Puffinus
This species inhabits the North Atlantic ocean chiefly on the European side, being abundant in the Mediterranean and in the British Isles. These birds deposit their single pure white eggs in crevices ...
-91. Pink-Footed Shearwater. Puffinus Creatopus
Range. - Pacific Ocean, north on American side to California in summer. This species, whose breeding habits are little known, is similar in size and color to the Greater Shearwater, differing chiefly...
-92. Audubon's Shearwater. Puffinus Iherminieri
Range. - Middle Atlantic, ranging north in late summer to Long Island. This bird, having a length of but twelve inches, is the smallest of the Shearwaters found along our coasts. Large colonies of th...
-93. Black-Vented Shearwater. Puffinus Opisthomelas
Range. - Middle Pacific coast of the Americas, north in late summer along the coast of California. This species breeds commonly on the islands off the coast of Lower California, especially on the Gulf...
-94. Sooty Shearwater. Puffins Fuligi-Nosus
Range. - A common species off the Atlantic coast in summer; breeds along our northern coasts, and it is also supposed that many of them nest in southern seas and reach our coasts early in the summer. ...
-95. Dark-Bodied Shearwater
Puffinus griseus. This is a southern species which, after having nested on islands in the far south during our winter, comes north and appears off the Pacific coast of the United States during the sum...
-96. Slender-Billed Shearwater. Puffinus Tenuirostris
Range. - Northern Pacific Ocean in the summer, extending from Japan and Alaska southward. Supposed to breed in the southern hemisphere, as well as probably on some of the Aleutians in Alaska. Dark...
-97. Black-Tailed Shearwater. Priofinus
cinerus This is a Shearwater which inhabits the southern hemisphere, but which has accidentally wandered to the Pacific coast of the United States. It is dark above and whitish below, with black under...
-98. Black-Capped Petrel. Aestrelata Hasi-Tata
This is not a common species; it is an inhabitant of tropical seas and has only been casually-found on our coasts or inland. It is a handsome species with white forehead, underparts and nape with a sm...
-99. Scaled Petrel. Aestrelata Scalaris
This is another rare species which is an inhabitant of southern seas. A single specimen taken in New York State gives it a claim as a doubtful North American species. It is a handsome bird, the feathe...
-100. Fisher's Petrel. Aestralata Fisheri
This is a handsome bird known only from the type specimen taken off Kadiak Is., Alaska, by Mr. Fisher. Black-capped Petrel. Scaled Petrel. Fisher's Petrel. ...
-101. Bulwer's Petrel. Bulrveria Balrveri
An eastern Atlantic species which is only an accidental visitant to our shores. They breed on the Madeira Islands where the eggs are laid in crevices among the rocks or in burrows in the ground. Size ...
-102. Pintado Petrel. Daption Capensis
This is the Cape Pigeon of the southern hemisphere. It has only accidentally occurred on our coast. ...
-103. Least Petrel. Halocyptena Microsoma
Range. - Pacific coast of America from Lower California to Panama. The Least Petrel is the smallest of this family, in length measuring only 5.75 inches. Their plumage is entirely dark sooty. They hav...
-104. Storm Petrel. Thalassidroma Pela-Gica
North Atlantic Ocean chiefly on the European side, wintering south to New Brunswick. Smallest of the white rumped, black petrels; 5.75 inches in length. This species is the originally called Mother ...
-105. Forked-Tailed Petrel. Oceanodroma Fareata
Range. - North Pacific from California to Alaska, breeding in the Aleutians. These birds have a plumage of bluish gray, the wings being darker and the underparts lightest. The nests are made in burro...
-106. Leach's Petrel. Oceanodroma Leucorhoa
Range. - Nortli Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, breeding from Maine and from the Farallones, northward to Greenland and the Aleutians. These are the most common of the Petrels found on our coast; ...
-107. Black Petrel. Oceanodroma Melania
Range. - South Pacific, from southern California southward, breeding on the small islands on both coasts of Lower California. They are similar to the Leach's Petrel except that the rump is blackish. D...
-108. Ashy Petrel. Oceanodroma Homochroa
Range. - California coast, breeding on the Far-allones and Santa Barbara Islands. This species, while not common, nests in all manner of localities on the Farallones, concealing their eggs under any ...
-109. Wilson's Petrel. Oceanites Oceanicus
Breeds in the southern hemisphere in February and March and spends the summer off the Atlantic coast as far north as Newfoundland. This species can be distinguished from Leach Petrel by its square tai...
-110. White-Bellied Petrel. Fregetta Grallaria
A small species (length about 7.5 inches) inhabiting southern seas. Recorded once at Florida. General plumage blackish. Upper tail coverts, bases of tail feathers, under wing coverts, and abdomen, whi...
-111. White-Faced Petrel. Pelagodroma Marina
Range. - Southern seas, accidentally north to the coast of Massachusetts. This beautiful species is of about the same size as the Leach's Petrel. It has bluish gray upper parts; the whole under parts,...
-Totipalmate Swimmers. Order IV. Steganopodes Tropic Birds. Family Phaethontidae
Tropic Birds are Tern-like birds, having all the toes connected by a web, and having the two central tail feathers very much lengthened. ...
-112. Yellow-Billed Tropic Bird. Phaethon Americanus
Range. - Tropical regions, breeding in the Bahamas, West Indies and the Bermudas, casual in Florida and along the South Atlantic coast. The Tropic Birds are the most strikingly beautiful of all the s...
-113. Red-Billed Tropic Bird. Phaethon Aethereus
Range. - Tropical seas, chiefly in the Pacific Ocean; north to southern California. They breed on several islands in the Gulf of California. This species differs from the preceding in having a red b...
-Gannets. Family Sulidae
Gannets are large stoutly built birds, having the four toes joined by a web; they have a small naked pouch beneath the bill; the bill is a little longer than the head, and the tail is quite short. The...
-114. Blue-Faced Booby. Sula Syanops
Range. - Widely distributed in the tropical seas, north casually to Florida and breeding in the Bahamas. Like the rest of the Gannets, this one is stupid and will often remain on the nest until remov...
-115. Booby. Sula Leucogastra
Range. - Tropical coasts and islands of the Atlantic; north casually to Georgia. The common Booby is an abundant bird on some of the islands of the Bahamas and Bermudas; it is commonly called the Bro...
-116. Red-Footed Booby. Sula Piscator
This is another species that is only occasionally taken on the Florida coast. The habits of the birds and their nesting habits are the same as those of the others of the family. Two chalky white eggs ...
-117. Gannet. Sula Bassana
Range. - North Atlantic, breeding, in America, only on Bird Rocks in the St. Lawrence. These are the largest of the family, being 35 inches in length. They feed on fish which they catch by diving upo...
-Darters. Family Anhingidae. 118. Water Turkey. Anhinga Anhinga
Range. - Tropical America, north to the South Atlantic States and up the Mississippi Valley to Illinois. Anhingas or Snake Birds are curiously formed creatures with a Heron-like head and neck, and th...
-Cormorants. Family Phalacrocoracidae
Cormorants have a more bulky body than do the Anhingas; their tail is shorter and the bill strongly hooked at the tip. Cormorants are found in nearly all quarters of the globe. They are very gregariou...
-119. Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Carbo
Range. - The Atlantic coast breeding from Maine to Greenland. The common Cormorant or Shag is one of the largest of the race, having a length of 36 inches. In breeding plumage, the black head and ne...
-120. Double-Crested Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Auritus Auritus
Range. - The Atlantic coast and also in the interior, breeding from Nova Scotia and North Dakota northward. This is a slightly smaller bird than carbo, and in the nesting season the white plumes of t...
-121. Mexican Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Vigua Mexicanus
Range. - Breeds abundantly from southern Texas, south through Mexico; north rarely to Kansas; has recently been found breeding in limited number on some of the Bahamas. In the interior they nest in tr...
-122. Brandt's Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Penicillatus
Range. - Pacific coast breeding along the whole coast of the United States. This species is found more abundantly on the Faral-lones than is the Farallone Cormorant. Like the other Cormorants breedin...
-123. Pelagic Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Pelagicus Pelagicus
Range. - Coast of Alaska. These are perhaps the most beautiful species of Cormorants, having brilliant violet green metallic reflections and, in the breeding plumage, crests on the forehead and nape,...
-124. Red-Faced Cormorant. Phalacrocorax Urile
Range. - Southwest coast of Alaska, migrating to Japan in the winter. This species differs from the Pelagic chiefly in having the forehead bare. They do not differ in their breeding habits from other...
-Pelicans. Family Pelecanidae
Pelicans are large, short legged, web footed (all four toes joined by a web) birds, the most noticeable feature of which is the long bill with its enormous pouch suspended from lower mandible. This po...
-125. American White Pelican. Pelecanus Erythrorhynchos
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding in the interior, from Utah and the Dakotas northward. These large birds, reaching a length of five feet, are entirely white except for the black primaries. T...
-126. Brown Pelican. Pelecanus Occidentalis
Range. - Found on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Brown Pelicans are about 50 inches in length; they have a blackish and grayish body and a white head and neck with a brown s...
-127. California Brown Pelican. Pelecanus Calif Amicus
Range. - Pacific coast from British Columbia south to the Galapagos Islands. This bird is similar to the preceding, but larger and the pouch is reddish. They breed abundantly on the Coronado Islands ...
-Man-O'-War Birds. Family Fregatidae. 128. Man-O'-War Bird. Fregata Aquila
Range. - Tropical seas, north regularly in America to the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, casually farther. Man-o'-war Birds or Frigates, as they are often called, are remarkable birds in many resp...
-Order V. Anseres Ducks, Geese And Swans. Family Anatidae
The birds comprising this family are of greatly varying sizes, but all have webbed feet, and generally the bill is broader than high, and is serrated on the edges or provided with gutters to act as a ...
-129. Merganser. Mergus Americanus
Range. - North America, breeding from the northern border of the United States northward. The three species of Mergansers are almost exclusively fish eating birds. Therefore their flesh is unpalatabl...
-130. Red-Breasted Merganser. Mergus Serrator
Range. - North America, breeding from northern United States northward. This species is more abundant than the preceding. It is slightly smaller, being 22 inches in length, and the male is crested. F...
-131. Hooded Merganser. Lophodytes Cucullatus
Range. - North America, breeding locally throughout its range, in the interior. These are beautiful little Ducks distinguished from all others by the semi-circular, compressed crest which is black wit...
-132. Mallard. Anas Platyrhynchos
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America from northern United States northward, and wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. Contrasting with the preceding Fish Ducks, the Mallards are...
-133. Black Duck. Anas Rubripes
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the middle portions north to the Hudson Bay territory and Labrador. Throughout their breeding region, one or more pairs of these ducks nest in nearly eve...
-134. Florida Duck. Anas Fulvigula Fulvigula
Range. - Florida and the Gulf of the Mississippi. This is a similar, lighter colored, locally distributed race of the foregoing. The most noticeable difference in plumage between this and the Black D...
-135. Gadwall. Chaulelasmus Streperus
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America, chiefly in the United States and north to Manitoba, chiefly in the interior. Gadwall. Widgeon. Creamy buff. South in winter to the Gu...
-136. Widgeon. Mareca Penelope
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America, only in the Aleutian Islands; rare or accidental in other parts of the country. The European Widgeon is similar in build and plumage to the followin...
-137. Baldpate. Mareca Americana
Range. - North America, breeding in the interior from Texas north to Hudson Bay. The Baldpate (so-called because of the white 2rown) or American Widgeon is a handsomely marked bird and is regarded as...
-138. European Teal. Nettion Crecca
An old world species that is casually found on both coasts of America. 139. Green-Winged Teal. Nettion Carolinense Range. - Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States. A sm...
-140. Blue-Winged Teal. Querquedula Discors
Range. - North America, breeding from northern United States northward; rare on the Pacific coast. Another small species, known by the blue wing coverts and the white crescent in front of eye. They n...
-141. Cinnamon Teal. Querquedula Cyanop-Tera
Range. - Western United States, chiefly west of the Rocky Mountains. Casually east to Texas, Illinois and British Columbia. The Cinnamon Teal is another small Duck, marked by the uniform rich chestnu...
-142. Shoveller. Spatula Clypeata
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding in the interior from Texas northward. This strikingly marked Duck is twenty inches in length, has a green head and speculum, blue wing coverts and chestnut b...
-143. Pintail. Dafila Acuta
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in North America from northern United States northward, wintering south to Panama. This species, which is also known as the Sprig-tail, is very common in the Uni...
-144. Wood Duck. Aix Sponsa
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from Labrador and British Columbia south to Florida. Bridal Duck is a name often given to this, the most beautiful of all Ducks. They are beautifully marke...
-146. Redhead. Marila Americana
Range. - North America at large, breeding from northern United States northward, chiefly in the interior. A bird commonly seen in the markets where it is often sold as the following species because o...
-147. Canvas-Back. Marila Valisineria
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding chiefly in the interior from the United States to the Arctic Ocean. A noted table bird, especially in the south where it feeds on wild celery. Can be disting...
-148. Scaup Duck. Marila Marila
Range. - North America, breeding from North Dakota northward, chiefly in the interior; south in winter to Central America. Canvas-back. American Scaup Duck. Pale greenish gray. This and the f...
-149. Lesser Scaup Duck. Marila Afjinis
Range. - North America, breeding from North Dakota and British Columbia northward; win ters south to Central America. This Duck is distinguished from the preceding, chiefly by its size which is about...
-150. Ring-Necked Duck. Marila Collaris
Range. - North America, breeding in the interior, from North Dakota and Washington northward. Winters from Maryland on the east and British Columbia on the west to Central America. Lesser Scaup Du...
-151. Golden-Eye. Clangula Clangula Americana
Range. - North America, breeding both on the coast and in the interior, from the northern border of the United States northward to the Arctic Ocean. These are handsome Ducks known as Whistlers from...
-152. Barrow's Golden-Eye. Clangula Islandica
Range. - Northern North America, breeding north of the United States except from the mountainous portions of Colorado northward. This Golden-eye differs from the preceding chiefly in the shape of the...
-153. Buffle-Head. Charitonetta Albeola
Range. - North America, breeding from United States northward. Winters south to Mexico. Gunners know this handsome little duck by the names of Butter-ball, and Dipper, a name also given to Grebes...
-154. Old-Squaw. Harelda Hyemails
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic regions; south in winter to New Jersey and Illinois. The Long-tailed Duck, as it is called, is especially noticeable because the breeding plumage...
-155. Harlequin Duck. Histrionicus Histrionicus
Range. - Northern Hemisphere in America, breeding from Newfoundland and the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, northward. South in winter to California and New England. A beautiful and most gorgeous bird, ...
-156. Labrador Duck. Camptorhynchus Labra-Dorius
This bird, whose range was from Labrador to New Jersey in the winter, has probably been extinct since 1875, when the last authentic capture was made. It is a strange fact that a bird of this character...
-157. Steller's Duck. Polysticta Stelleri
Range. - Arctic regions in America, chiefly on the Aleutian Islands and northwest coast of Alaska. A very beautiful species eighteen inches long; head white, washed with greenish on the forehead and ...
-158. Spectacled Eider. Arctonetta Fischeri
Range. - Coast of Alaska from the Aleutians to Point Barrow. Pale olive green. Like the rest of the true Eiders, this species is black beneath and mostly white above. The head is largely washed w...
-159. Northern Eider. Somateria Mollissima Borealis
Range. - North Atlantic coast, breeding from Labrador to Greenland and wintering south to New England. A large Duck similar to the next species, but with the base of the bill differing, as noted in t...
-160. Eider. Somateria Dresseri
Range. - Atlantic coast, breeding from Maine to Labrador and wintering south to Delaware. This species differs from the preceding only in the fleshy part of the base of the bill, which extends back o...
-161. Pacific Eider. Somateria V-Nigra
Range. - North Pacific from the Aleutian Islands northward, and east to Great Slave Lake. This bird is, in plumage, like the Northern Eider, except that it has a black V-shaped mark on the throat. Th...
-162. King Eider. Somateria Spectabilis
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in America from Labrador to Greenland and the Arctic Ocean; south in winter to the New England States and rarely farther on the eastern side, and to the Aleutian...
-163. Scoter. Oidemia Americana
Range. - Northern North America, breeding from Labrador, the Hudson Bay region and the Aleutien Islands northward; winters south to Virginia, the Great Lakes and California. Scoters or Coots as the...
-165. White-Winged Scoter. Oidemia Deglandi
Range. - Abundant in North America, breeding from Labrador, North Dakota and British Columbia, northward. Wintering south to the Middle States, southern Illinois and southern California. The largest ...
-166. Surf Scoter. Oidemia Perspicillata
Range. - Northern North America, breeding north of the United States boundary, and wintering south to Virginia and southern California. The male of this species is entirely black, except for the whit...
-167. Ruddy Duck. Erismatura Jamaicensis
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States border except locally on the Pacific coast. Winters along the Gulf and through Mexico and Central America. This peculiar s...
-168. Masked Duck. Nomonyx Dominions
This is a tropical species which is resident in Mexico, Central America and in the West Indies. It occurs in Mexico north to the lower Rio Grande Valley and has in three known instances strayed to nor...
-169. Snow Goose. Chen Hyperboreus Hyperboreus
Range. - North America west of the Mississippi Valley, breeding in northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River district. This smaller species of the Snow Goose nests on islands in rivers along the arctic...
-170. Ross's Snow Goose. Chen Rossi
Range. - This beautiful species, which is similar in plumage to the large Snow Goose, is but twenty-one inches in length. It breeds in the extreme north, and in winter is found in the western part of ...
-171. White-Fronted Goose. Anser Albi-Frons Albifrons
This European species is exactly like the American except that it is said to average a trifle smaller. It is occasionally found in Greenland. 171a. American White-Fronted Goose. Anser Albifrons Gambe...
-172. Canada Goose. Branta Canadensis Canadensis
Range. - The whole of North America, breeding from northern United States northward, and wintering in the southern parts of the United States. This species is the most widely known of American Geese ...
-173. Brant. Branta Bernicla Glaucogastra
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering in the United States east of the Mississippi. The Brant resembles a small Canada Goose, except that the black of the neck ...
-174. Black Brant. Branta Nigricans
Range. - Western North America, breeding in Alaska and wintering on the Pacific coast of the United States. Rare east of the Mississippi. Brant Black. Brant. Grayish. This species is like the...
-175. Barnacle Goose. Branta Leucopsis
This Old World species occurs frequently in Greenland and very rarely is found on the mainland of this continent. Barnacle Goose. Emperor Goose. ...
-176. Emperor Goose. Philacte Canagica
Range. - Alaska, south in winter casually to California. This handsome species is twenty-six inches in length; it may be known from the mottled or scaly appearance of the body, and the white head w...
-177. Black-Bellied Tree-Duck. Dendro-Cygna Autumnalis
Range. - Tropical America, north in the Rio Grande Valley to southern Texas. These peculiar long-legged Ducks are very abundant in southern Texas during the summer months. They build their nests in h...
-178. Fulvous Tree-Duck. Dendrocygna Bicolor
Range. - This species is tropical like the last, but the summer range is extended to cover, casually the whole southwestern border of the United States. This bird is long-legged like the last, but th...
-179. Whooper Swan. Olor Cygnus
This European variety frequently is found in Greenland and formerly, regularly bred there. It nests in secluded swampy places in northern Europe. 180. Whistling Swan. Olor Columbianus Range. - North...
-181. Trumpeter Swan. Olor Buccinator
Range. - Interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico northward, breeding from northern United States northward. This is a magnificent bird, about five and one-half feet in length. Its plumage i...
-Lamellirostral Grallatores. Order VI. Odont Oglossae Flamingoes. Family Phoenicopteridae. 182. Flamingo. Phcenicopterus Ruber
Range. - Tropical and sub-tropical America on the Atlantic coasts, breeding in the Bahamas and West Indies; north to Florida and casually to the South Atlantic States. These remarkable and grotesque ...
-Ibises, Storks, Herons, Etc. Order VII. Herodiones
The members of this order are wading birds, consequently they all have long legs and necks. They have four toes, not webbed. ...
-Spoonbills. Family Plataleidae. 183. Roseate Spoonbill. Ajaia Ajaja
Range. - Tropical America, north in summer to the Gulf States. They formerly nested in remote swamps along the whole Gulf coast, but are now confined chiefly to the Everglades in Florida. American...
-Ibises. Family Ibididae. 184. White Ibis. Guara Alba
Ibises are gracefully formed birds having a long curved bill and a bare face. Range. - This is a tropical and sub-tropical species which is found along the Gulf coast, and north to South Carolina, ...
-185. Scarlet Ibis. Guara Rubra
Range. - Occasionally, but not recently met with in the southern states. Their habitat is tropical America, they being especially abundant along the Orinoco River in northern South America. Full plum...
-186. Glossy Ibis. Plegadis Autumnalis
Range. - This tropical and sub-tropical species, is chiefly found in the Old World. It is occasionally found in southeastern United States where it sometimes breeds. Its habits, nesting habits and egg...
-Storks And Wood Ibises Family Ciconiidae. 188. Wood Ibis. Mycteria Americana
Range. - A sub-tropical species which is resident along the Gulf coast and which strays casually north to New England and Colorado. This peculiar member of the Stork family has the whole head and par...
-189. Jabiru. Jabiru Mycteria
This large bird, which is the only true Stork that claims a place in our avifauna, is a native of South and Central America, wandering north, casually to Texas. Their nests are large platforms of stic...
-Bitterns And Herons Family Ardeidae
Herons and Bitterns are long-legged waders, having straight, pointed bills, and with the head feathered, except for the lores. ...
-190. Bittern. Bautaurus Lentiginosus
Range. - United States and southern British provinces, breeding in the northern half of the United States and wintering in the southern portion. Jabiru. Bittern. Brownish drab. This species, ...
-191. Least Bittern. Ixobrychus Exilis
Range. - Common throughout the United States, especially in the eastern part, and in the southern British provinces. This small variety of Bittern is very common in the southern portions of the Unite...
-192. Great White Heron. Ardea Occidentalis
Range. - This species occurs in the United States regularly, only in the southern parts of Florida. It is a resident of the West Indies. This large white Heron is about the same size as the Great Blue...
-194. Great Blue Heron. Ardea Herodias Herodias
Range. - Nearly the whole of North America, except the extreme north; resident south of the middle portions of the United States and migratory north of there. This handsome Heron is about four feet i...
-195. European Heron. Ardea Cinerea
This species is only an accidental straggler in Greenland. It is very similar to our Blue Heron and is the one which was formerly used to furnish sport for the royalty when falconry was at its height....
-196. Egret. Herodias Egretta
Range. - Resident in the southern portions of the United States, straggling northward casually to the northern parts. This is one of the beautiful Herons which have been sought by plume hunters till ...
-197. Snowy Egret. Egretta Candidissima Candidissima
Range. - Common now only in restricted localities in the Gulf States and Mexico. This species, which is smaller than the last, being but twenty-four inches in length, is also adorned with aigrettes,...
-198. Reddish Egret. Dichromanassa Rufescens
Range. - In the United States, this species is confined chiefly to the Gulf States. It is somewhat larger than the last species, the head and neck are rufous, the body is bluish gray, and the back is...
-199. Louisiana Heron. Hydranassa Tricolor Ruficollis
Range. - Subtropical America, north regularly to the Gulf States and casually farther. This Heron is of about the size of the Reddish Egret, but the neck is longer, more slender and dark, while the c...
-200. Little Blue Heron. Florida Caerulea
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north casually to New England and Manitoba; west to Kansas and Nebraska. A smaller species than the preceding, length 22 inches, plumage a uniform slaty blue ...
-201. Green Heron. Butorides Virescens Virescens
Range. - Temperate and sub-tropical America, breeding north to the British Provinces. This is the smallest of our Herons, and is well known all over the country. Sometimes they breed in numbers in ro...
-202. Black-Crowned Night Heron. Nycticorax Nycticorax Naevius
Range. - North America from southern British Provinces, southward; winters along the Gulf coast and beyond. A well known bird, often called quawk from the sound of its note frequently heard in the ...
-203. Yellow-Crowned Night Heron. Nyctanassa Violacea
Range. - Sub-tropical America, breeding along the Gulf coast and to Lower California; casually farther north, to Illinois and South Carolina. A handsome grayish colored species, with long lanceolate ...
-Cranes, Rails, Etc. Order VIII. Paludicolae Cranes. Family Gruidae
Cranes are large, long-legged, long-necked birds, somewhat resembling Herons. Their structure and mode of living partakes more of the nature of the Rails, however. They are found upon the prairies, Wh...
-204. Whooping Crane. Grus Americana
Range. - Interior of North America, breeding from about the latitude of Iowa northward to the Arctic regions; winters in the Gulf states and southward. The Whooping Crane is the largest of the family...
-205. Little Brown Crane Grus. Canadensis
Range. - North America in the interior, breeding from Hudson Bay and southern Alaska north to the Arctic coast; south in winter to Mexico. This uniform gray colored Crane differs from the next specie...
-206. Sandhill Crane. Grus Mexicana
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from the Gulf States, locally north to the southern parts of the British Provinces. This is the most common and the most southerly distributed member of the...
-Courlans. Family Aramidae. 207. Limpkin. Aramus Vociferus
Range. - This bird is a native of the West Indies and Central America, but occurs regularly north to the southern portions of Florida. This strange bird is the only member of its family found in the ...
-Wading Birds Rails, Gallinules And Coots. Family Rallidae
Members of this family are almost exclusively frequenters of marshes, where they lead a shy, retiring life and are more often heard than seen. ...
-208. King Rail. Rallus Elegans
Range. - Fresh water marshes of eastern United States from New England and the Dakotas, southward. Very abundant on the South Atlantic coast, in the inland marshes. This is one of the largest of the ...
-209. Belding's Rail. Rallus Beldingi
Range. - Lower California and the islands in the Gulf. This is a locally confined species, very similar to the preceding but darker and with the flank bars narrower. Its nesting or eggs will not diff...
-210. California Clapper Rail. Rallus Obsoletus
Range. - Salt marshes of the Pacific coast of the United States. This species is like a dull colored King Rail, with reference to the markings of the back, or a bright colored Clapper Rail, as it has...
-211. Clapper Rail. Rallus Crepitans Crepitans
Range. - Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast from southern New England southward. A grayish colored Rail, about the size of, and with the markings similar to those of the King Rail. It is as exclusive...
-212. Virginia Rail. Rallus Virginianus
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from the Middle States and California, northward to British Columbia and Labrador, and wintering along the Gulf coast; most abundant in the east. A small Ra...
-213. Spotted Crake. Porzana Porzana
This common European species is casually found in Greenland. It breeds in large numbers throughout temperate Europe, nesting as do the American Rails. ...
-214. Sora. Porzana Carolina
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from the southern parts of the British possessions, south to the Gulf coast. This abundant species of Rail may be readily known by its small size, about eig...
-215. Yellow Rail. Coturnicops Novehoracensis
Ranrge. - Locally distributed in temperate North America, from New England and Nova Scotia, to California and British Columbia; south to the Gulf States in winter. This is a very handsome species, wi...
-216. Black Rail. Creciscus Jamaicensis
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from northern United States southward. Smallest of the rails; 5 inches in length. A dark slaty colored bird with white specks, and a patch of dark chestnut ...
-217. Corn Crake. Crex Crex
This European Rail is casually found in Greenland and along the Atlantic coast of North America. It is the most abundant of European Rails and is found breeding in marshes, meadows and along streams. ...
-218. Purple Gallinule. Ionornis Martinicus
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States; casually north in eastern United States to Massachusetts and Ohio. Purple Gallinule. Corn Crake. Pale buff. A very handsome bird with purplish head, n...
-219. Florida Gallinule. Gallinula Galeata
Range - Temperate North America, from New England, Manitoba and California, southward. A grayish colored bird of similar size to the last (13 inches long), with flanks streaked with white, and with t...
-220. European Coot. Fulica Atra
A European species very similar to the next, and only casually found in Greenland. Nesting the same as our species. ...
-221. Coot. Fulica Americana
Range. - Whole of temperate North America, from the southern parts of the British Provinces, southward; very common in suitable localities throughout its range. The Coot bears some resemblance to the...
-Order IX. Limicolae Phalaropes. Family Phalaropodidae
Phalaropes are small Plover-like birds, but with lobate webbed feet, similar to those of the Grebes and Coots. ...
-222. Red Phalarope. Phalaropus Fulicarius
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the far north, and migrating to the middle portions of the United States, chiefly on the coasts. The Red Phalarope during the breeding season has the underpa...
-223. Northern Phalarope. Lobipes Labatus
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the northern parts of the British Provinces. This is the smallest of the Phalaropes, being about eight inches long; in summer it has a chestnut band across t...
-224. Wilson's Phalarope. Steganopus Tricolor
Range. - Interior of temperate North America, breeding from the latitude of Iowa, northward, and wintering south of the United States. This is the most handsome species of the family, being of a very...
-Avocets And Stilts. Family Recurvirostridae. 225. Avocet. Recurvirostra Americana
Range. - Western North America, breeding north to Northwest Territory. The Avocet can be known from any other bird by its up-curved bill, light plumage, webbed feet and large size (length about 17 in...
-226. Black-Necked Stilt. Himantopus Mexicanus
Range. - Like the last, this species is rarely found east of the Mississippi, but is very abundant in the United States west of that river. A black and white wader, with ex-eremely long red legs; oth...
-Snipes, Sandpipers, Family Scolopacidae
Members of this family are long-legged waders, of either large or small size, and found either about streams or ponds in the interor or along the coasts. They feed upon small shell fish, or insects wh...
-227. European Woodcock. Scolopax Rusticola
This European bird is similar to the American Woodcock, but is larger and is barred beneath. Their habits are the same as those of our species. ...
-228. Woodcock. Philohela Minor
Range. - Eastern North America, north to the British Provinces, breeding throughout its range. This is one of the most eagerly sought game birds of the east. Their flight is very rapid and erratic, a...
-229. European Snipe. Gallinago Gallinago
A common species in Europe; of casual or accidental appearance in Greenland. The bird does not differ essentially from our Snipe and its habits are the same. ...
-230. Wilson Snipe. Gallinago Delicata
Range. - North America, breeding from northern United States northward; winters along the Gulf States and to California, and southward. Another favorite game bird, but one which requires skill to hun...
-231. Dowitcher. Macrorhamphus Griseus
Range. - North America, most abundant in the eastern parts; breeds in the extreme north, and winters from the Gulf States to Northern South America. This species is commonly known as Red-breasted Sn...
-232. Long-Billed Dowitcher. Macrorhamphus Griseus Scolopaceus
Range. - Whole of North America, but not common on the Atlantic coast; breeds in the Arctic regions and migrates chiefly through the central and western parts of the United States to Mexico. This bird...
-233. Stilt Sandpiper. Micropalama Himantopus
Range. - North America, east of the Rocky Mountains; breeds in the Arctic regions and winters from the Gulf States southward. In the summer, these birds may be known by the reddish coloration of the ...
-234. Knot. Tringa Canutus
Range. - Arctic regions in summer; south through the United States, chiefly on the Atlantic coast, to South America. Of about the same size as the Dowitchers, length 10.5 inches, but with a much shor...
-235. Purple Sandpiper. Arquatella Maritima Maritima
Range. - Arctic regions, wintering south to the Middle States and the Great Lakes, but chiefly on the coast. A grayish and blackish colored species, about nine inches long. It nests in northern Labra...
-237. Pribilof Sandpiper. Arquatella Maritima Ptilocnemis
Range. - Coast and islands of Bering Sea, south in winter to southern Alaska. This bird, which is ten inches in length, has the feathers of the upper parts edged with rusty, and the underparts light,...
-238. Sharp-Tailed Sandpiper. Pisobia Aurita
Range. - An Asiatic species, quite abundant in Alaska in the summer; supposed to migrate south in winter, wholly on the Asiatic side of the Pacific. A similar bird, in appearance, to the following, b...
-239. Pectoral Sandpiper. Pisobia Maculata
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions, and wintering south of the United States, most abundant in the eastern parts of the United States during migrations. This species is ...
-240. White-Rumped Sandpiper. Pisobia Fuscicollis
Range. - North America, breeding from Labrador and southern Greenland, northward and wintering from central to Southern South America; most common on the Atlantic coast. This species is 7.5 inches in...
-241. Baird's Sandpiper. Pisobia Bairdi
Range. - North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding along the Arctic coast and about Hudson Bay, and wintering south of the United States. A very similar species to the preceding, but without t...
-242. Least Sandpiper. Pisobia Minutilla
Range. - North America, breeding from the southern parts of the British Provinces northward; winters from southern United States southward. Common in the interior and on both coasts. This is the smal...
-243. Dunlin. Pelidna Alpina Alpina
A very common Sandpiper in the British Isles and in Europe, but only casually occurring as a straggler along the Atlantic coast. Very similar to the next species, but a trifle smaller. The nest and eg...
-244. Curlew Sandpiper. Erolia Ferruginea
Range. - A common Old World species, but regarded as rare in eastern North America and northern Alaska. A bird of slighter build, but similar coloration to the Knot; smaller (length eight inches) and...
-245. Spoonbill Sandpiper. Eurynorhynchus Pygmeus
A very rare Asiatic species, which has been taken in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska. A very peculiar bird having the end of the bill broadened and flattened into a sort of spatula. Otherwise very similar to t...
-246. Semipalmated Sandpiper. Ereunetes Pusillus
Range. - Whole of North America, but chiefly in the eastern and central parts, breeding about the ponds and streams of Labrador and Hudson Bay, and northward. These little Sandpipers are abundant duri...
-247. Western Sandpiper. Ereunetes Mauri
Range. - Western North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and migrating through the United States, chiefly west of the Mississippi to the Gulf States and southward. Scarcely to be distinguished ...
-248. Sanderling. Calidris Leucophaea
Range. - Found in all parts of the northern hemisphere, breeding within the Arctic Circle and wintering in North America, from California and South Carolina southward. A handsome and abundant species...
-249. Marbled Godwit. Limosa Fedoa
Range. - North America, breeding, chiefly in the interior, from northern United States northward. Godwits are large Plovers with long slightly upcurved bills. This species is 19 inches in length, is ...
-250. Pacific Godwit. Limosa Lapponica Baueri
Range. - Coasts and islands of the Pacific Ocean on the Asiatic side, north in summer to Alaska. This species is more uniform and brighter ruddy beneath than the preceding, and the back is not marble...
-251. Hudsonian Godwit. Limosa Haemastica
Range. - North America, east of the Rocky Mountains, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering south of the United States. Brownish. This species is apparently not as common or is more locally...
-252. Black-Tailed Godwit. Limosa Limosa
A European and Asiatic species only casually occurring in Greenland. Very similar in appearance to our Hudsonian Godwit, which is frequently called by the name of this species. The nesting habits and ...
-253. Green Shank. Glottis Nebularia
A common bird in Europe and the British Isles, but only American as having been taken once in Florida. A very similar species to the following. ...
-254. Greater Yellow-Legs. Totanus Melanoleucus
Range. - Whole of North America, nesting in the British Provinces and rarely in the northern part of the Mississippi Valley. This and the next species are much sought by sportsmen during their migrat...
-255. Yellow-Legs. Totanus Flavipes
Range. - North America, breeding chiefly in the interior and eastern parts of Canada, and rarely in the upper Mississippi Valley. This species is very similar to the preceding, but is smaller; length ...
-256. Solitary Sandpiper. Helodromas Solitarius Solitarius
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States boundary, but apt to be found nesting in any part of its range; winters south of the United States. A bird with a greenish ...
-257. Green Sandpiper. Helodromas Acrophus
This species, which very closely resembles our Solitary Sandpiper, is common in the northern parts of the Old World. It has only accidentally strayed to our shores. ...
-258. Willet. Catoptrophorus Semipalmatus Semipalmatus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding north to the Middle States and occasionally straying to the Canadian border, especially in the Mississippi Valley. Western Sandpiper. Willet. Buff. Th...
-259. Wandering Tattler. Heteractitis In-Canus
Range. - Pacific coast of North America, breeding from British Columbia northward. This is a handsome species, uniform grayish above and white below, closely barred (in summer) with blackish. During ...
-260. Ruff. Machetes Pugnax
A common European species, occasionally found on the Atlantic coast of North America. It is a species remarkable for its pugnacity during the mating season; in size and appearance it is about like the...
-261. Upland Plover. Bartramia Longicauda
Range. - North America, chiefly east of the Rocky Mountains, breeding from middle United States, northward. A handsome bird, 12 inches in length, generally known as the Upland Plover, from its habi...
-262. Buff-Breasted Sandpiper. Tryngites Subruficollis
Range. - Interior of North America, breeding from the Hudson Bay region to the Arctic coast. A buffy colored species, with a peculiarly marbled back. Size 8.5 inches long. It is an upland species lik...
-263. Spotted Sandpiper. Actitis Macularia
Range. - Whole of North America from Hudson Bay southward, breeding throughout its range. A small wader about 7.5 inches in length, with brownish gray upper parts, and white underparts thickly spotte...
-264. Long-Billed Curlew. Numenius Americanus
Range. - Breeds in the South Atlantic states and northward in the interior to Manitoba and British Columbia. This is the largest of the family of shore birds, having a length of about 24 inches. Its ...
-265. Hudsonian Curlew. Numenius Hudsonicus
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering south of the United States. This species is smaller (length 17 inches), darker, more grayish and has a shorter bill than ...
-266. Eskimo Curlew. Numenius Borealis
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering in South America; migrating through the eastern half of the United States, more abundantly in the interior than on the coas...
-267. Whimbrel. Numenius Phaeopus
A European species casually appearing in Greenland; very similar to the Hudsonian Curlew, but with the rump white. This species is known as the Jack Curlew in England and Scotland, where it is very a...
-268. Bristle-Thighed Curlew. Numenius Tahitiensis
Range. - Islands and coast on the Asiatic side of the Pacific; casually found in Alaska. A very peculiar species with many of the feathers on the flanks terminating in long bristles. ...
-Plovers. Family Charadriidae
Plovers are stouter built birds than those of the previous family, have larger head, shorter necks and but three toes, the bill also is much harder and shorter. ...
-269. Lapwing. Vanellus Vanellus
An abundant European species accidentally occurring on the Atlantic coast. It may readily be recognized by its long black crest, black chin and throat, and white under parts. It breeds throughout temp...
-270. Black-Bellied Plover. Squatarola Squatarola
Range. - Northern Hemisphere, breeding in the Arctic regions and wintering from the Gulf States to northern South America. This is a remarkably handsome species when in the summer dress. The upper pa...
-271. European Golden Plover. Charadrius Apricarius
A European bird, similar to the next, casually-found in Greenland. It is a very abundant bird throughout Europe, breeding in the northern parts. Its habits, nests and eggs are the same as those of th...
-273. Killdeer. Oxyechus Vociferus
Range. - Temperate North America from the southern parts of Canada southward. Next to the Spotted Sandpiper, this bird is the most common of the shore birds in the United States. It is rarely seen in ...
-274. Semipalmated. Aegialitis Semipalmata
Range. - North America, breeding in the interior of Canada and wintering south from the Gulf States. Small web between the bases of the two outer toes. Single broad,black band across the breast; blac...
-275. Ring Plover. Aegialitis Hiaticula
Range. - A European bird that breeds abundantly in Greenland. It nests in great numbers on the banks of streams and in fields, laying its eggs in hollows on the ground, generally without any lining. ...
-276. Little Ringed Plover. Aegialitis Dubia
An Old World species, accidentally occurring on the Pacific coast. Like the last species, but smaller. The eggs, too, are smaller; size 1.20 x.85. ...
-277. Piping Plover. Aegialitis Meloda
Range. - Eastern North America, chiefly along the Atlantic coast, breeding from the Carolinas north to Newfoundland. A handsome little bird, with a black crescent on each side of neck, a small black ...
-278. Snowy Plover. Aegialitis Nivosa
Range. - Breeds along the Pacific coast of the United States, and from Texas to Manitoba in the interior. Winters on the California coast and south to Chili. Snowy Plovers are very much like the Pipi...
-279. Mongolian Plover. Aegialitis Mongola
An inhabitant of the Old World, awarded a place in our avifauna because of its accidental occurrence at Alaska. ...
-280. Wilson's Plover. Octhodromus Nilsonius
Range. - An abundant breeding species on the Gulf coast, coast of Lower California, and on the Atlantic coast north to Virginia, and casually farther. A common Plover, which may be distinguished from...
-281. Mountain Plover. Podasocys Montanus
Range. - Plains and prairies of western North America, breeding from the central portions north to Manitoba, and wintering in California and southward. A very peculiar species, inhabiting even the dr...
-Surf Birds And Turnstones. Family Aphrizidae. 282. Surf Bird. Aphriza Virgata
This species, which is found on the Pacific coast from Alaska to Chili, seems to be the connecting link between the plovers and the Turnstones, having the habits of the latter combined with the bill o...
-283. Turnstone. Arenaria Interpres
Range. - The distribution of this species, which is grayer above than the following, is supposed to be confined, in America, to the extreme north from Greenland to Alaska. Its habits and eggs are prec...
-284. Black Turnstone. Arenaria Melanocephala
Range. - Pacific coast of North America, breeding from British Columbia northward, and wintering south to Lower California. This species, which has the form and habits of the preceding, is blackish a...
-Oyster-Catchers. Family Haematopodidae. 285. European Oyster-Catcher. Hcematopus Frazari
This European species is very similar to the American one which follows. It casually occurs in Greenland. American Oyster-catcher. ...
-286. Oyster-Catcher. Haematopus Palliatus
Range. - Breeds on the coast of the South Atlantic States and Lower California and winters south to Patagonia. Oyster-catchers are large, heavy-bodied birds, with stocky red legs and long, stout red b...
-287. Black Oyster-Catcher. Haematopus Bachmani
Range. - Pacific coast of North America from Lower California north to Alaska. This species is the same size as the Oyster-catcher, but the plumage is entirely black both above and below. They are fo...
-Jacanas. Family Jacanidae
Mexican Jacana. ...
-288. Mexican Jacana. Jacana Spinosa
Range. - Tropical America, north in summer to the lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas, and casually to Florida. Yellowish olive. This interesting species has most of its structural characters simila...
-Gallinaceous Birds. Order X. Gallinae Grouse, Partridges, Etc. Family Tetraonidae
The members of this family are birds of robust form, subdued (not brightly-colored) plumage, comparatively short legs and necks; the tarsi and toes are feathered in the Ptarmigan, the tarsi, only, fea...
-289. Bob-White. Colinus Virginianus Virginianus
Range. - United States east of North Dakota and Texas and from the southern British Provinces to the Gulf coast. A celebrated game bird which has been hunted so assiduously in New England that it i...
-291. Masked Bob-White. Colinus Ridgwayi
Range. - Sonoran region of Mexico north to southern Arizona. The female of this species is like that of the Texan Bob-white. Their nesting habits and eggs are in all respects like those of the other ...
-292. Mountain Quail. Oreortyx Picta Picta
Range. - Pacific coast of North America from California to Washington. This is the largest of the Partridges, being 11 inches in length. It is of a general grayish color, with chestnut throat patch, ...
-293. Scaled Quail. Callipepla Squamata Squamata
Range. - Mexico and southwestern border of the United States. This blue gray species is 10 inches in length; the feathers on the neck and underparts have narrow dark borders, thus giving the plumage ...
-294. California Quail. Lophortyx Californica Californica
Range. - Coast region of California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. This is one of the most beautiful of the Partridges, with its crest of feathers rising from the crown and curving forward...
-295. Gambel Quail. Lophortyx Gambeli
Range. - Southwestern United States from Texas to California; north to Utah. This handsome species differs from the California in the Chestnut crown and flanks, and the black patch on the belly. They...
-296. Mearns Quail. Cyrtonyx Montezumae Mearnsi
Range. - Mexico, north to southern Arizona and New Mexico, and to western Texas. A remarkable species about 9 inches long; often called Fool Quail because of its eccentric and clownish markings, st...
-297. Dusky Grouse. Dendragapus Obscurus Obscurus
Range. - Rocky Mountain region from central Montana south to New Mexico. With the exception of the Sage Grouse, this species is the largest of the family, being about 20 inches in length. The general...
-298. Hudsonian Spruce Partridge. Canachites Canadensis Canadensis
Range. - Northern United States and southern British Provinces; west to Minnesota. A dark species, smaller than the last (15 inches long), and easily recognized by its black throat and extensive blac...
-299. Franklin's Grouse. Canachites Franklin Franklini
Range. - Northwestern United States and British Columbia. This species is very similar to the Canada Grouse, the most apparent difference being the absence of the brownish gray tip to the tail, and t...
-300. Ruffed Grouse. Bonasa Umbellus Um- Bellus
Range. - Eastern United States from Minnesota to New England; south to Virginia. The Ruffed Grouse is King of the Game Birds in the east, where it has been hunted so freely, that it has become very...
-301. Willow Ptarmigan. Lagopus Lagopus Lagopus
Range. - Arctic regions, in America south nearly to the United States border, and casually to Maine. Ptarmigan are Grouse-like birds, feathered to the toe nails; they have many changes of plumage, in...
-302. Rock Ptarmigan. Lagopus Rupestris Rupestris
Range. - Chiefly in the interior of British America, from the southern portions to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. A species with a smaller bill and in summer a grayer plumage, more finely barred with b...
-303. Welch's Ptarmigan. Lagopus Nelchi
Range. - Newfoundland. This species, in summer, is more grayish than the Rock Ptarmigan, and is very finely vermiculated with blackish. It is a perfectly distinct species from the Allen Ptarmigan, wh...
-304. White-Tailed Ptarmigan. Lagopus Leucurus Leucurus
Range. - Higher ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from New Mexico north to Alaska. Ptarmigan are remarkable birds in that they are in an almost continual state of molting, nearly every month in the year...
-305. Prairie Chicken. Tympanuchus Americanus Americanus
Range. - The prairies, chiefly west of the Mississippi; north to Manitoba, east to Ohio, and west to Colorado. This familiar game bird of the west is about 18 inches in length, brownish above and gra...
-306. Heath Hen. Tympanuchus Cupido
Range. - Island of Martha's Vineyard, Mass. This species is similar to the preceding, but has the scapulars more broadly tipped with buff, the axillars barred, and the pinnated feathers on the neck p...
-307. Lesser Prairie Chicken. Tympanuchus Pallidicinctus
Range. - Prairies from southwestern Kansas through Indian Territory to western Texas. A smaller and paler species than the Prairie Chicken. Never as abundant as the common Pinnated Grouse, this speci...
-308. Sharp-Tailed Grouse. Pedioecetes Phasianellus Phasianellus
Range. - Interior of British America, from the United States boundary northwest to the Yukon. Sharp-tailed Grouse are similar in form to the Prairie Chicken, but are somewhat smaller and very much li...
-309. Sage Hen. Centrocercus Urophasianus
Range. - Sage plains of the Rocky Mountain region from British Columbia to New Mexico, and from California to Dakota. This handsome bird is the largest of the American Grouse, being about 30 inches lo...
-Pheasants. Family Phasianidae. Ring-necked Pheasant. Phasianus torquatus.
Several species of Pheasants have been introduced into the United States, among them being the Ring-necked, English, and Green Pheasants. The Ring-necked species seems to be the only one that has obta...
-Turkeys. Family Meleagride. 310. Wild Turkey. Meleagris Gallopavo Silvestris
Range. - Eastern United States from southern Middle States south to central Florida and west to the Missippi Valley and eastern Texas. These magnificent birds, which once ranged over the whole of east...
-Curassows And Guans. Family Cracidae. 311. Chachalaca. Ortalis Vetula Mccalli
Range. - Eastern portions of Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. A very peculiar grayish colored bird with a greenish gloss to the back, and a long, broad tail, quite long legs, and...
-Pigeons And Doves. Order XL. Columbae. Family Columbidae
Pigeons and doves are distributed throughout nearly every temperate and tropical country on the globe, nearly five hundred species being known, of which twelve occur within our limits. Their plumage i...
-312. Band-Tailed Pigeon. Columba Fasciata Fasciata
Range. - The Rocky Mountains and westward to the Pacific, from British Columbia south to Mexico. This large species may be generally recognized by the white crescent on the nape; it is about 15 inche...
-313. Red-Billed Pigeon. Columba Flavirostris
Range. - Mexico and Central America, north to southern Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. This species, characterized by its red bill, purplish colored head, neck and breast and absence of iridescent mar...
-314. White-Crowned Pigeon. Columba Leucocephala
Range. - Resident of the West Indies; in summer, found on the Florida Keys. This species, which can be identified by its white crown, nests in trees or mangroves on certain of the Florida Keys, laying...
-315. Passenger Pigeon. Ectopistes Migratorius
Range. - Formerly, North America east of the Rockies; casually seen in the upper Mississippi Valley, now extinct. A handsome species (see frontispiece) with ruddy underparts, grayish upperparts and a...
-316. Mourning Dove. Zenaidura Macroura Carolinensis
Range. - North America from New England, Manitoba and British Columbia, southward. Now that the Passenger Pigeon has disappeared, this species becomes the only one found in the east, with the excepti...
-317. Zenaida Dove. Zenaida Zenaida
Range. - West Indies; in summer, on the Florida Keys, but not in great numbers. This species is similar in size to the Mourning Dove, but it has a short and square tail, and the secondaries are tippe...
-318. White-Fronted Dove. Leptotila Fulviventris Brachyptera
Range. - Mexico and Central America north to southern Texas. Slightly larger than the last, much paler below, with no black ear mark as in the two preceding species, and with the forehead whitish. Th...
-319. White-Winged Dove. Melopelia Asiatica
Range. - Central America, Mexico and the southwestern border of the United States. This species is 12 inches in length, has a black patch on the ear coverts, white tips to the greater and lesser cove...
-320. Ground Dove. Columbigallina Passerina Terrestris
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States to eastern Texas. The Ground Doves are the smallest of the family, measuring but about 6.5 inches in length. Their nesting habits and eggs are exactly like tho...
-321. Inca Dove. Scardafella Inca
Range. - Mexican border of the United States south to Central America and Lower California. This handsome species is about the size of the last, but its tail is longer and graduated, consequently its...
-322. Key West Quail Dove. Geotrygon Chrysia
Range. - West Indies, rarely found at Key West, although supposed to have been common there in Audubon's time. This species is of about the size of the Mourning Dove, has rusty colored upper parts, an...
-323. Blue-Headed Quail Dove. Starnoenas Cyanocephala
Range. - Cuba, accidentally straying to Key West, but not in recent years. It is a beautiful species, with a bright blue crown, black throat and stripe through the eye, separated by a white line unde...
-Vultures, Hawks And Owls. Order XII. Raptores American Vultures. Family Cathartidae
Vultures are peculiarly formed birds of prey, having a bare head and neck, a lengthened bill strongly hooked at the end for tearing flesh, and long, strong, broad wings upon which they float in the ai...
-324. California Vulture. Gymnogyps Californianus
Range. - Apparently now restricted to the coast ranges of California, casually inland to Arizona, and formerly to British Columbia. This large bird, which weighs about 20 pounds, measures about 4 fee...
-325. Turkey Vulture. Cathartes Aura Septentrionalis
Range. - America, from New Jersey on the Atlantic coast, Manitoba and British Columbia, south to southern South Creamy white. 324 - 325 America, wintering in the southern half of the United S...
-326. Black Vulture. Catharista Uruba
Range. - More southerly than the preceding; north regularly to North Carolina and southern Illinois, and west to the Rocky Mountains. This species is about the same size, or slightly smaller than the...
-Kites, Hawks And Eagles. Family Buteonidae
The members of this family are chiefly diurnal; they get their living by preying upon smaller animals or birds. They have strong sharply hooked bills, powerful legs and feet armed with strong, curved ...
-327. Swallow-Tailed Kite. Elanoides Forficatus
Range. - Southern United States; casually north to New York and Manitoba. White. Swallow-tailed Kite. This most beautiful Kite can never be mistaken for any other; its whole head, neck and un...
-328. White-Tailed Kite. Elanus Leucurus
Range. - Southern United States, north to the Carolinas, Illinois and middle California. This species can be recognized by its light bluish gray mantle, black shoulders and white tail. It is a very a...
-329. Mississippi Kite. Ictinia Mississippiensis
Range. - Southeastern United States, north to South Carolina and Illinois. Bluish white. A small species ( length 14 inches) with the head, neck, and undeparts gray, and the back, wings and tail ...
-330. Everglade Kite. Rostrhamus Sociabilis
Range. - South America, north to southern Florida and Mexico. This peculiar species has a long, slender, curved bill, blackish plumage, with white rump and bases of outer tail feather. They feed larg...
-331. Marsh Hawk. Circus Hudsonius
Range. - Whole of North America, very abundant in all sections. Pale bluish white. The adult of this species is very light colored, and young birds of the first two years have a reddish brown col...
-332. Sharp-Shinned Hawk. Accipiter Velox
Range. - Whole of North America, wintering in the United States and southward; breeds throughout its range, but most abundantly in northern United States and northward. This is one of the smallest of ...
-333. Cooper's Hawk. Accipiter Cooperi
Range. - Whole of temperate North America, breeding throughout its range. Bluish white. Cooper's Hawk. Although larger (length 17 inches), the plumage of this species is almost exactly the sa...
-334. Goshawk. Astur Atricapillus Atricapillus
Range. - Northern North America, south in winter to the northern parts of the United States. This species is one of the largest, strongest and most audacious of American Hawks, frequently carrying of...
-335. Harris's Hawk. Parabuteo Unicinc-Tus Harrisi
Range. - Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the United States; very abundant in southern Texas. This is a peculiar blackish species, with white rump, and chestnut shoulders an...
-337. Red-Tailed Hawk. Buteo Borealis Borealis
This is one of the handsomest of the larger hawks, and is the best known in the east, where it is commonly, but wrongly, designated as hen hawk, a name, however, which is indiscriminately applied to...
-339. Red-Shouldered Hawk. Buteo Lineatus Lineatus
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and from the southern parts of the British Provinces southward; abundant and breeding throughout its range. This species is smaller than the Red-tailed and ...
-340. Zone-Tailed Hawk. Buteo Abbreviatus
Range. - Mexico and Central America, north to the Mexican border of the United States. This species, which is 19 inches long, is wholly black with the exception of the tail, which is banded Their nes...
-341. Sennett's White-Tailed Hawk. Buteo Albicaudatus Sennetti
Range. - Mexican border of the United States and southward. A large, handsome Hawk which may he identified by its dark upper parts and white underpays and tail, the flanks and tail being lightly barr...
-342. Swainson's Hawk. Buteo Swainsoni
Range. - Central and western North America, from the Mississippi Valley and Hudson Bay, to the Pacific coast, breeding throughout its range. In the greater part of its range, this is the most abundan...
-343. Broad-Winged Hawk. Buteo Platypterus
Range. - North America, east of the Plains, and from the British Provinces southward. Grayish white. A medium sized species, about 16 inches in length, and with a short tail and broad rounded wi...
-344. Short-Tailed Hawk. Buteo Brachyurus
Range. - A tropical species, which occurs north to the Mexican border and regularly to southern Florida, where it breeds in the large cypress swamps. Its eggs are pale greenish white, sparingly spotte...
-345. Mexican Black Hawk. Urubitinga Anthracina
Range. - Mexican border of the United States and southward. A coal black species about 22 inches in length, distinguished by the white tip, and broad white band across the tail about midway. This is ...
-346. Mexican Goshawk. Asturina Plagiata
Range. - Mexico, north to the border of the United States. A beautiful, medium sized Hawk (17 inches long), slaty gray above, white below, numerously barred with grayish; tail black, crossed by sever...
-347a. Rough-Legged Hawk. Archibuteo Lagopus Sancti-Johannis
Range. - Northern North America, breeding chiefly north of our borders and wintering south to the middle portions of the United States. The Rough-legs are large, heavily built birds of prey, speciall...
-348. Ferruginous Rough-Leg. Archibuteo Fermgineus
White. Range. - North America, west of the Mississippi, breeding from the latitude of Colorado north to the Saskatchewan region. This species nests very abundantly along our northern states, par...
-349. Golden Eagle. Aquila Chrysaetos
Range. - North America, west of the Mississippi; most abundant in the Rockies and along the Pacific coast ranges. This magnificent bird, which is even more powerful than the Bald Eagle, measures abou...
-351. Gray Sea Eagle. Haliaeetus Albicilla
A common species on the sea coasts of Europe; straggling to southern Greenland, where it nests upon the rocky cliffs. ...
-352. Bald Eagle. Haliaeetus Leucocephalus Leucocephalus
White. Bald Eagle. BALD EAGLE. Range. - Whole of North America; most abundant on the Atlantic coast; breeds throughout its range. This large white-headed and white-tailed species is abunda...
-Falcons And Caracaras Family Falcondidae. 353. White Gyrfalcon. Falco Islandus
Range. - Arctic regions; south in winter casually to northern United States, chiefly on the coast. Gyrfalcons are large, strong, active and fearless birds, about 23 inches in length. Their food consi...
-354. Gray Gyrfalcon. Falco Rusticolus Rusticolus
Range. - Arctic regions; south in winter to northern United States. This species is of the size of the last but the plumage is largely gray, barred with dusky. They nest more abundantly in southern G...
-355. Prairie Falcon. Falcon Mexicanus
Range. - United States west of the Missis sippi, and from Dakota and Washington southward to Mexico. Reddish buff. This species abounds in suitable localities, generally placing its nests upon...
-357. Pigeon Hawk. Falco Columbarius Columbarius
Pigeon Hawk. Brownish buff. Range. - North America, breeding chiefly north of the United States except in some of the higher ranges along our northern border. A small Falcon, about 11 inches l...
-359. Aplomado Falcon. Falco Fusco-Ccerulescens
Range. - Tropical America north to Mexican boundary of the United States. This handsone and strikingly marked Falcon is found in limited numbers within the United States, but south is common and wide...
-360. Sparrow Hawk. Falco Sparverius
Range. - North America, east of the Rocky Mountains and north to Hudson Bay; winters from the middle portions of the United States, southward. This beautiful little Falcon is the smallest of the Amer...
-361. Cuban Sparrow Hawk. Falco Sparveroides
A darker colored West Indian form, whose habits and nesting do not vary from those of the common Sparrow Hawk; casually taken in Florida. Egg of Golden Eagle. ...
-362. Audubon Caracara. Polyborus Cherinay
Range. - Southern border of the United States south to South America. Range. - Southern border of the United States south to South America. A strikingly marked blackish and whitish species, much bar...
-363. Guadalupe Caracara. Polyborus Lutosus
Range. - Gaudalupe Island and others off Lower California. This species is somewhat like the preceding, but the plumage is duller, and the coloration more uniform. Their nesting habits and eggs do no...
-Osprey. Family Pandionidae. 364. Osprey. Pandion Haliaetus Carolinensis
Range. - Whole of temperate America from the Arctic circle south to the equator, most abundant along the sea coasts. Real old birds have the head whiter, and less white edging to the back feathers, t...
-Birds Of Prey Barn Owls. Family Alucondidae. 365. Barn Owl. Aluco Pratincola
Range. - Chiefly in the southern parts of the United States; north casually to Massachusetts, Minnesota and Washington. Barn Owl. White. Barn Owl. This is one of the lightest colored of ...
-Horned Owl. Family Strigidae. 366. Long-Eared Owl. Asio Nilsonianus
Range. - North America, breeding from the southern parts of British America, southward. ; This species is 15 inches in length; it can easily be separated from any other species by its long ear tufts,...
-367. Short-Eared Owl. Asio Flammeus
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding from the middle portions of the United States northward, and wintering in the United States. White. Short-eared Owl. This species is of the size of t...
-368. Barred Owl. Strix Varia Varia
Range. - Eastern North America, from the British Provinces, southward; west to the Rockies. This species is the most common of the large owls, and can be distinguished by its mottled and barred gray ...
-369. Spotted Owl. Strix Occidentalis Occidentalis
Range. - Western United States, from southern Oregon and Colorado, southward. Similar to the Barred Owl, but spotted, instead of barred, on the back of head and neck, and much more extensively barred...
-370. Great Gray Owl. Scotiaptex Nebulosa
Range. - Northern North America; wintering regularly south to the northern border of the United States and casually farther. This is the largest of American Owls, being about 26 inches in length; it ...
-371. Richardson's Owl. Cryptoglaux Fun Erea Richardsoni
White. Range. - Northern North America, breeding north of the United States; winters south to our border and casually farther. This is a dark grayish and white bird, 10 inches in length, and with...
-372. Saw-Whet Owl; Acadian Owl. Cryptoglaux Acadica Acadica
Range. - North America, breeding in the northern parts of the United States and in British America, and south in the Rockies to Mexico; winters south to the middle portions of the United States. This...
-373. Screech Owl. Otus Asio Asio
Range. - North America, east of the plains and from the southern British Provinces to Florida. This well known species, which is often called Little Horned Owl because of its ear tufts is found eit...
-374. Flammulated Screech Owl. Otus Flammeolus Flammeolus
Range. - Mountain ranges of Mexico, north to Colorado and west to California. This species is smaller than asio, has shorter ear tufts, the plumage is much streaked and edged with rusty, and the toes...
-375. Great Horned Owl. Bubo Virginianus Virginianus
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and north to Labrador. White. Great Horned Owl. This species and its varieties are the only large Owls having conspicuous ear tufts. They are about ...
-376. Snowy Owl. Nyctea Nyctea
Range. - Arctic regions, breeding within the Arctic Circle and wintering to the northern border of the United States and casually farther. This very beautiful species varies in plumage from pure whit...
-377. European Hawk Owl. Surnia Ulula Ulula
Range. - Northern portion of the Old World; accidental in Alaska. Similar to the American species, but lighter and more brownish. American Hawk Owl. 377a. Hawk Owl. Surnia Ulula Caparoch R...
-378. Burrowing Owl. Speotyto Cunicularia Hypogaea
Range. - Western North America from the Mississippi Valley west to California; north to the southern parts of British America and south to Central America. These peculiar birds are wholly different i...
-379. Pygmy Owl. Glaucidium Gnoma Gnoma
Range. - Rocky Mountain region and westward; from British Columbia southward. These interesting little Owls, which are but seven inches in length, feed in the day time upon insects, mice and, occasion...
-380. Ferruginous Pygmy Owl. Glaucidium Phalaenoides
Range. - Mexico and Central America; north to the Mexican border of the United States. This species is of the same size as the last, but is much tinged with rufous on the upper parts, and the tail is...
-381. Elf Owl. Micropallas Whitneyi
Range. - Mexico, north to the bordering states. This odd little bird is the smallest member of the family found in America, attaining a length of only six inches. In plumage it may be described as sim...
-Paroquets And Parrots. Order XIII. Psittaci. Family Psittacidae. 382. Carolina Paroquet Conuropsis Carolinensis
Range. - Now rare in Florida and along the Gulf coast to Indian Territory. As late as 1885, the Carolina Paroquets were abundant in the South Atlantic and Gulf States, but owing to their wanton destru...
-Cuckoos, Trogans, Kingfishers, Etc. Order XIV. Cuckoos, Anis, Etc. Family Cuculidae. 383. Ani. Crotophaga Ani
Range. - Northeastern South America and the West Indies; casual in Florida, and along the Gulf coast; accidental in Pennsylvania. This species is similar to the next, but the bill is smoother and wit...
-384. Groove-Billed Ani. Crotophaga Sulcirostris
Range. - Mexico and the border of the United States; common in southern Texas. This odd species has a Cuckoo-like form, but is wholly blue black in color, and has a high thin bill with three conspicuo...
-385. Road-Runner. Geococcyx Calif Ornianus
Range. - Western United States from Oregon, Colorado and Kansas, southward; most abundant on the Mexican border, and wintering in central Mexico. This curious species is known as the Chaparral Cock,...
-386. Mangrove Cuckoo. Coccyzus Minor Minor
Range. - West Indies, Mexico and South America, north regularly to southern Florida. This species is very similar to our common Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but the whole underpays are deep buff. It is a co...
-387. Yellow-Billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus Americanus Americanus
Range. - United States east of the Plains and from southern Canada southward. This species is generally abundant in all localities in its range, which afford suitable nesting places of tangled underb...
-388. Black-Billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus Erythrophthalmus
Range. - United States east of the Rocky Mountains; north to Labrador and Manitoba; south in winter to Central and South America. This species is rather more common in the northern part of the Unite...
-Trogons. Family Trogonidae. 389. Coppery-Tailed Trogon. Trogon Ambiguus
Range. - Southern Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas and in southern Arizona, in both of which localities they probably breed. This is the only member of this family of beautiful birds wh...
-Kingfishers. Family Alcedinidae. 390. Belted Kingfisher. Ceryle Alcyon
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding from southern United States, northward and wintering from the southern parts of its breeding range, southward. This well known bird is abundant in all locali...
-391. Texas Kingfisher. Ceryle Americana Septentrionalis
Range. - Southern Texas, south through Mex-cio. This variety is much smaller than the Belted, length 8 inches, and is a lustrous greenish above, variously speckled with white, and is white below, spo...
-Woodpeckers. Order XV. Pici. Family Picidae
Woodpeckers are well known birds having sharp chisel-like bills, sharply pointed and stiffened tail feathers, and strongly clawed feet with two toes forward and two back, except in one genus. Their fo...
-392. Ivory-Billed Woodpecker. Campephilus Principalis
Range. - Locally distributed, and rare, in Florida, along the Gulf coast and north casually to South Carolina and Arkansas. This is the largest of the Woodpeckers found within our borders, being 20 i...
-393. Hairy Woodpecker. Dryobates Villosus Villosus
Range. - United States east of the Plains and from North Carolina to Canada. The Hairy Woodpecker or its sub-species is found in all parts of North America. The nesting habits and eggs of all the sub...
-394. Southern Downy Woodpecker. Dryobates Pubescens Pubescens
Range. - Gulf and South Atlantic States; north to South Carolina. This species, which is the smallest of the North American Woodpecker (length 6 inches). is similar in plumage to the Hairy Woodpecker...
-395. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Dryobates Borealis
Range. - Southeastern United States, from South Carolina and Arkansas, southward. This black and white species may be known from any other because of the uniform black crown and nape, the male having...
-396. Texas Woodpecker. Dryobates Scalaris Bairdi
Range. - Southwestern United States from southern Colorado south to northern Mexico. This species is brownish white below, has the back barred with black and white, and the male has the whole crown re...
-397. Nuttall's Woodpecker. Dryobates Nuttalli
Range. - Pacific coast from Oregon south to Lower California. Similar to the Texan Woodpecker but whiter below, with whitish nasal tufts, and the fore part of the crown black and white striped, the r...
-398. Arizona Woodpecker. Dryobates Arizonae
Range. - Mexican border of the United States, chiefly in Arizona and New Mexico. This species is entirely different from any others of our Woodpeckers, being uniform brownish above, and soiled whitis...
-399. White-Headed Woodpecker. Xenopicus Albolarvatus
Range. - Western United States from southern California to southern British Columbia. This odd species is wholly a dull black color, except for the white head and neck, and basal half of the primarie...
-400. Arctic Three-Toed Woodpecker. Picoides Arcticus
As implied by their name, members of this genus have but three toes, two in front and one behind. The plumage of this species is entirely black above, and whitish below, with the flanks barred with bl...
-401. Three-Toed Woodpecker. Picoides Americanus Americanus
Range. - Northern parts of the United States north to the Arctic regions. Range. - From northern United States northward. The chief difference between this species and the last is in the white on th...
-402. Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker. Sphyra Picus Varius Varius
Range. - North America, east of the Plains; breeding from Massachusetts northward, and wintering from the Carolinas and Illinois southward. This species is one of the most handsomely marked of the fa...
-403. Red-Breasted Sapsucker. Sphyrapicus Ruber Ruber
Range. - Pacific Coast from Lower California to Oregon. Except for a whitish line from the eye to the bill, the entire head, neck and breast of this species is red, of varying shades in different ind...
-404. Williamson's Sapsucker. Sphyrapicus Thyroideus
This is a deeper and brighter variety, and is more yellowish on the belly. Its nesting habits and eggs are the same as those of the southern form. Range. - Mountain ranges from the Rockies to the Pac...
-405. Pileated Woodpecker. Phlceotomus Pileatus Pileatus
Range. - Southern and South Atlantic States. This heavily built Woodpecker is nearly as large as the Ivory-bill, being 17 inches in length. They are not nearly as beautiful as the Ivory-bills, their ...
-406. Red-Headed Woodpecker. Melanerpes Erythrocephalus
Range. - United States, east of the Rockies, except New England; north to northern Canada; winters in southern United States. This beautiful species has a bright red head, neck and breast, glossy blu...
-407. Ant-Eating Woodpecker. Melanerpes Formicivorus Formicivorus
Range. - Mexican border of the United States, southward. This species may be identified by the black region around the base of the bill, the white forehead, red crown and nape, yellowish throat, and ...
-408. Lewis's Woodpecker. Asyndesmus Lenisi
Range. - Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast; from British Columbia south to Mexico. A very oddly colored species, 11 inches in length having a dark red face, streaked red and...
-409. Red-bellied Woodpecker. Centurus Carolinus
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf States north in nearly all parts of their range, frequenting the more heavily timbered regions, where they nest in any place that attr...
-410. Golden-Fronted Woodpecker. Centurus Aurifrons
Range. - Mexico and southern Texas, resident. This is also one of the zebra or ladder-backed Woodpeckers, having the back and wings closely barred with black and white, the same as the preceding;...
-411. Gila Woodpecker. Centurus Uropygialis
Range. - Mexican border of the United States, in southern Arizona and New Mexico. Like the preceding but without any yellow on the head, the male having a red patch in the center of the crown. They a...
-412. Flicker. Colaptes Auratus Auratus
Range. - Southeastern United States. Flickers are well known, large Woodpeckers (13 inches long), with a brownish tone to the plumage, barred on the back and spotted on the breast with black. The pre...
-413. Red-Shafted Flicker. Colaptes Cafer Collaris
Range. - United States west of the Rockies. This species is marked similarly to the preceding, but the top of the head is brownish instead of gray, and the underparts of the wings and tail, and their...
-414. Gilded Flicker. Colaptes Chrysoides
Range. - Arizona and southward through Mexico to southern Lower California. This pale species has the yellowish lining to the wings and tail as in the Flicker, but has a pale cinnamon brown crown, no...
-415. Guadalupe Flicker. Colaptes Rufipileus
Range. - Guadalupe Island. Similar to the Red-shafted Flicker, but with the crown darker and the rump a solid pinkish white. They are common in a large cypress grove in the middle of the island, but ...
-Goatsuckers, Swifts, And Hummingbirds. Order XVI. Macrochires. Goatsuckers, Family Caprimulgidae
Goatsuckers are long winged birds, with small bills, but with an extraordinarily large mouth, the opening of which extends beneath and beyond the eyes. They are chiefly dusk or night fliers, their foo...
-Goatsuckers And Swifts. 416. Chuck-Will's-Widow. Antrostomus Carolinensis
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, breeding north to Virginia and Indiana, and west to Arkansas and eastern Texas. These birds are abundant summer residents in the southern portions of their ra...
-417. Whip-Poor-Will. Antrostomus Vociferus Vociferus
Range. - North America east of the Plains; north to the southern parts of the British possessions; winters along the Gulf coast and southward. This species is well known, by sound, in nearly all part...
-418. Poor-Will. Phalcenoptilus Nuttalli Nuttalli
Range. - United States west of the Mississippi, breeding from Kansas and northern California northward to Montana and British Columbia. This handsome species is the smallest of the family, being unde...
-419. Merrill's Parauque. Nyctidromus Albicollis Merrilli
Range. - Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande in southern Texas. This species is the same length as the Chuck-will's-widow, but is not as stoutly built, and has a slightly longer tail. It can be dis...
-420. Nighthawk. Chord-Eiles Virginianus Vir-Ginianus
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and from Labrador to the Gulf of Mexico; winters through Mexico to northern South America. The Nighthawk or some of its sub-species is found in nearly all p...
-421. Texas Nighthawk. Chordeiles Acutipennis Texensis
Range. - Mexico and Central America, breed ing north to southern Utah and California. The pattern of the marking of this species is finer and more mottled with rusty than the Nighthawk. Its habits do...
-Swifts. Family Micropodidae. 422. Black Swift. Cypseloides Niger Borealis
Range. - Mountain ranges from Central America north to British Columbia, locally distributed throughout its range. The plumage of this Swift is entirely sooty black, darkest above; the tail is slight...
-423. Chimney Swift. Chcetura Pelagica
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from central Canada, south to the Gulf coast, and wintering south of our borders. This well known species is sooty brownish black, 5.5 inches long,...
-424. Vaux's Swift. Chcetura Vauxi
Range. - Western United States, chiefly west of the Rockies; breeding north to British Columbia, and wintering south of the United States. Similar to the last but smaller (length 4.5 inches), and pal...
-425. White-Throated Swift. Aeronautes Melanolcucus
Range. - Western United States south of Canada, and chiefly in the Rocky Mountains, and in California ranges, north to Lat. 38. A handsome species, 6.5 inches in length, with blackish upper parts...
-Hummingbirds. Family Trochilidae
Hummingbirds have been truly called Winged Gems. They are the smallest of birds, the usual plumage being a metallic green with throat or crown patches of the brightest of iridescent shining red, ora...
-426. Rivoli's Hummingbird. Eugenes Fulgens
Range. - Mexico, north in summer to southern Arizona where they breed at high elevations in the Huachuca Mountains. This is one of the most gorgeous of the Hummers having the crown a violet purple co...
-427. Blue-Throated Hummingbird. Cyanolcemus Clemencice
Range. - Mexico, north in summer to the border of Arizona and western New Mexico. This species is the largest of North American Hummers being 5.25 inches long, this being slightly larger than the pre...
-428. Ruby-Throated Hummingbird. Archilochus Colubris
Range - North America east of the Plains and north to Labrador. This is the only representative of the family found east of the Mississippi. It is a small species, 3.5 inches long, with greenish uppe...
-429. Black-Chinned Hummingbird. Archilochus Alexandri
Range. - North America west of the Rocky Mountains; north to British Colum bia; winters south of the United States. Similar in size and appearance to the Ruby-throat, but with the chin and upper thro...
-430. Costa's Hummingbird. Calypte Costce
Range. - Southwestern United States; north to southern Utah; winters south of our border. Smaller than the last and with both the crown and the throat gorget, violet or amethyst, the feathers on the ...
-431. Anna's Hummingbird. Calypte Anna
Range. - Pacific coast of the United States from northern California, southward, wintering in Mexico and southern California. This handsome species has both the crown and the broadened and lengthened...
-432. Broad-Tailed Hummingbird. Selasphorus Platycercus
Range. - Rocky Mountain regions, north to Wyoming; winters south of the United States This species is similar to the Ruby-throat, but larger and with the back more golden green color, and the throat ...
-433. Rufous Hummingbird. Selasphorus Rufus
Range. - Western North America, breeding from the Mexican border north to Alaska and fairly abundant in most of its range. A handsome little species with the back and tail reddish brown, and with a t...
-434. Allen's Hummingbird. Selasphorus Alleni
Range. - Pacific coast from British Columbia southward; most abundant in California. Winters in Mexico. 432-433-434 This species is like the last, but the back is greenish, only the tail being re...
-435. Morcom's Hummingbird. Atthis Morcomi
Range. - This species is known only from a single specimen, taken in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, in 1896. ...
-436. Calliope Hummingbird. Stellula Calliope
Range. - Western United States from British Columbia southward, and from the Rocky Mountains west to eastern Oregon and California. This is the smallest of North American Hummers, being but 3 inches ...
-437. Lucifer's Hummingbird. Calothorax Lucifer
Range. - Mexico, north to southwestern Texas and Arizona. This species, which is common in parts of Central Mexico, occurs only casually north to our borders and has not yet been found nesting there....
-438. Reiffer's Hummingbird. Amizilis Tzacatl
Range. - Abundant in southern Mexico; casual in southern Texas. This species is greenish above, with a bronzy lustre; the tail is reddish brown, and the throat and breast are metallic green. They bre...
-439. Buff-Bellied Hummingbird. Amizilis Cerviniventris Chalconota
Range. - Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward through Mexico. These birds are like the last but have the underparts a pale brownish buff color. They are quite common in their summer range i...
-440. Xantus's Hummingbird. Basilinna Xantusi
Range. - Southern Lower California. A handsome species, greenish above, with a coppery tinge and shading into reddish brown on the tail; under parts buffy, throat metallic green, and a broad white st...
-441. Broad-Billed Hummingbird. Cynanthus Latirostris
Range. - -Mountains of central Mexico north to southern Arizona and New Mexico. The throat of this species is a rich metallic blue; otherwise the plumage is greenish above and below, being brighter a...
-Perching Birds. Order XVII. Passeres Cotingas. Family Cotingidae
441.1. Xantus Be Card. Platypsaris Aglaioe Albiventris Range. - Mexico; north casually to the southern border of Arizona. This peculiar species is grayish above and lighter gray below, has dark ...
-Flycatchers. Family Tyrannidae
Flycatchers, which are found only in America and chiefly in the tropics, are insect-eating birds, generally having a grayish colored plumage, sometimes adorned with a slight crest or a coronal mark of...
-442. Fork-Tailed Flycatcher. Muscivora Tryannus
Range. - A Central and South American species accidentally having occurred in the United States on several occasions. This is a handsome black, white and gray species of the size and form of the next...
-443. Scissor-Tailed Flycatcher. Muscivora Forficatci
Range. - Mexico, north through Texas to southern Kansas; accidental in other parts of the country. The Scissor-tail or Texan Bird of Paradise is the most beautiful member of this interesting family...
-444. Kingbird. Tyrannus Tyrannus
Range. - Temperate North America, breeding from the Gulf of Mexico north to New Brunswick, Manitoba and British Columbia; rare off the Pacific coast. This common Tyrant Flycatcher is very abundant in...
-445. Gray Kingbird. Tyrannus Dominicensis
Range. - West Indies; north in April to Florida and the South Atlantic States to South Carolina and casually farther. This species is slightly larger than our Kingbird, (9 inches long), grayish inste...
-446. Couch's Kingbird. Tyrannus Melancholicus Couchi
Range. - Mexico, north in summer to southern Texas. This species is very similar to the next but the throat and breast are white, and the underparts a brighter yellow. Like the other members of this ...
-447. Arkansas Kingbird. Tyrannus Verticalis
Range. - Western United States and southern British Provinces from Kansas and Minnesota west to the Pacific. ' This species has grayish upper parts, shading into darker on the wings and tail, and lig...
-448. Cassin's Kingbird. Tyrannus Vocifcrans
Range. - Western United States from the Rocky Mountain region to California, and from Wyoming southward. This species is like the last except that the throat and breast are darker. Their habits, nest...
-449. Derby Flycatcher. Pitangus Sulphuratus Derbianus
Range. - Mexico and Central America, breeding north to southern Texas. This handsome bird is the largest of the Flycatcher family found in the United States, being 11 inches in length. It has a black...
-451. Sulphur-Bellied Flycatcher. Myiody-Nastes Luteiventris
Range. - Mexico and Central America, breeding north to the Mexican border of Arizona. This peculiar Flycatcher, which is unlike any other American species, can only be regarded as a rare breeding bir...
-452. Crested Flycatcher. Myiarchus Crinitus
Range. - North America, east of the Plains, and from New Brunswick and Manitoba southward; winters from the Gulf States southward. This trim and graceful, but quarrelsome, species is grayish on the h...
-453. Arizona Crested Flycatcher. Myiarchus Magister Magister
Range. - Southern Arizona and New Mexico, south through Mexico. This bird is very similar to, but averages slightly larger than the Mexican Flycatcher. Its nesting habits are the same and the eggs ca...
-454. Ash -Throated Flycatcher. Myiarchus Cinerascens Cinerascens
Range. - North America, west of the Plains and south of Canada. Similar to the others of the genus but grayish brown above and with the underparts much paler, the throat and breast being nearly white...
-456. Phoebe. Sayornis Phot-Be
Range. - North America, east of the Rockies and north to Nova Scotia. These very common, grayish colored birds are very often known as Bridge Birds because of the frequency with which they construc...
-457. Say's Phoebe. Sayornis Sayus
Range. - Western United States, breeding from southern United States, north to the Arctic regions, and from Kansas and Wisconsin westward. Winters in Mexico. This bird is slightly larger than the las...
-458. Black Phoebe. Sayornis Nigricans
Range. - Mexico and north in summer into the bordering States. This species is of the size of the last but is blackish (darkest on the head and breast), with a white belly and under tail coverts, the...
-459. Olive-Sided Flycatcher. Nuttallornis Borealis
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding from the Middle States and California northward, and in the Rockies, south to Mexico; winters south of the United States. These Flycatchers are nowhere abund...
-460. Coues's Flycatcher. Myiochanes Pertinax Pallidiventris
Range. - Western Mexico, breeding north to central Arizona. This Flycatcher builds one of the most artistic nests created by feathered creatures. It bears some resemblance on the exterior to that of ...
-461. Wood Pewee. Myiochanes Virens
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and north to the southern parts of the British Provinces. Winters south of the United States. This is one of the best known and one of the most common frequ...
-462. Western Wood Pewee. Myiochanes Richardsoni Richardsoni
Range. - Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific, and from Manitoba southward, wintering south of the United States. The nesting habits of this bird are the same as those of the eastern ...
-463. Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher. Empidonax Flaviventris
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and north to Labrador; winters south of the United States. This species is slightly larger than the Least Flycatcher and is more yellowish above and below, ...
-464. Western Flycatcher. Empidonax Difficilis Difficilis
Range. - Western North America, from the Rocky Mountain region to the Pacific, and north to Alaska; winters chiefly south of the United States. This Flycatcher, which is similar to the last, nests in...
-465. Acadian Flycatcher. Empidonax Virescens
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern New England, and in the Mississippi Valley to Manitoba. This species is very pale below and greenish yellow on the back. They are am...
-466. Traill's Flycatcher. Empidonax Trailli Trailli
Range. - Western North America, from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific; winters south of the United States. This species is very similar to the next, but the back is said to be more brownish. The...
-467. Least Flycatcher. Empidonax Minimus
Range. - North America, east of the Rockies and north to the interior of Canada, wintering south of the United States. These little birds (5.5 inches long) are common about houses and orchards on the...
-468. Hammond's Flycatcher. Empidonax Hammondi
Range. - North America, west of the Rockies and from British Columbia southward, wintering south of the United States. This western representative of the Least Flycatcher is less abundant and more sh...
-469. Wright's Flycatcher. Empidonax Nrighti
Range. - Western United States, breeding from the Mexican border to Oregon and wintering south of the United States. A very similar bird to the last but whiter below. It is a much more abundant speci...
-471. Vermillion Flycatcher. Pyrocephalus Rubinus Mexicanus
Range. - Mexico, north regularly to southern Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. This is one of the most gaudy attired of all North American birds, being brownish gray on the back, wings and tail, and hav...
-472. Beardless Flycatcher. Camptostoma Imberbe
Range. - Central America; north casually to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas. This strange little Flycatcher, several specimens of which have been taken in the vicinity of Lomita, Texas, is but 4.5 inch...
-Larks. Family Alaudiae. 473. Skylark. Alauda Arvensis
Range. - Old World, straggling casually to Greenland and Bermuda. This noted foreigner has been imported and liberated a number of times in this country, but apparently is not able to thrive here, a ...
-474. Horned Lark. Otocoris Alpestris Alpestris
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding in Labrador and about Hudson Bay; winters in eastern United States south to Carolina. This variety of this much sub-divided species is 7.5 inches in length, h...
-474l. Montezuma Horned Lark. Otocoris Alpestris Occidentalis
Range. - Western New Mexico and eastern Arizona, south in winter to northern Mexico. This variety has the upperparts pale brownish and not streaked; throat and forehead yellowish. 474m. Island Horne...
-Crows, Jays, Magpies, Etc. Family Corvidae. 475. Magpie. Pica Pica Hudsonia
Range. - Western North America from the Great Plains to the Pacific and from Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico. These large handsome birds have the entire head, neck and breast velvety black, abruptly...
-476. Yellow-Billed Magpie. Pica Nuttalli
Range. - Middle parts of California, west of the Sierra Nevadas. This species is slightly smaller than the last and has a yellowish bill and lores, otherwise being precisely like the more common spec...
-477. Blue Jay. Cyanocitta Cristata Cristata
Range. - North America, east of the Plains and north to Hudson Bay; resident and very abundant in its United States range. These beautiful and bold maurauders are too well known to need description, ...
-478. Steller's Jay. Cyanocitta Stelleri Stelleri
Range. - Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska; resident and breeding throughout its range. All the members of this sub-species are similar in plumage, having a sooty black head, crest and...
-479. Florida Jay. Aphelocoma Cyanea
Range. - Locally distributed in Florida. All the birds of this genus have no crests or decided markings, are white or grayish below, and more or less intense blue above, with the back grayish or brow...
-480. Woodhouse's Jay. Aphelocoma Woodhousei
Range. - United States west of the Rockies and from Oregon and Wyoming to Mexico. This species has the crown and forehead bluish, and the underparts gray, streaked with bluish gray on the breast. It...
-481. California Jay. Aphelocoma Californica Californica
Range. - Pacific coast of California and Washington. This is a very abundant species both about habitations and in low woodlands. They are very bold and familiar, stealing everything they may take a ...
-482. Arizona Jay. Aphelocoma Sieberi Arizonae
Range. - Arizona and southwestern New Mexico south into Mexico. Greenish blue. 482a. Couch's Jay. Aphelocoma Sieberi Couchi Range. - Eastern Mexico, north to western Texas. ...
-483. Green Jay. Xanthoura Luxuosa Glaucescens
Range. - Northeastern Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. This handsome species has a bright blue crown and patches under the eyes, the rest of the upper parts being greenish; throat and...
-484. Canada Jay. Perisoreus Canadensis Canadensis
Range. - Southeastern British Provinces and the adjacent portions of the United States; west to the Rockies. This is the bird that is well known to hunters of big game by various names such as Whi...
-485. Oregon Jay. Perisoreus Obscurus Obscurus
Range. - Mountain ranges from northern California to British Columbia. These birds are very similar to canadensis but have the whole underparts white. Like the Canada Jays they appear to be wholly fe...
-486. Raven. Corvus Corax Sinuatus
Range. - North America west of the Rockies and from British Columbia southward. The Raven is like a very large Crow, length 24 inches, but has the feathers on the neck lengthened and stiffened. Their...
-487. White-Necked Raven. Corvus Cryptoleucus
Range. - Mexico and the border of the United States; north to eastern Kansas. This small Raven is of about the size of the Crow, and has the bases of the neck feathers white. They are very abundant i...
-488. Crow. Corvus Brachyrhynchos Brachyrhynchos
Range. - Whole of North America south of the Arctic Circle; most abundant in eastern United States; rare in many localities in the west. Greenish white. These birds, against which the hand of eve...
-490. Fish Crow. Corvus Ossifragus
Range. - Northwest coast from Oregon to Alaska. This small Crow which is but 16 inches in length, is found only on the coast, where they feed upon shell fish and offal. They nest, as do the Ravens, e...
-489. Northwestern Crow. Corvus Caurinus
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, north in summer to Connecticut. From Virginia southward, this small Crow (length 16 inches) is more abundant on the coast than the common Crow which is often ...
-491. Clarke's Nutcracker. Nucifraga Columbiana
Range. - Mountains of western North America from Mexico to Alaska. The Clarke Crow, as this bird is often known, is a common resident in most of its range. The adults are grayish with black wings and...
-492. Pinon Jay. Cyanocephalus Cyanocephalus
Range. - Western United States between the Rockies and Sierra Nevadas, and from southern British Columbia to Arizona. This Crow-like Jay has a nearly uniform bluish plumage, and is found abundantly i...
-Starlings. Family Sturnidae. 493. Starling. Sturnus Vulgaris
Range. - A European species which has casually been taken in Greenland. It was liber-ated a number of years ago in Central Park, New York City, and has now become abundant there and is spreading slowl...
-Blackbirds, Orioles, Etc. Family Icteridae. 494. Bobolink. Dolichonyx Oryzivorus
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from New Jersey north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba, and west to Utah and Nevada; winters in South America. This black and white bird is well known in the east, ...
-495. Cowbird. Molothrus Ater Ater
Range. - North America from the Atlantic to eastern California, and from New Brunswick and Manitoba southward; winters from the southern half of the United States southward. These uncivilized members...
-496. Red-Eyed Cowbird. Tangavius Aeneus Involucratus
Range. - Mexico; north in summer to the Lower Rio Grande in Texas. This parasite is larger than the Cowbird, being 9 inches long, and is glossy black with brassy reflections on the upper and under pa...
-497. Yellow-Headed Blackbird. Xanthocephalus Xanthocephalus
Range. - North America west of the Mississippi to eastern California, breeding from the southern parts of the United States north to British Columbia and Hudson Bay and wintering from southern United ...
-498. Red-Winged Blackbird. Agelaius Pheniceus Phaeniceus
Range. - North America east of the Rockies and from the southern British Provinces southward to the Gulf; winter in southern United States. These birds are familiar to every frequenter of the country...
-499. Bicolored Red-Wing. Agelaius Gubernator Californicus
Range. - Pacific coast, west of the Sierra Nevadas, from Washington south to Lower California. The males of this species are distinguished from those of the Red-wings by the absence of light margins ...
-500. Tricolored Red-Wing. Agelaius Tricolor
Range. - Pacific coast of California and Oregon; rare east of the Sierra Nevadas. This species differs from the Red-wing in having the shoulders a much darker red and the median coverts white instead...
-501. Meadowlark. Sturnella Magna Magna
Range. - North America east of the Plains and north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters from New England southward. This handsome dweller among our fields and meadows is frequently heard giving his ...
-503. Audubon's Oriole. Icterus Melanocephalus Auduboni
Range. - Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. This large Oriole has a wholly black head, neck, fore breast, tail and wings; it is 9.5 inches in length. They are quite abundant and residen...
-504. Scott's Oriole. Icterus Parisorum
Range. - Western Mexico north to the adjoining states; north to Nevada This handsome black and yellow species does not appear to be abundant in any part of its range. Their nests are swung from the u...
-505. Sennett's Oriole. Icterus Cucullatus Sennetti
Range. - Mexico, north in summer to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. This species is orange yellow except for the face, throat, fore back, wings and tail, which are black; the wings are crossed ...
-506. Orchard Oriole. Icterus Spurius
Range. - United States, east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to southern New England, and Canada in the interior. Winters beyond our borders. The adult male of this species is a rich chocolate ...
-507. Baltimore Oriole. Icterus Galbula
Range. -North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from southern United States north to New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. This beautiful and well known eastern Oriole can readily be identified by it...
-508. Bullock's Oriole. Icterus Bullocki
Range. - North America, west of the Plains and from British Columbia southward, wintering in Mexico. This handsome species is as abundant in the west as the Baltimore Oriole is in the east, and breed...
-509. Rusty Blackbird. Euphagus Carolinus
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from northern New England and the Adirondacks northward; winters in southern United States. But few of these birds breed within our borders, the ma...
-510. Brewer's Blackbird. Euphagus Cyanocephalus
This western representative of the preceding is of about the same size (10 inches long), but differs in having a purplish head and greenish black body. They nest abundantly throughout their range eith...
-511. Purple Grackle. Quiscalus Quiscula Quiscula
Range. - Eastern United States from the Gulf to Massachusetts; winters along the Gulf. This species, which is commonly known as Crow Blackbird, nests in trees or bushes anywhere in its range, and on ...
-513. Boat-Tailed Grackle. Megaquiscalus Major Major
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Virginia. This handsome bird measures about 16 inches in length, is irridescent with purplish and greenish, and has a very long, graduated and hollow...
-Finches, Sparrows, Etc. Family Fringilldae. 514. Evening Grosbeak. Hesperiphona Vespertina Vespertina
Range. - Western United States in the Rocky Mountain region; north to Saskatchewan; south in winter to Mississippi Valley and casually east to New England and the intermediate states. These are dull ...
-515. Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola Enucleator Leucura
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern New England northward, and wintering to southern New England and Ohio and casually farther. They build in conifers making their nests of small tw...
-516. Cassin's Bullfinch. Pyrrhula Cassini
Range. - Northern Asia; accidental in Alaska. ...
-517. Purple Finch. Carpodacus Purpureus Purpureus
Range. - North America east of the plains, breeding from the Middle States onrth to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in the United States. These sweet songsters are quite abundant in New England in t...
-518. Cassin's Purple Finch. Carpodacus Cassini
Range. - North America west of the Rockies, breeding from British Columbia south to New Mexico. This species is similar to the last but the back, wings and tail are darker and the purplish color of t...
-519. House Finch. Carpodacus Mexicanus Frontalis
Range. - United States west of the Plains and from Oregon and Wyoming to Mexico. This is one of the best known of western birds, and nests commonly in all situations from trees and bushes to vines gr...
-520. Guadalupe Finch. Carpodacus Amplus
Range. - Guadalupe Island, Lower California. Similar to the House Finch, but deeper red and slightly larger. Their nesting habits and eggs are precisely like those of the House Finch but the eggs ave...
-521. Crossbill. Loxia Curvirostra Minor
Range. - Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from northern New England northward; winters south to the mid dle portions of the United States and casually farther. The birds are ve...
-522. White-Winged Crossbill. Loxia Leucoptera
Range. - Northern North America, breeding in the Alleghanies and from northern Maine northward; winters to middle portions of the United States. This species is rosy red with two white wing bars. Lik...
-523. Aleutian Rosy Finch. Leucosticte Griseonucha
Range. - Aleutian and Pribilof Islands; south to Kadiak. This is the largest of the genus, and can be distinguished from the others by its very dark chestnut coloration and the gray hindneck and chee...
-524. Gray-Crowned Rosy Finch. Leucosticte Tephrocotis Tephrocotis
Range. - Rocky Mountain region from Saskatchewan south to northern United States and also breeding in the Sierra Nevadas; winters on the lowlands of northwestern United States and east to Manitoba. T...
-525. Black Rosy Finch. Leucosticte Atrata
Range. - Rocky Mountain region of northern United States; known to breed in Idaho. This species is black in place of the brown of the others; the gray is restricted to the hind part of the head and t...
-526. Brown-Capped Rosy Finch. Leucosticte Australis
Range. - Breeds at high altitudes in the Rockies in Colorado; south to New Mexico in winter. A similar bird to the Gray-crowned Leucosticte but with no gray on the head. They nest on the ground above...
-527. Greenland Redpoll. Acanthis Hornemanni Hornemanni
Range. - Greenland and northern Europe; south in winter to Labrador. This large Redpoll nests at low elevations in trees and bushes, its habits and eggs being similar to the more common American spec...
-528. Redpoll. Acanthis Linaria Linaria
Range. - Breeds within the Arctic Circle; winters south to New York, Kansas and northern California and casually farther. This species is similar to the last but much darker, and the rump is also str...
-529. Goldfinch. Astragalinus Tristis Tristis
Range. - North America east of the Rockies, and from Labrador and Manitoba southward. These beautiful birds are among our sweetest songsters from May until September. They are resident throughout the...
-530. Arkansas Goldfinch. Astragalinus Psaltria Psaltria
Range. - United States, west of the Plains and from Oregon to Mexico. This species has greenish upper parts and yellow below; the crown, wings and tail are black, the bases of the lateral tail feathe...
-531. Lawrence's Goldfinch. Astragalinus Lawrencei
Range. - Pacific coast of California, wintering along the Mexican border. This grayish colored Goldfinch has a black face and yellow breast, rump, wing coverts and edges of the primaries. They are qu...
-532. Black-Headed Goldfinch. Spinus Notatus
Range. - Mountainous regions of Central America and southern Mexico; accidental in the United States. Pine Siskin. ...
-533. Pine Siskin. Spinus Pinus
Range. - Breeds from northern United States northward, in the Alleghanies and in the Rockies south to New Mexico. Winters throughout the United States. Siskins are of the size of the Goldfinch (5 inc...
-534. Snow Bunting. Plectrophenax Nivalis Nivalis
Range. - Breeds in the Arctic regions, and winters irregularly in large flocks through the United States to Oregon, Kansas and Georgia. These birds are only seen in the United States in large roving ...
-535. Mckay's Snow Bunting. Pletrophenax Hyperboreus
Range. - Western Alaska; known to breed on Hall's Island. This beautiful species is, in summer, entirely white except for the tips of the primaries and a black spot on end of central tail feathers, t...
-536. Lapland Longspur. Calcarius Lapponicus Lapponicus
Range. - Breeds in northern North America; winters south casually to New York, Ohio and Oregon and occasionally farther. These sparrow-like birds are 6.5 inches long and have a black crown, cheeks an...
-537. Smith's Longspur. Calcarius Pictus
Range. - Breeds in Hudson Bay and Mackenzie River districts and winters south to Texas chiefly on the Plains. This species is of the size of the last but is a rich buff color below, and the other mar...
-538. Chestnut-Collared Longspur. Calcarius Ornatus
Range. - Plains in the interior of North America, breeding from Kansas north to Saskatchewan; very abundant in the Dakotas and Montana. This handsome species in the breeding plumage has the throat wh...
-539. Mccown's Longspur. Rhynchophanes Mccowni
Range. - Great Plains, breeding from Kansas to the Saskatchewan. This Longspur which breeds in company with the preceding, throughout its range, can be distinguished from it by the small black patch ...
-540. Vesper Sparrow. Poaecetes Gramineus Gramineus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from Virginia and Missouri north to Manitoba and New Brunswick; winters in the southern half of the United States. A streaked grayish, buffy and white bird di...
-541. Ipswich Sparrow. Passerculus Princeps
Range. - Breeds on Sable Island, off Nova Scotia; winters on coast of South Atlantic States. This a large and pale colored form of the common Savannah Sparrow. Its nesting habits are similar to those ...
-542. Aleutian Savannah Sparrow. Pas- Serculus Sandwichensis Sandwichensis
Range. - Breeds on the Alaskan coast; winters south to northern California. A streaked Sparrow like the next but with the yellow superciliary line brighter and more extended. Its nesting habits are p...
-543. Belding's Sparrow. Passerculus Beldingi
Range. - Pacific coast marshes of southern California and southward. This species is similar to the last but darker and more heavily streaked below. They breed abundantly in salt marshes. building th...
-544. Large-Billed Sparrow. Passerculus Rostratus Rostratus
Range. - Coast of southern and Lower California. Similar to the Savannah Sparrow but paler and grayer, without yellow lores and a larger and stouter bill. They are common in salt marshes, often in co...
-545. Baird's Sparrow. Ammodramus Bairdi
Range. - Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskatchewan; south in winter to the Mexican border. These Sparrows breed abundantly on the plains of Dakota and northward, placing their ...
-546. Grasshopper Sparrow. Ammodramus Savannarum Australis
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Canada. A stoutly built Sparrow marked on the upper parts peculiarly, like a quail; nape grayish and chestnut. These birds are com...
-547. Henslow's Sparrow. Passerherbulus Henslowi Henslowi
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding locally from Maryland and Missouri north to Massachusetts and Minnesota. This species is similar in form and marking to the last, but is olive gree...
-548. Leconte's Sparrow. Passerherbulus Lecontei
Range. - Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to Assiniboia; winters south to Texas and the Gulf States. A bird of more slender form than the preceding, and with a long, graduated tail,...
-549. Sharp-Tailed Sparrow. Passerherbulus Caudacutus
Range. - Breeds in marshes along the Atlantic coast from Maine to South Carolina and winters farther south. These birds are very common in nearly all the salt marshes of the coast, nesting in the mar...
-550. Seaside Sparrow. Passerherbulus Maritimus Maritimus
Range. - Atlantic coast, breeding from southern New England to Carolina and wintering farther south. This sharp-tailed Finch is uniform grayish above and light streaked with dusky, below. They are ve...
-551. Dusky Seaside Sparrow. Passerherbulus Nigrescens
Range. - Marshes of Indian River near Titus-ville, Florida. This species is the darkest of the genus, both above and below, being nearly black on the upperparts. Their habits are like those of the ot...
-552. Lark Sparrow. Chondestes Gramma-Cus Grammacus
Range. - Mississippi Valley from the Plains to Illinois and casually farther east, and from Manitoba to Texas; winters in Mexico. This handsome Sparrow has the sides of the crown and ear patches ches...
-553. Harris's Sparrow. Zonotrichia Querula
Range. - Mississippi Valley, chiefly west, breeding in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the exact range being unknown. Although the birds are abundant during migrations, they seem to suddenly and strangely...
-554. White-Crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia Leucophrys Leucophrys
Range. - North America breeding abundantly in Labrador and about Hudson Bay, and casually in northern New England and in western United States in the Rockies and Sierras. Winters along our Mexican bo...
-557. Golden-Crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia Coronata
Range. - Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska, breeding chiefly north of our borders. This species has the crown yellow, bordered by black on the sides. Their habits are like those of the White-crowne...
-558. White-Throated Sparrow. Zonotri-Chia Albicollis
Range. - North America east of the Plains' and breeding from the northern tier of states! northward; winters from the Middle States; southward. To my mind this is the most beautiful of Sparrows, with...
-559. Tree Sparrow. Spizella Monticola Monticola
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding north of the United States to the Arctic coast, east of the Rockies; winters within the United States. A larger bird but somewhat resembling the co...
-560. Chipping Sparrow. Spizella Pas-Serina Passerina
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to the interior of Canada and Newfoundland. White. CHIPPING SPARROW. CHIPPING SPARROWS (The whole family). 559a-560a ...
-561. Clay-Colored Sparrow. Spizella Pallida
Range. - Interior of United States and Canada, from the Mississippi Valley to the Rockies, breeding from Iowa and Colorado northward; winters in Mexico. These birds can best be described as like the ...
-562. Brewer's Sparrow. Spizella Breweri
Range. - Western United States from Mexico to British Columbia rarely and chiefly between the Rockies and the Sierras; most abundant in New Mexico and Arizona. This bird is similar to the last but is...
-563. Field Sparrow. Spizella Pusilla Pusilla
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to southern Manitoba and Quebec; winters in the Gulf States. These are abundant birds along roadsides, in thickets, or on dry sidehil...
-564. Worthen's Sparrow. Spizella Northeni
Range. - Southern New Mexico southward through central Mexico. This pale colored species is the size of the Field Sparrow but has no decided markings anywhere. It is a rare bird within our borders an...
-565. Black-Chinned Sparrow. Spizella Atrogularis
Range. - Mexican border of the United States and southward. This slim-bodied, long-tailed species is grayish with a dusky streaked, reddish brown patch on the back and a black face, chin and throat. ...
-566. White-Winged Junco. Junco Aikeni
Range. - Breeds in the Black Hills of Dakota and Wyoming; winters in Colorado and casually to Kansas. This species is like the next but larger and with the wings crossed by two white bars. Its habits...
-567. Slate-Colored Junco. Junco Hyemalis Hyemalis
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding in the northern tier of states and northward; winters in southern United States. This species is slaty gray on the head, neck, breast, flanks, back...
-570. Arizona Junco. Junco Phaeonotus Palliatus
Range. - Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona. Similar to the preceding species but upper mandible blackish and the gray on throat shading insensibly into the grayish white underpart...
-571. Baird's Junco. Junco Bairdi
Range. - Southern Lower California. This gray headed species with rusty back and sides is locally confined to the southern parts of the California peninsula where it is resident. Its eggs are not lik...
-572. Quadalupe Junco. Junco Insularis
Range. - Guadalupe Island off Lower California. Resembles the Pink-sided Junco but is smaller, darker and duller colored. They are common on the island where they nest in the pine groves, laying thei...
-573. Black-Throated Sparrow. Amphispiza Bilineata Bilineata
Range. - Breeds from central Texas to Kansas; winters in southern Texas and Mexico. This species is grayish brown above, with black throat, white superciliary and line on side of throat. This is a co...
-574. Bell's Sparrow. Amphispiza Belli
Range. - Southern half of California and southward. These grayish, black and white birds are abundant in sage brush and thickets, nesting on the ground or at low elevations in bushes, and during May ...
-575. Pine-Woods Sparrow. Peucaea Aestivalis Aestivalis
Range. - Florida and southern Georgia. These birds are common in restricted localities in their range, nesting on the ground under bushes or shrubs; the nests are made of grasses and the four or five ...
-576. Botteri's Sparrow. Peucaea Botterii
Range. - Mexican plateau north to southern Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. They nest in abundance in tall grass in the lowlands of their range, the nests being difficult to find because the bird flush...
-578. Cassin's Sparrows. Peuccea Cassini
Range. - Plains and valleys from Texas and Arizona north to Kansas and Nevada. These birds breed in numbers on the arid plains, placing their grass nests on the ground at the foot of small bushes or ...
-579. Rufous-winged Sparrow. Aimophila Carpalis
Range. - Plains of western Mexico and north to southern Arizona. This pale colored bird bears a remote resemblance to the Tree Sparrow. They nest commonly in dry arid regions, placing their nests at ...
-580. Rufous-Crowned El Sparrow. Aimophila Ruficeps Ruficeps
Range. - Local in southern half of California and in Lower California. A brownish colored species both above and below, which is found on mountains and hillsides in restricted localities. They nest o...
-581. Song Sparrow. Melospiza Melodia Melodia
Range. - North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Virginia to Manitoba and New Brunswick, and wintering chiefly in the southern half of the United States. A favorite and one of the most abunda...
-583. Lincoln's Sparrow. Melospiza Lincolni Lincolni
Range. - North America, breeding from northern United States north to the Arctic regions; most abundant in the interior and the west; rare in New England. This bird is shy and retiring and skulks off...
-584. Swamp Sparrow. Melospiza Georgiana
Range. - North America, East Of The Plains, Breeding From middle United States north to Labrador and Hudson Bay. This common and dark colored Sparrow frequents swampy places where it breeds; owing to...
-585. Fox Sparrow. Passerella Iliaca Iliaca
Range. - Eastern North America, Breeding from southern Canada northward, and northwest to Alaska; winters in southern United States. This large handsome species, with its mottled grayish and reddish ...
-586. Texas Sparrow. Arremonops Rufivirgatus
Range. - Eastern Mexico And Southern Texas. This odd species has a brownish crown, olive greenish upperparts, wings and tail, and grayish white underparts. They are common resident birds along the Lo...
-587. Towhee. Pipilo Erythrophthalmus Erythrophthalmus
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba. The well known Towhee, Ground Robin or Chewink is a bird commonly met with in eastern United States; it frequents thicke...
-588. Arctic Towhee. Pipilo Maculctus Arcticus
Range. - Great Plains, breeding from northern United States to the Saskatchewan. This species is similar to the eastern Towhee but has the scapulars and coverts tipped with white. They nest abundantl...
-589. Guadalupe Towhee. Pipilo Consobrinus
Range. - Guadalupe Island, Lower California. Similar to oregonus but smaller and with a relatively shorter tail. The nesting habits and eggs of this species will not likely be found to differ essenti...
-591. Canon Towhee. Pipilo Fuscus Mesoleucus
Range. - Mexico and north to Arizona and New Mexico and casually farther to Colorado. A common species in the valleys and on the side hills, nesting in bushes near the ground, and sometimes on the gr...
-592. Abert's Towhee. Pipilo Aberti
Range. - Arizona and New Mexico north to Colorado and Nevada and east to southeastern California. This bird is wholly brownish gray both above and below shading into reddish brown on the under tail c...
-593. Cardinal. Cardinalis Cardinalis Cardinalis
Range. - Eastern United States, north to New York and Illinois, west to the Plains and Texas. Resident in most of its range. These beautiful fiery red and crested songsters are one of the most attrac...
-594. Arizona Pyrrhuloxia. Pyrrhuloxia Sinuata Sinuata
Range. - Northwestern Mexico and the southern border of New Mexico, Arizona and western Texas. This species is of similar form and crested like a Cardinal, but the bill is very short and hooked like t...
-595. Rose-Breasted Grosbeak. Zamelodia Ludoviciana
Greenish blue. Range. - United States, east of the Plains, breeding from the Middle States and Ohio north to Manitoba and Nova Scotia. This beautiful black and white bird with rosy red breast and...
-596. Black-Headed Grosbeak. Zamelodia Melanocephala
Range. - United States, west of the Plains, breeding from Mexico north to British Columbia; winters south of the United States. This species is of the size of the last (8 inches long), and is a bright...
-597. Blue Grosbeak. Guiraca Ccerulea
Range. - Southeastern United States, breeding from the Gulf north to Pennsylvania and Illinois, and casually to New England. Smaller than the last two species and deep blue, with wings and tail black...
-598. Indigo Bunting. Passerina Cyanea
Range. - United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to Manitoba and Nova Scotia; winters south of the United States. This handsome species is rich indigo on the head and neck, shading into blu...
-599. Lazuli Bunting. Passerina Amaena
Range. - Western United States, breeding from Mexico to northern United States and the interior of British Columbia; east to Kansas. This handsome bird is of the size of cyanea, but is azure blue abo...
-600. Varied Bunting. Passerina Versicolor
Range. - Mexico and north to southern Texas. The general color of this odd bird is purplish, changing to bright blue on the crown and rump, and with a reddish nape. They are quite abundant in some lo...
-601. Painted Bunting. Passerina Ciris
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States; north to Illinois in the interior. Without exception, this is the most gaudily attired of North American birds, the whole underparts being red, the head and n...
-602. Sharpe's Seed-Eater. Sporophila Morelleti Morelleti
Range. - Eastern Mexico, breeding north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. This peculiar, diminutive Finch is but 4.5 inches in length, and in plumage is black, white and gray. In restricted lo...
-603. Grassquit. Tiaris Bicolor
Range. - This small Finch is a Cuban species which casually strays to southern Florida. They are abundant on the island, building large arched nests of grass, with a small entrance on the side. They ...
-604. Dickcissel. Spiza Americana
Range. - Interior of the United States, breeding from the Gulf to northern United States, west to the Rockies, east to the Alleghanies. A sparrow-like Bunting with a yellow breast patch, line over ey...
-605. Lark Bunting. Calamospiza Mela-Nocorys
Range. - A bird of the Plains, abundant from western Kansas to eastern Colorado and north to the Canadian border; winters in Mexico. These black and white birds have a sweet song which they often utt...
-Tanagers. Family Tanagridae. 607. Western Tanager. Piranga Ludoviciana
Range. - United States, west of the Plains and north to British Columbia. This handsome species is black and yellow, with an orange or reddish head. They are common and breed in suitable localities ...
-608. Scarlet Tanager. Piranga Eryth-Romelas
These beautiful scarlet and black birds frequent, chiefly, woodlands, although they are very often found breeding in orchards and small pine groves. They are quiet birds, in actions, but their loud wa...
-609. Hepatic Tanager. Piranga Hep-Atica
Range. - Western Mexico, north to New Mexico and Arizona in summer. This species is similar to the next but is darker red on the upper parts and bright vermilion below. They nest on the lower horizon...
-610. Summer Tanager. Piranga Rubra Rubra
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and Kansas, and casually farther; west to Texas; winters south of our borders. This bird is of the size of the Scarlet Tanager, but ...
-Swallows. Family Hirundinidae. 611. Purple Martin. Progne Subis Subis
Range. - Breeds throughout the United States and temperate British America; winters in South America. These large, lustrous, steely-blue Swallows readily adapt themselves to civilization and, through...
-612. Cliff Swallow. Petrochelidon Luni-Frons Lunifrons
Range. - Whole of North America, breeding north from the south Atlantic and Gulf States. These birds can easily be recognized by their brownish throat and breast, whitish forehead and buffy rump. The...
-613. Barn Swallow. Hirundo Erythro- Gastra
Range. - Whole of North America; winters south to South America. This Swallow is the most beautiful and graceful of the family, and is a familiar sight to everyone, skimming over the meadows and pond...
-614. Tree Swallow; White-Bellied Swallow. Iridoprocne Bicolor
Range. - Whole of temperate North America, breeding from middle United States northward; winters in the Gulf States and along the Mexican border and southward. This vivacious and active species is as...
-615. Northern Violet-Green Swallow. Tachyci-Neta Thalassina Lepida
Range. - United States in the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific coast, breeding from Mexico to British Columbia; winters south of our borders. This very beautiful species is smaller than the la...
-616. Bank Swallow. Riparia Riparia
Range. - Whole of North America, north to the limit of trees, breeding from the middle portions of the United States northward; winters south of our borders. This dull-colored Swallow is grayish abov...
-617. Rough-Winged Swallow. Stelgidopteryx Serripennis
Range. - United States, breeding from Mexico north to southern New England, Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south of our borders. This species is slightly larger than the last and similar but ...
-Waxwings. Family Ampelidae. 618. Bohemian Waxwing. Bombycilla Garrulus
Range. - Breeds in the Arctic regions except in the Rockies where it nearly reaches the United States; winters south to the northern tier of states. This handsome crested, grayish brown Wax-wing rese...
-619. Cedar Waxwing. Bombycilla Cedrorum
Range. - Whole of temperate North America, breeding in the northern half of the United States and northward. These birds are very gregarious and go in large flocks during the greater part of the year...
-620. Phainopepla. Phainopepla Nitens
Range. - Southwestern United States and Mexico; north to southern Utah and Colorado. This peculiar crested species is wholly shining blue black except for a patch of white on the inner webs of the pr...
-Shrikes. Family Laniidae. 621. Northern Shrike. Lanius Borealis
Range. - North America, breeding north of our borders; winters in northern half of the United States and casually farther south. All Shrikes are similar in nature and plumage, being grayish above and...
-622. Loggerhead Shrike. Lanius Ludo-Vicianus Ludovicianus
Range. - United States, east of the Plains, breeding north to New England and Illinois; winters in Southern States. Like the last but smaller (length 9 inches), not marked below and with the ear patc...
-Vireos. Family Vireondidae. 623. Black-Whiskered Vireo. Vireosylva Calidris Barbatula
Range. - A Central American species, breeding in Cuba, Bahamas and southern Florida. Like the Red-eyed Vireo but with a dusky streak on either side of the chin. They build pensile nests of strips of ...
-624. Red-Eyed Vireo. Vireosylva Olivacea
Range. - United States, east of the Rockies, breeding north to Labrador, Manitoba and British Columbia. This is the most common of the Vireos in the greater part of its range and is a most persistent...
-625. Yellow-Green Vireo. Vireosylva Flavoviridis
Range. - Southern Texas and southward to South America. Similar to the Red-eye but greener above and more yellowish on the sides. The nesting habits are the same and the eggs indistinguishable from t...
-626. Philadelphia Vireo. Vireosylva Philadelphica
Range. - Eastern United States breeding from northern New England and Manitoba northward. This species is much smaller than the Red-eye (length 5 in.) and is yellowish below, and without black edges ...
-627. Warbling Vireo. Vireosylva Gilva Gilva
Range. - North America east to the Plains, breeding north to Labrador. This Vireo is nearly as abundant as the Redeye but is not generally as well known, probably because it is usually higher in the ...
-628. Yellow-Throated Vireo. Lanivireo Flavifrons
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba and New Brunswick. This handsome bird is wholly unlike any others of the Vireos, having a bright yellow throat and breast...
-629. Blue-Headed Vireo. Lanivireo Solitarius Solitarius
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from southern New England and the northern states north to Hudson Bay; winters in the Gulf States and southward. A beautiful Vireo with a slaty blue crown and...
-630. Black-Capped Vireo. Vireo Atricapil-Lus
Range. - Central Texas north to Kansas; winters in Mexico. This peculiar Vireo has a black crown and sides of head, broken by a white eye ring and loral stripe; upper parts greenish, below white. The...
-631. White-Eyed Vireo. Vireo Griseus Griseus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to northern United States. This Vireo has white eyes, as implied by its name, is yellowish green on the sides and with two prominent bars. They ...
-632. Hutton's Vireo. Vireo Huttoni Huttoni
Range. - Resident on the California coast; chiefly in the southern parts. A similar species to noveboracensis but with the under parts tinged with yellow. These birds are quite common but shy, nestin...
-633. Bell's Vireo. Vireo Belli Belli
Range. - Interior of the United States, breeding from Texas to Minnesota and Dakota. The nesting habits of this smaller species are just the same as those of the larger varieties, they suspending the...
-634. Gray Vireo. Vireo Vicinior
Range. - Southwestern United States from western Texas, southern California and Nevada southward. This species is grayish above and grayish white below, with white eye ring, lores and wing bar. They ...
-Honey Creepers. Family Coerebidae. 635. Bahama Honey Creeper Coereba Bahamensis
Range. - Bahamas, casually to southern Florida and the Keys. This peculiar curved-billed species is dark brown above, with the underparts, superciliary line and spot at base of primaries, whitish; the...
-Warblers. Family Mniotiltidae
Warblers as a family may be classed as the most beautiful, interesting and useful birds that we have. With few exceptions, they only return from their winter quarters as the trees shoot forth their le...
-637. Prothonotary Warbler. Prothon-Otaria Citrea
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, north in the interior to Iowa and Illinois. This species is often known as the Golden Swamp Warbler because of the rich golden yellow of the head and underpay...
-638. Swainson's Warbler. Helinaia Swainsoni
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Virginia and Indiana, and west to eastern Texas; winters in Mexico and the West Indies. This species is brownish above and white below, with a whitis...
-639. Worm-Eating Warbler. Helmitheros Vermivorus
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding north to southern New England and Illinois; winters south of our borders. This bird can be identified in all plumages by the three light buff and t...
-640. Bachman's Warbler. Vermivora Bachmani
Range. - Southeastern United States, along the Gulf coast to Louisiana and north to Virginia and Missouri. This species is one of the rarest of the Warblers, but is now much more abundant than twenty...
-641. Blue-winged Warbler. Vermivora Pinus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England and in the Mississippi Valley to Minnesota; winters south of our borders. This common species has the crown and underparts yello...
-642. Golden-Winged Warbler. Vermivora Chrysoptera
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding north to the southern parts of the British Provinces, winters south of the United States. This is a very handsome species with black throat and ear patches, a...
-643. Lucy's Warbler. Vermivora Luciae
Range. - Western Mexico, north commonly to Arizona and casually to southern Utah. This small gray and white Warbler is especially distinguished by a chestnut rump and patch in center of the crown. Be...
-644. Virginia's Warbler. Vermivora Virginia?
Range. - Western Mexico, north to Arizona and New Mexico, and also less commonly to Colorado. This species is similar to the last but has the rump and a patch on the breast, yellow. They are found qu...
-645. Nashville Warbler. Vermivora Rubricapilla Rubricapilla
Range. - North America east of the Plains, breeding from New York and Illinois north to Hudson Bay and Labrador; winters south of our borders. This small species is yellow below and greenish above, w...
-646. Orange-Crowned Warbler. Vermivora Celata Celata
Range. - North America, chiefly in the interior, breeding north of the United States except in the Rockies south to Arizona and New Mexico; winters in the Gulf States and southward. This plainly clad...
-647. Tennessee Warbler. Vermivora Peregrina
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the northern tier of states, northward; winters to northern South America. This species has greenish upper parts, white lower parts and superciliary line...
-648. Parula Warbler. Compsothlypis Americana Americana
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding in the southern half. The upper parts of this handsome species are bluish gray with a greenish patch in the middle of the back; the throat and breast are yell...
-649. Sennett's Warbler. Compsothlypis Piti Ayumi Nigrilora
Range. - Eastern Mexico, north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. This species is similar to the Parula but is more extensively yellow below, and has black lores and ear coverts. Their habits a...
-650. Cape May Warbler. Dendroica Tigrina
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern New England and Manitoba northward; winters south of the United States. This beautiful Warbler is yellow below and on the rump, streaked on the ...
-651. Olive Warbler. Peucedramus Olivaceus
Range. - Mountains of New Mexico and Arizona southward. This peculiar species may readily be recognized by its saffron or orange-brown colored head and neck, with broad black bar through the eye. The...
-652. Yellow Warbler. Dendroica Aestiva, Aestiva
Ragne. - Breeds in the whole or North America; winters south of our borders. This well known and very common species is wholly yellow, being more or less greenish on the back, wings and tail, and the...
-653. Mangrove Warbler. Dendroica Bryanti Castaneiceps
Range. - Southern Lower California and western Mexico and Central America. This species is very similar to the Yellow Warbler but the entire head and neck of the male are yellowish chestnut. Their ne...
-654. Black-Throated Blue Warbler. Dendroica Caerulescens Caernlescens
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward; winters in the Gulf States and southward. These black-throated bluish-backed Warblers are abundant in swampy woodland b...
-655. Myrtle Warbler. Dendroica Coronata
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward. Winters in the southern half of eastern United States. This beautiful gray, white and black Warbler can readily be iden...
-656. Audubon's Warbler. Dendroica Audu-Boni Auduboni
Range. - Mountain ranges of western United States from British Columbia to Mexico. This bird resembles the last in the location of the yellow patches but has a yellow instead of a white throat, and is...
-657. Magnolia Warbler. Dendroica Magnolia
Range. - North America east of the Rockies, breeding from northern United States to Hudson Bay region and in the Alleghanies, south to Pennsylvania. Winters south of our borders. This species, which i...
-658. Cerulean Warbler. Dendroica Caerulea
Range. - United States east of the Plains, breeding chiefly in the northern half of the Mississippi Valley, rare east of the Alleghanies and casual in New England. These beautiful Warblers are light b...
-659. Chestnut-Sided Warbler. Dendroica Pensylvanica
Range. - United States, east of the Plains, breeding in the Middle States and Illinois, north to Manitoba and New Brunswick. Winters south of our border. The adults of this handsome species may readi...
-660. Bay-Breasted Warbler. Dendroica Cas-Tanea
Range. - North America, east of the Plains, breeding from northern United States north to the Hudson Bay; winters in Central and South America. This species has the crown, throat and sides a rich che...
-661. Black-Poll Warbler. Dendroicu Striata
Range. - North America, east of the Rockies, breeding from northern United States north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in South America. This black and white Warbler has a solid black cap, and the u...
-662. Blackburnian Warbler. Dendroica Fusca
Range. - North America, east of the Plains, breeding from Massachusetts and Minnesota north to Hudson Bay; south in the Alleghanies to the Carolinas. Winters in Central and South America. This specie...
-663. Yellow-Throated Warbler. Dendroica Dominica Dominica
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to Virginia and casually farther; winters in Florida and the West Indies. This species has gray upper parts with two white wing bars, the throat, breast...
-664. Grace's Warbler. Dendroica Graeiae
Range. - Southwestern United States, abundant in Arizona and New Mexico. This Warbler is similar in markings and colors to the Yellow-throated variety except that the cheeks are gray instead of black...
-665. Black-Throated Gray Warbler. Den-Droica Nigrescens
Range. - United States from the Rockies to the Pacific coast and north to British Columbia; winters south of our borders. The general color of this species is grayish above and white below as is a su...
-666. Golden-Cheeked Warbler. Dendroica Chrysoparia
Range. - Central and southern Texas south to Central America. This beautiful and rare species is entirely black above and on the throat, enclosing a large bright yellow patch about the eye and a smal...
-667. Black-Throated Green Warbler. Dendroica Virens
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from southern New England, South Carolina in the Al-leghanies, and Illinois north to Hudson Bay; winters south of the United States. These common eastern bird...
-668. Townsend's Warbler. Dendroica Torvnsendi
Range. - Western United States, from the Rockies to the Pacific and from Alaska southward; winters in Mexico. This is the common western representative of the last species, and is similar but has bla...
-669. Hermit Warbler. Dendroica Occiden-Talis
Range. - Western United States and British Columbia chiefly on the higher ranges. Winters south to Central America. This peculiar species has the entire head bright yellow and the throat black; upper...
-670. Kirtland's Warbler. Dendroica Kirt-Landi
Range. - Eastern United States; apt to be found in any of the South Atlanic, Middle or Central States, and in Ontario, Canada. Winters in the Bahamas where by far the greater number of specimens have ...
-671. Pine Warbler. Dendroica Vigorsi
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern British Provinces; winters in the Gulf States and southward. This common eastern species is greenish above and dull yellowish below,...
-672. Palm Warbler. Dendroica Palmarum Palmarum
Range. - Interior of North America, breeding about Hudson Bay and northward and wintering in the lower Mississippi Valley and the West Indies. This species is brownish yellow above and yellow on the ...
-673. Prairie Warbler. Dendroica Discolor
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Massachusetts and Ontario; winters in southern Florida and the West Indies. A species readily recognized by its bright yellow underparts and ...
-674. Oven-Bird. Seiurus Aurocapillus
Range. - North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the middle portions of the United States, north to Labrador and Alaska. Winters from the Gulf States southward. This species is fully as ofte...
-675. Water-Thrush. Seiurus Novebora Censis Noveboracensis
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States north to Hudson Bay and Newfoundland. Winters from the Gulf to South America. This species is uniform brownish olive above and whi...
-676. Louisiana Water-Thrush. Seiurus Motacilla
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf, north to southern New England, Ontario and Minnesota; winters south of our borders. This species is similar to the last but is larger, grayer a...
-677. Kentucky Warbler. Oporornis Formosus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to New York and Michigan; winters south of the United States to South America. Crown and ear coverts black, underpays and line over eye yellow; ...
-678. Connecticut Warbler. Oporonis Agilis
Range. - Eastern United States; known to breed only in Manitoba and Ontario. These birds have greenish upperparts and sides, yellowish underparts, and an ashy gray head, neck and breast; they have a ...
-679. Mourning Warbler. Oporornis Phila. Delphia
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from northern New England, Pennsylvania, (Philadelphia) and Nebraska northward. Very similar to the last but with no eye ring and a black patch on the breast....
-680. Macgillivray Warbler. Oporornis Tolmiei
Range. - Western United States from the Rockies to the Pacific, breeding north to British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Central America. Similar to the last but with white spots on the upper and lo...
-681. Maryland Yellow-Throat. Geothlypis Trichas Trichas
Range. - Eastern United States; this species has recently been still further sub-divided so that this form is supposed to be restricted to the south Atlantic coast of the United States. The Maryland ...
-682. Belding's Yellow-Throat. Geothlypis Beldingi
Range. - Lower California. This peculiar species is like the common Yellow-throat but has the black mask bordered by yellow instead of white, and the black on the forehead extends diagonally across t...
-683. Yellow-breasted Chat. Icteria Virens Virens
Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf coast north to southern New England and Minnesota. This strange but handsome species is very common in underbrush and thickets in the south; they are usu...
-684. Hooded Warbler. Wilsonia Citrina
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding north to southern New England and Michigan; winters south of our borders. This yellow and greenish species can be identified by its black head, neck and throa...
-685. Wilson's Warbler. Wilsonia Pusilla Pusilla
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward; south to Central America in winter. These handsome little black-capped flycatching Warblers are abundant during migrati...
-686. Canadian Warbler. Wilsonia Canadensis
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from Mass., New York, and Michigan north to Labrador and Hudson Bay; winters in Central America. This handsome Warbler is plain gray above and yellow below, w...
-687. American Redstart. Setophaga Ruticilla
Range. - North America, chiefly east of the Rockies, breeding in the northern half of the United States and north to Labrador and Alaska; winters south of our borders. The male of this handsome, acti...
-688. Painted Redstart. Setophaga Picta
Range. - Southern New Mexico and Arizona, southward. This beautiful Redstart is black with a large white patch on the wing coverts, white outer tail feathers, and with the belly and middle of the bre...
-689. Red-Bellied Redstart. Setophaga Miniata
Range. - Mexico; admitted to our avifauna on the authority of Giraud as having occurred in Texas. This species is similar to the last, but has a chestnut crown patch, more red on the underpays, and l...
-690. Red-Faced Warbler. Cardellina Rubrifrons
Range. - Southern Arizona and New Mexico, southward. This attractive little Warbler is quite common in mountain ranges of the southern Arizona. They nest on the ground on the side hills, concealing t...
-Wagtails. Family Motacillidae. 694. White Wagtail. Motacilla Alba
Range. - An Old World species; accidental in Greenland. These birds are abundant throughout Europe, nesting on the ground, in stone walls, or in the crevices of old buildings, etc., the nests being m...
-695. Swinhoe's Wagtail. Motacilla Ocularis
Range. - Eastern Asia; accidental in Lower California and probably Alaska. 696. Alaska Yellow Wagtail. Budytes flavus alascensis Range. - Eastern Asia; abundant on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska in ...
-697. Pipit. Anthus Rubescens
Range. - North America, breeding in the Arctic regions, and in the Rocky Mountains south to Colorado, winters in southern United States and southward. The Titlarks are abundant birds in the United St...
-698. Meadow Pipit. Anthus Pratensis
Range. - Whole of Europe; accidental in Greenland. This species is similar to the American Pipit and like that species nests on the ground; they are very abundant and are found in meadows, woods or t...
-699. Red-Throated Pipit. Anthus Cervinus
Range. - An Old World species; accidental in the Aleutians and Lower California. The nesting habits of this bird are like those of the others of the genus. ...
-700. Sprague's Pipit. Anthus Spraguei
Range. - Interior of North America, breeding from Wyoming north to Saskatchewan. Winters in the plains of Mexico. These birds are common on the prairies and breed abundantly on the plains of the inte...
-Dippers. Family Cinclidae. 701. Dipper. Cinclus Mexicanus Unicolor
Range - Mountains of western North America from Alaska to Central America. These short-tailed, grayish colored birds are among the strangest of feathered creatures; they frequent the sides of mountai...
-Wrens, Thrashers, Etc. Family Troglodytidae. 702. Sage Thrasher. Oreoscoptes Montanus
Range. - Plains and valleys of western United States, east of the Sierra Ne-vadas, from Montana to Mexico. This species is abundant in the sage regions of the west, nesting on the ground or at low el...
-703. Mockingbird. Mimus Polyglottos Polyglottos
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to New Jersey and Illinois. These noted birds are very common in the south where they are found, and nest about houses in open woods, fields, and along ...
-704. Catbird. Dumetella Carolinensis
Range. - North America, breeding from the Gulf States to the Saskatchewan; rare on the Pacific coast; winters in the Gulf States and southward. This well known mimic is abundant in the temperate port...
-705. Brown Thrasher. Toxostoma Rufum
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the Gulf States north to Canada. Win ters in the Gulf States and southward. This large, handsome songster is found breeding in just such localities as ar...
-706. Sennett's Thrasher. Toxostoma Longirostre Sennetti
Range. - Southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Very similar to the last but darker above and with the spots on the breast blacker and more distinct. This species which is very abundant in the Lower...
-707. Curve-Billed Thrasher. Toxostoma Curvirostre Curvirostre
Range. - Mexico, north to southern Texas and eastern New Mexico. This species is a uniform ashy gray above and soiled white below; the bill is stout and decurved. These birds are as numerous in the L...
-708. Bendire's Thrasher. Toxostoma Bendirei
Range. - Southern Arizona and Mexico; north locally to southern Colorado. This species is not as abundant in the deserts of southern Arizona as are the last species with which they associate. They ne...
-709. San Lucas Thrasher. Toxostoma Cinereum Cinereum
Range. - Southern Lower California. This species is similar to curvirostre but the under parts are spotted with dusky. Their habits and nests are similar to those of the other Thrashers and the three...
-710. California Thrasher. Toxostoma Redivivum
Range. - Southern half of California, west of the Sierra Nevadas This species is more brownish than the other curve-billed species and has a much longer and more curved bill. They are common in the un...
-711. Leconte's Thrasher. Toxostoma Lecontei Lecontei
Range. - Desert regions of southwestern United States, chiefly in the valleys of the Gila and Colorado Rivers. This species is much paler than the last and has a shorter bill. It is fairly common but...
-712. Crissal Thrasher. Toxostoma Crissale
Range. - Southwestern United States from western Texas to eastern California; north to southern Utah and Nevada. This species may be known from any other of the curve-billed Thrashers by its grayish u...
-713. Cactus Wren. Heleodytes Brunnei- Capillus Couesi
Range. - Southwestern United States from Texas to eastern California; north to southern Nevada and Utah. This species is the largest of the Wrens, be ing 8.5 inches in length. They are very com mon i...
-715. Rock Wren. Salpinctes Obsoletus Obsoletus
Range. - United States, west of the plains, breeding north to British Columbia, and south to Mexico; winters in southwestern United States and southward. This species appears to be quite abundant on ...
-716. Guadalupe Rock Wren. Salpinctes Guadeloupensis
Range. - Guadalupe Island, Lower California. A similar but darker and browner species than the Rock Wren. It breeds in abundance throughout the island from which it takes its name, placing its nests ...
-717. White-Throated Wren. Catherpes Mexicanus Albifrons
Range. - Northeastern Mexico and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. The habits of the White-throated Wren are the same as those of the Canon Wren, which variety is more common and better known; th...
-718. Carolina Wren. Thryothorus Ludovicianus Ludovicianus
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern New England and Illinois; resident in the greater part of its range. These loud-voiced songsters are well known in the south where t...
-719. Bewick's Wren. Thryomanes Bervicki Bervicki
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States, and the Mississippi Valley north to Minnesota and locally to the Middle States in the east. This species is not common on the Atlantic coast but in the interi...
-720. Guadalupe Wren. Thryomanes Brevicauda
Range. - Guadalupe Island. A very similar species to the Vigors's Wren; nesting habits and the eggs are not apt to differ in any respect. ...
-721. House Wren. Troglodytes Aedon. Aedon
Range. - North America east of the Mississippi, breeding from the Gulf north to Manitoba and Ontario; winters in the southern half of the United States. This familiar and noisy little Wren is the mos...
-722. Winter Wren. Nannus Hiemalis Hiemalis
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward, and south in the Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters in the United States. These are the smallest of the Wrens, bein...
-723. Alaska Wren. Nannus Alascensis
Range. - Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Larger and paler than the Western Winter Wren. The habits of this species are similar to those of the eastern Winter Wren; they nest between boulders a...
-724. Short-Billed Marsh Wren. Cistothorus Stellaris
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to Manitoba and Maine. This species does not appear to be as common anywhere as is the Long-billed variety, whose habits and nests are similar. T...
-725. Long-Billed Marsh Wren. Telmatodytes Palustris Palustris
Range. - United States east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf north to Manitoba and New England; winters in southern United States. These birds are very abundant in suitable localities throughou...
-Creepers. Family Certhiidae. 726. Brown Creeper. Certhia Familiaris Americana
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the northern tier of states northward; winters in the United States. These peculiar, weak-voiced Creepers are common in northern United States during the...
-Nuthatches And Tits. Family Sittidae. 727. White-Breasted Nuthatch. Sitta Carolinensis Carolinensis
Range. - United States east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada; resident throughout its range. These birds are creepers, but unlike the last species, these run about on the tru...
-728. Red-Breasted Nuthatch. Sitta Canadensis
Range. - North America, breeding from the northern tier of states northward, and farther south in mountain ranges; winters south to southern United States. This species is smaller than the last and h...
-729. Brown-Headed Nuthatch. Sitta Pusilla
Range. - South Atlantic and Gulf States. This species has a yellowish brown crown and whitish underparts. Their habits are like those of the other Nuthatches, they nesting in cavities at varying heig...
-730. Pygmy Nuthatch. Sitta Pygmaea Pygmaea
Range. - North America west of the Rockies, breeding from Mexico north to British Columbia. Resident throughout its range. This species has an olive gray crown bordered by dusky, the back is ashy blu...
-731. Tufted Titmouse. Baeolophus Bicolor
Range. - Eastern United States, resident and breeding from the Gulf north to New York and Illinois. This species has a grayish crest and upper parts, and is white beneath with brownish sides and blac...
-732. Black-Crested Titmouse. Baeolophus Atricristatus Atricristatus
Range. - Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward. This Titmouse has a black crest and the forehead is white; otherwise similar to the preceding. Like the last, these birds nest in deserted Woo...
-733. Plain Titmouse. Baeolophus Inornatus Inornatus
Range. - California and Oregon west of the Sierra Ne-vadas. This common, slightly crested Titmouse is grayish brown above and grayish white below. They nest anywhere in cavities that meet with their ...
-734. Bridled Titmouse. Baeolophus Nollweberi
Range. - Mexico north to southern Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas. This handsome species is quite abundant in the mountains of southern Arizona, and nests in woods or about ranches, lining the c...
-735. Chickadee. Penthestes Atricapillus Atricapillus
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from the Middle and Central States northward to Labrador; only migratory to a slight extent. The Chickadee is too well known to need any description; suffice ...
-736. Carolina Chickadee. Penthestes Carolinensis Carolinensis
Range. - Southern United States from the Gulf to New Jersey and Illinois. The southern Chickadee is smaller than the northern and the wing coverts and feathers have little or no white edgings, Their ...
-737. Mexican Chickadee. Penthestes Sclateri
Range. - Mountains of western Mexico north to southern Arizona. This species has the black more extended on the throat and the under parts are grayish of a lighter shade than the upper, the cheeks, h...
-738. Mountain Chickadee. Penthestes Gambeli Gambeli
Range. - Rocky Mountain region and west to the Pacific; north to British Columbia chiefly in higher ranges. This handsome little Titmouse has a white superciliary line, leaving a black stripe through...
-739. Alaska Chickadee. Penthestes Ductus Alascensis
Range. - Northern Alaska and eastern Siberia. This bird, which is most like the Hudsonian Chickadee, nests in the usual manner and its eggs are like those of the common Chickadee of the east. ...
-740. Hudsonian Chickadee. Penthestes Hudsonicus Hudsonicus
Range. - Western half of British America. These brown capped Chickadees are very abundant throughout the northwest and are even tamer than our United States varieties. They usually make their nests at...
-741. Chestnut-Backed Chickadee. Penthestes Rufescens Rufescens
Range. - Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. This species is similar to the Hudsonian in having a brown crown and black throat, but has in addition, a chestnut colored back and sides. They breed loc...
-743. Bush-Tit. Psaltriparus Minimus Minimus
Range. - Pacific coast of northern California, Oregon and Washington. These diminutive little birds build nests that are marvels of architecture, making long purse-like structures, suspended from twi...
-744. Lead-Colored Bush-Tit. Psaltriparus Plumbeus
Range. - Rocky Mountain region from Wyoming south to Arizona. This species suspends its semi-pensile nests in bushes or trees, and some times from the mistletoe, which grows on numerous trees in sout...
-745. Lloyd's Bush-Tit. Psaltri-Parus Melanotis Lloydi
Range. - Northern Mexico north into western Texas and New Mexico. This species is similar to the lead-colored Bush-Tit but has the ear coverts glossy black. Like the others, it builds a long pensile ...
-746. Verdin. Auriparus Flaviceps Flaviceps
Range. - Mexican border of the United States, north to Colorado and Nevada. This Bush-Tit has a bright yellow head and throat, the upper parts being gray and the belly, white. They are abundant in ch...
-Warblers, Kinglets And Gnatcatchers. Family Sylviidae. 747. Kennicott's Willow Warbler. Acanthopneuste Borealis
Range. - Asia, casually found in Alaska. This species breeds in the extreme northern parts of Asia, and I believe its eggs have never been found on this continent. They build their nests of moss and ...
-748. Golden-Crowned Kinglet. Regulus Satrapa Satrapa
Range. - North America, breeding from northern United States northward, and south in the Rockies to Mexico, and in the Alleghanies to the Carolinas; winters throughout the United States. This rugged ...
-749. Ruby-Crowned Kinglet. Regulus Calendula Calendula
Range-North America, breeding from the northern border of the United States northward, and farther south in mountain ranges; winters in southern United States. This little bird is of the size of the ...
-751. Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher. Polioptila Caerulea Caerulea
Range. - United States, east of the Rockies, breeding from the Gulf to the Middle and Central States; casually north to Massachusetts and Minnesota. These graceful birds are bluish gray above with a ...
-752. Plumbeous Gnatcatcher. Polioptila Plumbea
Range. - Mexican boundary from western Texas to southern California. This species has a bright shining black crown and more black on the tail than the eastern Gnatcatcher. They saddle their nests upo...
-753. Black-Tailed Gnatcatcher. Poli-Optila Californica
Range. - Pacific coast of southern California and northern Lower California. This bird is very similar to the last but has still less white on the outer tail feathers. Like the last, the nests of thi...
-Thrushes, Solitaires, Bluebirds, Etc. Family Turdidae. 754. Townsend's Solitaire. Myadestes Tornsendi
Range. - Western United States, breeding from Arizona, New Mexico and southern California north to British Columbia. This unique species is of a uniform brownish gray color, with a white eye ring, na...
-755. Wood Thrush. Hylocichla Mustelina
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from North Carolina and Kansas north to northern United States; winters south of our borders. This Thrush with his brightly spotted breast is the most handsom...
-756. Veery. Hylocichla Fuscescens Fuscescens
Range. - Eastern North America, breeding in the northern half of its United States range and in the southern British Provinces. The Veery is very abundantly distributed in woodland, either moist or d...
-757. Gray-Cheeked Thrush. Hylocichla Aliciae Aliciae
Range. - Breeds from Labrador to Alaska; winters south to Central America. The nesting habits and eggs of this species are very similar to those of the following sub-species and the same description w...
-757. Bicknell's Thrush. Hylocichla Aliciae Bicknelli
Range. - Breeds in the Catskills, White Mountatins and Nova Scotia. These birds, which are practically identical with the preceding, build their nests at low elevations in trees, usually evergreens w...
-758. Russet-Backed Thrush. Hylocichla Ustulata Ustulata
Range. - Pacific coast, breeding in Oregon and Alaska; winters in Central America. This species is very abundant in moist thickets throughout its range, nesting in bushes and low trees, and making th...
-759. Alaska Hermit Thrush. Hylocichla Guttata Guttata
Range. - Pacific coast from British Columbia to Alaska. Winters in Mexico. The Hermit Thrushes can readily be identified from any other by the reddish brown tail which is in marked contract to the col...
-760. Red-Winged Thrush. Turdus Musicus
Range. - An Old World species, accidentally straying to Greenland. This common European bird nests at low elevations in bushes or trees, laying four or five bluish green eggs, spotted with reddish bro...
-761. Robin. Planesticus Migratorius Migratorius
Range. - North America east of the Rockies, breeding from the middle portions of the United States, north to the Arctic Ocean. These common birds nest in trees about houses, in orchards, open woods, ...
-762. San Lucas Robin. Planesticus Con-Finis
Range. - Southern Lower California. This is a very much paler form of the American Robin; its eggs probably will not differ from those of the others. NEST AND EGGS OF ROBIN J. B. Pardoe. ...
-763. Varied Thrush. Ixoreus Naevius Naevius
Range. - Pacific coast from northern California to Alaska; south to Mexico in winter. These handsome birds breed abundantly in Alaska and locally in mountain ranges south to northern California. They...
-764. Siberian Red-Spotted Bluethroat. Cyanosylvia Suecica Robusta
Range. - Northern Asia; casually to Alaska. This beautiful foreigner nests on the ground and lays four to six greenish blue eggs, spotted with reddish brown; size .75 x .50. ...
-765. Wheatear. Saxicola Cenanthe Oenanthe
Range. - Asia; casual in Alaska in summer; nesting habits and eggs like the next. Wheatear. 765a. Greenland Wheatear. Saxicola Aenanthe Leucorhoa Range. - Europe and Greenland; casual on the Atl...
-766. Bluebird. Sialia Sialis Sialis
Range. - Eastern United States, breeding from the Gulf to southern Canada. Winters in the southern half of the United States. These familiar birds build in cavities in trees, usually below 20 feet fr...
-767. Western Bluebird. Sialia Mexicana Occidentalis
Range. - Pacific coast from Lower California to British Columbia. The Western Bluebird is as common and familiar in its range as the common Bluebird is in the east. It nests in similar locations and ...
-768. Mountain Bluebird. Sialia Currucoides
Range. - Rocky Mountatin region, breeding from New Mexico north to Great Slave Lake; winters in southwestern United States and Mexico. This azure blue species is common in the greater part of its ran...
-Books on Birds
Birds of Eastern North America. By CHESTER A. REED, B. S. THE bird book of the year. It is authentic. The author KNOWS birds. He has studied them for thirty years - in the hand, for plumage, and in ...









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