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Diseases Of The Horse's Foot | by H. Caulton Reeks



Stimulated by the reception accorded my 'Common Colics of the Horse,' both in this country and in America, and assured by my publishers that a work on diseases of the foot was needed, I have been led to give to the veterinary profession the present volume.

TitleDiseases Of The Horse's Foot
AuthorH. Caulton Reeks
PublisherA. Eger
Year1906
Copyright1906, A. Eger
AmazonDiseases Of The Horse's Foot
-Preface
Stimulated by the reception accorded my 'Common Colics of the Horse,' both in this country and in America, and assured by my publishers that a work on diseases of the foot was needed, I have been led ...
-Chapter I. Introduction
The importance of that branch of veterinary surgery dealing with diseases of the horse's foot can hardly be overestimated. That the animal's usefulness is dependent upon his possession of four good fe...
-Chapter II. Regional Anatomy
Considered from a zoological standpoint, the foot of the horse will include all those parts from the knee and hock downwards. For the purposes of this treatise, however, the word foot will be used in ...
-A. The Bones
The Second Phalanx, Os Coronae, or Small Pastern Bone. - ;This belongs to the class of small bones, in that it possesses no medullary canal. It is situated obliquely in the digit, running from above d...
-B. The Ligaments
The Articulation Of The First With The Second Phalanx, or The Pastern Joint. - Adhering to the limit we have set, this articulation should not receive our attention. As, however, we shall in a later p...
-C. The Tendons
In order to convey an intelligent understanding of the tendons it will be wise to briefly describe the course of their parent muscles from their commencement. The Extensor Pedis. - The extensor pedis...
-D. The Arteries
So far as the arteries supplying the foot are concerned, we shall be interested in following up the distribution of the two digitals, which are the terminal branches of the Large Metacarpal. The Larg...
-E. The Veins
These commence at the foot with a series of plexuses, which may be described as forming (1) An Internal Or Intra-Osseous Venous System, and (2) An External Or Extra-Osseous Venous System. 1. The Intr...
-F. The Nerves
The Plantar Nerves. - These are two in number, and are distinguished as Internal and External. The Internal Plantar Nerve lies behind and in close contact with the great metacarpal artery during that...
-G. The Complementary Apparatus Of The Os Pedis
This consists of two lateral pieces, the Lateral Cartilages or Fibro-cartilages of the pedal bone, united behind and below by the Plantar Cushion. 1. The Lateral Cartilages. - Each is a flattened p...
-H. The Keratogenous Membrane
The Keratogenous, or Horn-Producing Membrane, is in reality an extension of the dermis of the digit. It covers the extremity of the digit as a sock covers the foot, spreading over the insertion of the...
-I. The Hoof
Removed from the foot by maceration a well-shaped hoof is cylindro-conical in form, and appears to the ordinary observer to consist of a box or case cast in one single piece of horn. Prolonged macerat...
-Chapter III. General Physiological And Anatomical Observations
The matter embraced by the heading of this chapter will offer for discussion many subjects of great interest to the veterinary surgeon. Around some of them debate has for many years waxed more than ke...
-A. Development Of The Hoof
Starting with the statement that it is epidermal in origin, we will first consider the structure of the skin, and follow that with a brief description of the structure and mode of growth of the human ...
-A. Development Of The Hoof. Part 2
The hair grows from the bottom of the follicle by a multiplication of the cells covering the papilla upon which its root is moulded. When a hair is cast off a new one is produced from the cells coveri...
-A. Development Of The Hoof. Part 3
The main portion of the wall is developed from the numerous papillae covering the corium of the coronary cushion. We have in this way numberless down-growing tubes of horn. Professor Mettam describes ...
-B. Chemical Properties And Histology Of Horn
Horn is a solid, tenacious, fibrous material, and its density in the hoof varies in different situations. It is softened by alkalies, such as caustic potash or soda and ammonia, the parts first attack...
-C. Expansion And Contraction Of The Hoof
Among other questions productive of heated argument come those relating to expansion of the horse's hoof. In the past many observers have strenuously insisted on the fact that expansion and contractio...
-D. The Functions Of The Lateral Cartilages.[A]
[Footnote A: Extracted from a paper by J.A. Gilruth, M.R.C.V.S., in the Veterinary Record, vol. v., p. 358.] We have just referred to contraction of the heels as taking the place of a normal expansio...
-E. Growth Of The Hoof
We will conclude this chapter with a few brief remarks on the growth of the hoof. That the rate of growth is slow is a well-known fact to every veterinarian, and it will serve for all practical purpos...
-Chapter IV. Method Of Examining The Foot
As a general rule, it may be taken that most diseases of the foot are comparatively easy of diagnosis. When, however, the condition is one which commences simply with an initial lameness, the greatest...
-Chapter V. General Remarks On Operations On The Foot. A. Methods Of Restraint
Many of the simple operations on the foot, such as the probing of a sinus, the paring out of corns, or the searching of pricks, may most suitably be performed with the animal's leg held by the operato...
-B. Instruments Required
In addition to those required for operations on the softer structures - such as scalpels, forceps, artery forceps, directors, scissors, etc. - the surgery of the foot demands instruments specially ada...
-C. The Application Of Dressings
One of the most common methods of applying a dressing to the foot is poulticing. Usually resorted to on account of its warmth-retaining properties, the poultice may also be medicated. In fact, a poult...
-D. Plantar Neurectomy
As a last resort in the treatment of many diseases of the foot the operation of neurectomy is often advised. It will be wise, therefore, to insert a description of the operation here. Derivation of t...
-D. Plantar Neurectomy. Continued
Preliminary Steps. - By some practitioners the operation is performed with the animal standing, local anaesthesia having been first obtained by the use of cocaine, or an ethyl chloride spray. There is...
-E. Median Neurectomy
As a palliative for lameness when confined to the foot, one would imagine that the plantar operation would be all sufficient. There are operators, however, who state that the results following section...
-F. Length Of Rest After Neurectomy
This is placed by the majority of surgeons at about three weeks to a month. Within that period no excessive exertion should be undergone by the patient. A certain amount of quiet exercise, however, is...
-G. Sequelę Of Neurectomy
These we shall relate collectively, making no distinction between those following excision of the plantar nerve and those succeeding section of the median. It must be remembered by the surgeon, howeve...
-G. Sequelę Of Neurectomy. Continued
Chronic Oedema of the Leg. - In some cases there is a distinct swelling of the leg some time after the operation. This exposes the limb to the infliction of sores from striking with the opposite foot,...
-H. Advantages Of The Operation
From the prominence we have given to the unfortunate sequelae of the operation it might possibly be inferred that, while not giving it our absolute condemnation, we regard neurectomy with a certain am...
-I. The Use Of The Horse That Has Undergone Neurectomy
No operation is of any considerable value to the veterinary surgeon unless he is able to show that after it he has left his patient workable. The alleviation of pain alone, commendable as it is from a...
-Chapter VI. Faulty Conformation
Under this heading we shall deal with such formations of the feet as depart sufficiently from the normal to render them serious. Faulty conformation may be either congenital or acquired, and acquired ...
-A. Weak Heels
Definition. - That condition of the wall in which, owing to the softness of the horn and the oblique direction of the horn fibres, the heels are unable properly to bear the body-weight, and, as a cons...
-B. Contracted Foot
(a) General Contraction - Contracted Heels. Definition. By the term contracted foot, otherwise known as hoof-bound, is indicated a condition in which the foot, more especially the posterior half of i...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 2
Changes in the Internal Structures. - It follows as a matter of course that the changes we have described in the form of the hoof itself carry with them alterations in the bones and sensitive structur...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 3
Exciting Causes of Contraction. - Among these, first place must undoubtedly be given to shoeing. This does not necessarily imply shoeing more than ordinarily faulty, nor a faulty preparation of the fo...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 4
Treatment. - The greater part of the treatment of contracted foot will almost suggest itself as a corollary of the causes we have enumerated. The normal width of the heels may be renewed, and developm...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 5
2. By the Use of Some Form of Expansion Shoe. Fig. 73. - Smith's Expansion Shoe Seen From Its Ground Surface And From The Side. A, The Screw, With A Fine-Cut Thread; B, Nut Which Travels Along It; ...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 6
(b) De Fay's. - Among other shoes of the expansion class may be mentioned that of De Fay. Like the preceding, it is a shoe with a flat bearing surface, and provided with bar-clips. It is, however, un ...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 7
3. By Operations on the Horn of the Wall. (a) Thinning the Wall in the Region of the Quarters. - This is best done by means of an ordinary farrier's rasp. The thinning should lessen gradually from th...
-B. Contracted Foot. Part 8
(b) Local Or Coronary Contraction. Definition. - Contraction at the heels, confined to the horn immediately succeeding that occupied by the coronary cushion. Really, the condition is but a somewhat a...
-C. Flat-Foot
Definition. - By this term is indicated a condition of the foot where the natural concavity of the sole is absent. Symptoms. - In the flat-foot the inferior edge of the wall, the sole, and the frog, ...
-D. Pumiced-Foot, Dropped Sole, Or Convex Sole
Definition. - This term is applied to the foot when the shape of the sole is comparable to the bottom of a saucer. When least marked it is really an aggravated form of flat-foot. Symptoms. - In pumic...
-E. 'Ringed' Or 'Ribbed' Hoof
Definition. - A condition of the hoof in which the wall is marked by a series of well-defined ridges in the horn, each ridge running parallel with the coronary margin. They are known commonly as 'gras...
-F. The Hoof With Bad Horn
(a) The Brittle Hoof. Definition. - As the name indicates, we have in this condition an abnormally dry state of the horn. Symptoms. - These are obvious. The horn is hard, and when cut by the farrie...
-G. Club-Foot
Definition. - Under this name we indicate all cases in which the horn of the wall become straightened from above to below. It will, therefore, include all conformations varying from the so-called 'upr...
-H. The Crooked Foot
(a) The Foot With Unequal Sides. Definition. - The foot thus affected has one side of the wall higher than the other. Symptoms. - This deformity is the better recognised when the foot on the floor i...
-Chapter VII. Diseases Arising From Faulty Conformation. A. Sand-Crack
Definition. - A solution of continuity of the horn of the foot, occurring usually in the wall, and following the direction of the horn fibres. Classification. - It is usual to classify sand-cracks ac...
-Faulty Conformation. Sand-Crack. Part 2
Symptoms. - In every case the fissure, or evidence of its commencement, is a diagnostic symptom. It is well to remember, however, that this may be easily overlooked, especially when the crack is one c...
-Faulty Conformation. Sand-Crack. Part 3
Complications. - The first complication likely to arise in a case of sand-crack is that attending simple laceration of the sensitive structures in a deep lesion. With the laceration all the phenomena ...
-Faulty Conformation. Sand-Crack. Part 4
Treatment. - The principles governing the treatment of sand-crack are simple enough in themselves, if not always followed by success. 1. Preventive. This, as a rule, does not suggest itself until a ...
-Faulty Conformation. Sand-Crack. Part 5
(c) By the Use of Thin Metal Plates. - These are of use when the horn of the wall is too thin to allow of clamping, and are therefore of especial use in cracks of the quarters. The plates are made so ...
-Faulty Conformation. Sand-Crack. Part 6
2. Curative. (a) The Application of Dressings to the Lesion. - In the case of a recent crack, deep, and attended with haemorrhage, the foot should be thoroughly cleansed. Where possible, a constant f...
-B. Corns
Definition. - In veterinary surgery the term 'corn' is used to indicate the changes following upon a bruise to that portion of the sensitive sole between the wall and the bar. Usually they occur in th...
-B. Corns. Part 2
Exciting Causes. - Than the shoeing, no more frequent and exciting cause of corn exists. Whatever the predisposing influences may be, it is the shoeing that in nearly every case completes the list, an...
-B. Corns. Part 3
With its bearing surface too wide, the shoe immediately exerts direct pressure upon the sole with every movement of the animal. The sole normally is not made to receive this, and harm is bound to resu...
-B. Corns. Part 4
Pathological Anatomy. - When dealing with their classification we gave in outline the main pathological changes to be met with in corns. It now only remains to give the same matter in slightly greater...
-B. Corns. Part 5
In the Suppurating Corn, as in moist corn, we have pathological changes due to the tissue reaction to the injury, plus the addition of pus organisms. Confined within the horny box we have a discharge ...
-B. Corns. Part 6
A moderate paring may, however, be indulged in, say, to about one-half the estimated thickness of the sole. Softening of the horn and consequent lessening of pressure may then be brought about by the ...
-C. Chronic Bruised Sole
A similar condition to that of corn may be met with in other positions on the sole. It is described by Rogerson as sand-crack of the sole[A], and is invariably met with around that portion of the sole...
-Chapter VIII. Wounds Of The Keratogenous Membrane. A. Nail-Bound Bind Or Tight-Nailing
Definition. - By the term 'nail-bound' is indicated that accident occurring in the forge in which the nail of the shoe is driven too near the sensitive structures. Although involving no actual wound, ...
-B. Punctured Foot
(Pricked Foot - Nail-tread - Gathered Nail.) Definition. - Under this heading we propose describing wounds of the foot occurring in the sole or in the frog, and penetrating the sensitive structures b...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 2
In many cases, however, it so happens that no evidence of the infliction of the injury is forthcoming. The momentary lameness occurring at the time of the prick is unreported at the time by the attend...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 3
Where the opinion has been formed that a prick has been received, then the shoe should be removed. This operation should always be superintended by the veterinary surgeon himself. After the removal o...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 4
(g) Ostitis and Caries of the Os Pedis. - Injuries to the os pedis are met with in the anterior zone of the foot. Evidence that the bone has been injured is not usually forthcoming until after the lap...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 5
Treatment. - In a simple case - and by 'simple' here we mean the case in which the injury is discovered early, and pus has not yet commenced to form - our first duties are to give the wound free drain...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 6
When necrosis of the plantar aponeurosis has occurred. We have already pointed out the tendency there is in this case for the wound to maintain a fistulous character, and lead to the formation of absc...
-B. Punctured Foot. Part 7
Recorded Case of the Treatment. - A cart-horse, aged six years, was sent to the Alfort School by a veterinary surgeon for having picked up a nail in the hind-foot. Professor Cadiot, judging the necess...
-C. Coronitis (Simple). Tread, Overreach, Etc
1. Acute. Definition. - Under the heading of simple coronitis in its acute form we intend to describe those inflammatory conditions of the skin and underlying structures of the coronet occurring with...
-C. Coronitis (Simple). Tread, Overreach, Etc. Part 2
There are, however, complications. Complications - (a) Diffuse Purulent Inflammation of the Sub-coronary Tissue. - This condition is brought about by the spread into the loose tissue of the coronary ...
-C. Coronitis (Simple). Tread, Overreach, Etc. Part 3
Treatment - Preventive. - Seeing that at any rate the majority of cases of coronitis result from injuries inflicted by the shoes, we may look at once to that particular for a means of prevention. Tak...
-C. Coronitis (Simple). Tread, Overreach, Etc. Part 4
Sequels. - Either of the complications we have mentioned - as, for instance, Arthritis, Sand-crack, or Quittor - may persist and remain as sequels to the case. In addition to these, there may be left ...
-C. Coronitis (Simple). Tread, Overreach, Etc. Part 5
Treatment. - In very many cases, possibly on account of the decreased circulation and vitality of the parts, these growths occur in aged animals. Here treatment is not economic, and may for that reaso...
-D. False Quarter
Definition. - False quarter is the term applied to that condition of the horn of the quarter in which, owing to disease or injury of the coronet, the wall is grown in a manner that is incomplete. Sym...
-E. Accidental Tearing Off Of The Entire Hoof
Causes. - Seeing that this accident to, and consequent severe wounding of, the keratogenous membrane nearly always occurs in but one way, it is worthy of special mention. So far as we are able to asce...
-E. Accidental Tearing Off Of The Entire Hoof. Continued
2. 'The case I am about to give you an account of, being one of rare occurrence, I thought would not prove uninteresting to the members of the Veterinary Medical Association. It is an instance of comp...
-Chapter IX. Inflammatory Affections Of The Keratogenous Apparatus. A. Acute Laminitis
Definition. - The term 'laminitis' is used to indicate a spontaneous and diffuse inflammation of the whole of the sensitive structures of the foot, more particularly the sensitive laminae. Usually it ...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 2
Passing from these, the more common, we may consider other and less frequent causes of the disease. Congestion of the laminal blood-vessels and consequent laminitis occurs when animals are made to mai...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 3
With the fore-feet alone attacked, the animal affects exactly the same position of standing as that just described. The fore-feet are again extended, and the hind propped far beneath him. The fore ext...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 4
(b) Exudation. - The period of exudation marks the outpouring of the inflammatory fluid. This, even more than the haemorrhages attending the stage of congestion, tends to destroy the intimacy between ...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 5
(c) Gangrene of the Structures within the Hoof. - This complication is the one most to be dreaded. It occurs as a result of the great pressure exerted by an excessive exudation, and doubtless affects ...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 6
Treatment. - The treatment of acute laminitis in its early stage must be based upon the fact that we have to deal with a congested state of the circulatory apparatus of the whole of the keratogenous m...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 7
On the other hand, when the disease has occurred as a result of long standing in the stable and an overloaded condition of the bowels, or where one full meal of some constipating food, such as whole w...
-A. Acute Laminitis. Part 8
Recorded Cases. - 1. 'On the evening of September 28 last, I was called rather hurriedly to attend a posting-horse which had just arrived from a twenty-one miles' journey, and was said to be very ill...
-1. Chronic Laminitis
Definition. - A low and persisting type of inflammation of the sensitive structures of the foot, characterized by changes in the form of the hoof, and incurable pathological alterations within it. Ca...
-1. Chronic Laminitis. Continued
Fig. 124. - Longitudinal Section Of A Foot With Laminitis Of Three Weeks' Standing. On The Anterior Face Of The Cavity, In Front Of The Os Pedis, Are Thickened Horny Laminae. Due To The Sinking Of T...
-2. Seedy-Toe
Definition. - A defect in the horn of the wall, usually at the toe, but occurring elsewhere, resulting in loss of its substance in either its internal or external layers (see Figs. 129, 130, and 131)....
-3. Keraphyllocele
Definition. - By this term is indicated an enlargement forming on the inner surface of the wall. In shape and extent these enlargements vary. Usually they are rounded and extend from the coronary cush...
-4. Keratoma
In our nomenclature the terms 'Keratoma' and 'Keraphyllocele' are both used to indicate the condition we have just described. There are some, however, who reserve the term 'Keratoma' for horny tumours...
-5. Thrush
Definition. - A disease of the frog characterized by a discharge from it of a black and offensive pus, and accompanied by more or less wasting of the organ. Causes. - The primary cause of this affect...
-6. Canker
Definition. - Under this unscientific, yet expressive term, is indicated a chronic diseased condition of the keratogenous membrane, commencing always at the frog, and slowly extending to the sole and ...
-6. Canker. Part 2
Predisposing Causes. - Starting with the assumption that the disease is due to local infection, we may relate as predisposing causes anything having a prejudicial effect upon the horn, disintegrating ...
-6. Canker. Part 3
Symptoms and Pathological Anatomy. - The symptoms of canker are seldom noticeable at the commencement of an attack. The disease is slow in its progress; for some time confines its ravages to the sub-h...
-6. Canker. Part 4
Treatment. - From what has gone before, it will be seen that the eradication of canker is no easy task, that it is, in fact, a most difficult matter, and one not to be lightly undertaken. At the risk ...
-6. Canker. Part 5
'On the second day following the shoe should be removed, and the foot redressed. To effect this it is necessary to recast the horse. Commencing at the edge of the sound horn, at the most dependent par...
-6. Canker. Part 6
The same author draws attention to the fact that caustic agents such as nitrate of lead, chloride of zinc, etc., act too powerfully if the bleeding has been arrested and the wound disinfected. They th...
-7. Specific Coronitis
Definition. - In describing this condition under the above heading, we are following the lead of Mr. Malcolm. We may define it as a chronic inflammatory condition of the keratogenous membrane, usually...
-Chapter X. Diseases Of The Lateral Cartilages. A. Wounds Of The Cartilages
To a consideration of this we shall devote but little space. It is sufficient to say that any wound in the region of the coronet should always be given the most careful attention. More particularly sh...
-B. Quittor
Definition. - A fistulous wound of the foot, usually opening at the coronet, and variously complicated according to the structures invaded by its contained pus. For the reason that quittor is in every...
-1. Simple Or Cutaneous Quittor
Definition. - This condition is simply a sloughing of a portion of the skin of the coronet, together with a portion of the immediately underlying soft structures. Causes. - This form of quittor has i...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor
Definition. - A fistulous wound of the foot in which the lower and blind end of the fistula is situated below the level of the coronary margin of the wall. Causes. - These, again, will be practically...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 2
With necrosis of the lateral cartilage is always swelling and thickening of the skin and subcutaneous structures of the coronet. This is the greater the longer the disease has been in existence. Upon ...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 3
(c) Caries of the Bones. - Portions of the os pedis, more especially of its wings, and therefore usually occurring in conjunction with necrosed cartilage, become carious in quittor. In many cases it i...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 4
The Actual Cautery. - Largely of the same empirical nature, yet doing something a little more calculated to destroy necrotic tissue and bring about its sloughing is the use of the cautery, both actual...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 5
The Potential Cautery. - This is employed in the treatment of sub-horny quittor, either in the solid form (in sticks, in lumps, or in the powder), or in the liquid form, when it is injected with a qui...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 6
When the Complication of Necrosed Tendon or Ligament exists. - We may take it as an axiom that wherever this exists, whether it is in the extensor pedis, in the lateral ligaments of the joint, or in p...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 7
Second Method (after Holler and Frick[A]). - These operators deem it wise to leave untouched the skin of the coronet and the coronary cushion. They therefore make their first incision along the lower ...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 8
Dressing of the Wound and After-Treatment. - The whole secret of the success of this operation is in afterwards maintaining a strict asepsis of the wound. Unless there is reasonable room for belief th...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 9
Partial Excision of the Lateral Cartilage. - Discarding the somewhat elaborate methods we have just described, there are English operators who removed the necrosed portion only of the cartilage, and d...
-2. Sub-Horny Quittor. Part 10
Surgical Shoeing in Quittor. - In the case of simple or cutaneous quittor, no alteration in the shoeing is necessary. When the condition becomes sub-horny, however, and particularly when it is situat...
-C. Ossification Of The Lateral Cartilages, Or Side-Bones
Definition. - An abnormal condition of the lateral cartilages, in which the substance of the cartilage becomes gradually removed and bone formed in its place. Fig. 143. - Ossified Lateral Cartilage...
-Ossification Of The Lateral Cartilages, Side-Bones. Part 2
Causes. - To commence with, we may remark that, although met with sometimes in very early life, side-bones are seldom, if ever, congenital, and that more often than not they may be looked for in anima...
-Ossification Of The Lateral Cartilages, Side-Bones. Part 3
Treatment. - In the ordinary way the 'treatment' of side-bone is a thing but rarely mentioned. The explanation lies, of course, in the fact that side-bones are so rarely the cause of lameness. When la...
-Ossification Of The Lateral Cartilages, Side-Bones. Part 4
In making these grooves we must say that we think the use of the special saw may be dispensed with, and the incisions just as easily, or, at any rate, just as successfully, made with the knife. Those ...
-Chapter XI. Diseases Of The Bones. A. Periostitis And Ostitis
We head this section, Periostitis and Ostitis, for the reason that in actual practice it is rare for one of these affections to occur without the other. The periosteum and the bone are so intimately c...
-1. Periostitis
This we shall consider under (a) Simple Acute Periostitis, (b) Suppurative Periostitis, (c) Osteoplastic Periostitis. (a) Simple Acute Periostitis. - This is the periostitis that follows on the infl...
-2. Ostitis
We shall next deal with the inflammatory changes occurring in the bones themselves, and shall consider them under (a): Rarefying or Rarefactive Ostitis, (b): Osteoplastic Ostitis, and (c): Caries and ...
-2. Ostitis. Continued
Treatment. - In simple cases of periostitis, those caused by a blow but free from an actual wound, the most beneficial treatment is the continued application of cold by means of a hose-pipe or by swab...
-B. Pyramidal Disease, Buttress Foot, Or Low Ringbone
Definition. - A condition of periostitis and ostitis in the region of the pyramidal process of the os pedis, usually preceded, but sometimes followed, by fracture of the process, and characterized by ...
-C. Fractures Of The Bones
More or less by reason of the protection afforded them by the hoof fractures of the bones of the foot are rare. When occurring they are more often than not the result of direct injury, as, for example...
-1. Fractures Of The Os Coronae
Fractures of the os coronae result from such causes as we have just enumerated, and are nearly always seen in conjunction with fractured os suffraginis. When this latter bone is also fractured diagnos...
-2. Fractures Of The Os Pedis
These also are a result of the causes we have before given. The os pedis is also liable to fractures from pricks, from treads in the region of the wings, and from the malnutrition and careless use of ...
-3. Fractures Of The Navicular Bone
Hidden within the wings of the os pedis, and protected as it is by its tendinous covering and the yielding substance of the plantar cushion, the navicular bone is even less liable to fracture than eit...
-Chapter XII. Diseases Of The Joints[A]
[Footnote A: Properly speaking, we have in the foot of the horse but one joint - namely, the corono-pedal articulation. Although not a joint in the strict sense of the word, we, nevertheless, intend...
-A. Synovitis
Definition. - By the term 'synovitis' is indicated an inflammation of the synovial membrane. It may be either (a) Simple or Acute, or it may be (b) Purulent or Suppurative. In the simple form there ...
-B. Arthritis
(a) Simple Or Serous Arthritis. With an attack of simple synovitis it may be always assumed that the changes commenced in the synovial membrane, communicate themselves more or less readily to the sur...
-B. Arthritis. Part 2
Symptoms and Diagnosis. - This is one of the most serious conditions we are called upon to face when dealing with diseases of the foot, for in many cases it quickly ends in exhaustion and death of the...
-B. Arthritis. Part 3
Pathology. - The pathological changes occurring in suppurative arthritis we shall pass over briefly. It is almost sufficient, in fact, to say that the whole of the joint becomes completely disorganize...
-C. Navicular Disease
Definition. - Chronic inflammatory changes occurring in connection with the navicular bursa, affecting variously the bursa itself, the perforans tendon, or the navicular bone, and characterized by cha...
-C. Navicular Disease. Part 2
3. Changes in the Tendon. - The effect of these calcareous deposits on the under surface of the bone is to produce a certain amount of roughness. Seeing that with every movement of the foot the perfor...
-C. Navicular Disease. Part 3
3. Concussion. - This we are bound to admit as a cause, and in so doing partly explain the comparative, almost total, immunity of the hind-feet from the disease. The fore-limbs, as we have already poi...
-C. Navicular Disease. Part 4
Symptoms and Diagnosis. - In the early stages of navicular disease the symptoms are obscure. Pointing of the affected limb is the first evidence the animal gives. This, however, more often than not, g...
-C. Navicular Disease. Part 5
Differential Diagnosis. - Navicular disease may be mistaken for ordinary contracted foot. It will be remembered, however, that in the early stages of navicular disease contraction is absent, and that ...
-C. Navicular Disease. Part 6
Treatment. - We have seen from the pathology of this disease that it may commence either as a rarefactive ostitis, or as a synovitis and tenositis in connection with the bursa. With the former conditi...
-D. Dislocations
The firm and rigid manner in which the bones of the pedal articulation are held together renders dislocation of this joint an exceedingly rare occurrence, and then it is only liable to happen under th...









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