books



previous page: The Horse | by Isaac Phillips Roberts
  
page up: Horse Books
  
next page: The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol4-5 | by J. Wortley Axe

The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol2-3 | by J. Wortley Axe



The Digestive System - Its Diseases And Injuries. Diseases Of The Lips.The Urinary Apparatus. The Nervous System. The Absorbent System. The Organs Of Circulation. The Blood. The Organs Of Respiration And The Respiratory Process.

TitleThe Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol2-3
AuthorJ. Wortley Axe
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonThe Horse. Its Treatment In Health And Disease

With A Complete Guide To Breeding Training And Management

-The Horse Treatment In Health And Disease
Edited By Prof. J. Wortley Axe, M.R.C.V.S, Ex-President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, Late Lecturer at the Royal Veterinary College, and at the Agricultural Colleges of Dounton an...
-Ponies And Pony-Breeding. The Exmoor
The Exmoor pony, like the Dartmoor, should not exceed 13 hands at the shoulder, even if he reaches that height, a fact that is rather remarkable, for Exmoor is better supplied with nourishing keep tha...
-The New Forest
As probably everyone who reads these lines is aware, the New Forest owes its existence as a royal forest to William the Conqueror; and it is pretty certain that since the days of that monarch it has b...
-The Welsh
The true Welsh pony, and especially if he is a creditable representative of his race, is one of the best and most serviceable animals that could be desired. The worst thine that can be said about him ...
-The Westmoreland
Sir Walter Gilbey, Bart., in his extremely interesting article on the subject of ponies, which appears in the Live Stock Journal Almanack for 1896, makes the statement that the moors and waste lands o...
-The Shetland
There is not much to be written about the Shetland pony that is not generally known, but it is satisfactory to be able to assert that these useful little horses are making steady headway in the south ...
-The Irish
The Irish ponies can scarcely be accepted as being indigenous to the Emerald Isle, as, though they chiefly come from the Galway districts, any originality of type which they may have once possessed ha...
-The Dale Or Fell Pony
This pony is doubtless a very close relation of the Westmoreland tap-root, if not identically the same animal, and also resembles the Rum pony in its conformation, so that the description given of the...
-The Rum Pony
The association of the above name with a well-known breed of ponies inhabiting the north and west of Scotland has become of late years an accomplished fact, owing to the fact that almost all the best ...
-The Hackney Pony
The Hackney pony, now unquestionably an established breed, is a most valuable little animal, not only on account of his intrinsic merits, but because of the great success which usually attends the cro...
-The Wilson Pony
This variety, which only exists in small numbers, owing to the fact that its origin is comparatively a matter of recent date, is founded upon a long-sustained cross of the Hackney upon the Fell pony. ...
-Heavy Horses. The Shire Horse
The subject of the present article is entitled to be accepted as the giant of the equine world, and possibly no variety of English horse impresses foreign visitors to an agricultural show more than do...
-Heavy Horses. The Shire Horse. Continued
To King Henry VIII, therefore, the present Shire horse is indebted for a good deal of the size and power it possesses; but in spite of the improvements brought about by the active policy of that much-...
-What's Wanted (2332)
What's Wanted was bred by Mr. J. Ashmore of Darlton, Nottinghamshire, in 1873. He was a bay horse 17 hands high, with two white hind-legs and a broad blaze down the face. At two years old he came int...
-Royal Albert (1885)
Royal Albert was a rich brown horse standing 17 hands 2 inches, with two white hind-legs and a blaze down the face. He was bred by Mr. C. Marsden of Hatfield, near Doncaster, in 1872, and as a foal w...
-Royal Albert (1885). Part 2
Having thus attempted to trace briefly the genealogy of this ancient breed, through the long period that has elapsed since the days when the earliest kings of this country first directed their attenti...
-Royal Albert (1885). Part 3
Plate XVIII. HACKNEY STALLION, POLONIUS 4931. Chestnut Horse by Wildfire 3224; dam 1301 Ophelia by Denmark 177 or Danegelt 174. Winner of numerous prizes and sire of many winners. The Property...
-Royal Albert (1885). Part 4
There is a considerable latitude permitted to judges in their selection of a Shire horse so far as the question of colour is concerned, but it is noticeable that during late years there has been a per...
-Lincolnshire Lad II (1365)
Lincolnshire Lad II was a grey horse 17 hands high, and was bred by Mr. Fred Ford, Locko Park, Derbyshire, in 1872. He was by Lincolnshire Lad, 1196, out of Madam by Matchless, 1506. Early in his care...
-William The Conqueror (2343)
A brown horse, bred by Mr. Barrs of Repton Park, Nottinghamshire. He was foaled in 1862, and was by Leicestershire (Bomber's) out of a mare also bred by Mr. Bans, but whose pedigree is not known. He ...
-Clydesdales
The resemblance which exists between the Clydesdale and the Shire horse may possibly be regarded by persons who are not intimately acquainted with the points of heavy horses as being very close; thoug...
-Clydesdales. Part 2
Writing so far back as the year 1782, the Rev. David Ure, the minister of Rutherglen, in his history of the parish in question, states that the horses of Clydesdale had become famous long before that ...
-Clydesdales. Part 3
It was of course impossible that a breed like the Clydesdale, the merits and value of which became generally recognized almost as soon as the horse was known, would long remain without supporters in o...
-The Suffolk
Perhaps in the eyes of the ordinary visitor to an agricultural show there is no variety of the so-called Heavy Horse more attractive than the Suffolk. The breed, moreover, comes as somewhat of a novel...
-The Suffolk. Part 2
Whether the introduction of alien blood is in any way responsible for the appearance of the different shade of chestnut and the white markings that are to be found amongst the Suffolks of the present ...
-The Suffolk. Part 3
The head of the Suffolk Punch shows more breeding and quality about it than that of any other heavy horse, a very conspicuous feature being the eye, which is full of expression, yet mild and intellige...
-Foreign Breeds. The Arab
There is unfortunately no room left for doubting that the Arab horse has suffered much through the mistaken and excessive partisanship of over-zealous friends. The lavish - one might almost adopt the ...
-Foreign Breeds. The Arab. Continued
In height the mares found by Lady Anne Blunt in the stables at Had were certainly below that which would recommend them to English judges of insular ideas; but, as stated above, a very great increase ...
-The Percheron
The Percheron is the best known and most valuable of the French breeds of horse, and is certainly of ancient extraction, though it is doubtful whether, as some persons are inclined to believe, the tap...
-The Hanoverian Horse
Probably most persons who know that His Majesty's Creams which are attached to his carriage on great state occasions are of Hanoverian blood, are quite unaware that there is, or at all events was unti...
-The Morgan Horse
This is an American production in the shape of a harness horse, the precise origin of which is obscure, though, according to all accounts, it is descended back to a stallion named Justin Morgan, which...
-The Oldenburgh
This breed, which is raised in the district of Germany from which it takes its name, may be regarded as, upon the whole, the most valuable of all the Continental varieties of heavy carriage horse. At ...
-The Holstein
The district in which this horse is produced is easily ascertained from the name borne by the variety, which, beyond a doubt, is a very ancient one. Indeed it is claimed on behalf of the Holstein that...
-The Schleswig
The Schleswig horse is a totally different class of animal from the Holstein, inasmuch as he is distinctly of the heavy, carthorse type. He favours the Suffolk stamp, however, far more than he does th...
-The East Friseland
This is a big, useful variety of Continental horse, the home of which lies north of Oldenburgh, and is bounded by the North Sea. The East Friseland breed may be regarded as occupying a position in the...
-Health And Disease. 1. Introductory
Health, using the word in a definite sense, is a theoretical condition; it implies perfect correspondence of the organism with the surrounding conditions, and its maintenance includes perfect adaptati...
-Etiology - Causes Of Disease
The most obvious and at the same time the most simple and practical classification of causes of disease is the division into Predisposing and Exciting. This classification includes at. once nearly all...
-Predisposing Causes Of Disease
The predisposing causes of disease are generally subdivided under several headings, which may begin with the hereditary constitution, which is the most prominent and important, then temperament, age, ...
-Exertion
Exercise is a recognized necessity for the maintenance of all the functions of the body, including the mental functions, which are not of first importance with regard to the lower animals. As in the c...
-Heredity
Of the existence of a tendency to disease transmitted from parents to offspring no doubt can be entertained; whether the predisposition so conveyed be called idiosyncrasy, constitutional peculiarity, ...
-Temperament
In dealing with the predisposing causes of disease, certain types of temperament are defined. The sanguine temperament refers to animals of a lively disposition with active circulation and quick movem...
-Exciting Causes Of Disease
Those influences which have the power of acting upon the organism in such a way as to excite disease, especially in the system which is already predisposed, were formerly divided into cognizable and n...
-Exciting Causes Of Disease Which Are Cognizable
Mechanical causes are usually referred to in the first instance under the above heading, and they include all agencies which immediately damage the structures or in any way disturb the functions of an...
-Solid And Liquid Food
In respect of the influence of solid and liquid food, the lower animals are favourably situated in comparison with the human subject, as, in a state of domestication, horses and other animals which ar...
-Contagious And Infectious Causes
The two terms contagious and infectious are by advanced pathologists looked upon as interchangeable, but, notwithstanding, they are commonly used with the meanings which were formerly attached to them...
-Bacteria
Although disease-producing micro-organisms take their place naturally among the exciting causes of disease, their life-history has attracted so much attention during the last twenty years, and has bee...
-Morphology Of Bacteria
Bacteria have been defined as minute vegetable cells. Their claim to a vegetable origin is based upon the experimental fact that they have the power of obtaining their nitrogen from ammonia, a propert...
-Action Of Bacteria In The Production Of Disease
When it was first suggested that diseases were due to the action of minute organisms, the question as to the mode of their action naturally arose, and various theories were promulgated. Some authoriti...
-Digestion. The Alimentary Canal And Its Appendages
The alimentary canal is a tube which, commencing at the mouth, is continued by means of the pharynx and oesophagus to the stomach, where it undergoes considerable enlargement. It then contracts again ...
-Salivary Glands (Figs. 76, 77)
There are three chief pairs of salivary glands, which have received the names of parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual, together with several subordinate glands known as the molar, or buccal, labial, ...
-Deglutition
After the food has been masticated it is rolled by the tongue into a kind of ball and pressed backward against the palate till it is seized by the muscular walls of the pharynx and transmitted to the ...
-The Small Intestine
The small intestine commences at the pylorus, which is the strong muscular ring that separates the stomach from the intestine, and it terminates at the point where the alimentary canal suddenly enlarg...
-The Liver
This organ is the largest gland in the body, weighing from 10 to 12 lbs. avoirdupois. It occupies the fore part and right side of the abdominal cavity, being situated immediately behind the diaphragm....
-The Cells
These are rounded masses of protoplasm without cell membrane, but containing a nucleus and granules of various kinds, some being particles of pigment, others oil globules, and others again grains of g...
-The Blood-Vessels
Three blood-vessels are concerned in the circulation of the liver. Two carry blood to it - the hepatic artery and the portal vein - while the third, the hepatic vein, returns the blood which has circu...
-Glycogen
This substance, although especially abundant in the liver, is rather widely distributed in the body, being a constituent of the white cells of the blood, the muscles, and various embryonic or growing ...
-Natural Food
The natural food of the wild horse is the fresh moist succulent grasses and cereals of the temperate zones. These include many species of the Graminaceae, and plants like the mallow, rumex, and ranunc...
-Gastric Digestion
Having traversed the oesophagus or gullet, the crushed and moistened food enters the stomach and is immediately subjected to the action of the acid gastric juice. This is a clear fluid which is secret...
-Intestinal Digestion
As soon as the chyme has passed from the stomach into the intestine it excites the flow of bile from the liver, of pancreatic juice from the pancreas, and of intestinal fluid from the numerous Lieberk...
-2. The Digestive System - Its Diseases And Injuries. Diseases Of The Lips
The lips may become diseased from a variety of causes. In some instances the disease may be of constitutional origin, in others of a purely local character. Besides common ailments, these organs are a...
-Inflammation Of The Mouth (Stomatitis)
Inflammation of the mouth presents itself in a variety of forms, sometimes resulting in an eruption of white raised spots on the tongue, gums, and other parts of the cavity. In this form it is ...
-Aphteae
This form of inflammation of the mouth, occasionally seen in foals and other young creatures, is characterized by an eruption on the tongue and other parts of the membrane, and sometimes also on the l...
-Inflammation Of The Tongue (Glossitis)
By glossitis is understood an inflamed condition of the substance of the tongue. It is a disease of seldom occurrence in the horse and usually attended with some danger, not only on account of its imm...
-Congestion Of The Palate (Lampas)
Lampas is a congested state of that portion of the palate situated immediately behind the upper row of front teeth. It is mostly seen in young animals during the period when the teeth are being change...
-Inflammation Of The Throat (Pharyngitis)
Sore throat, as this disease is commonly termed, is an ailment of frequent occurrence in the horse, appearing on some occasions in the course of one or another of the contagious fevers to which this a...
-Abscess Of The Throat
The growth of abscess in this situation is of seldom occurrence, except in connection with strangles. Occasionally, however, it results from the lodgment of a foreign body in the throat, as a thorn, t...
-Salivation, Or Ptyalism
This disease consists in an excessive secretion of saliva, and may result from various causes - some acting directly on the salivary organs themselves, others exciting their undue action by irritating...
-Inflammation Of The Parotid Glands (Parotitis)
In its local manifestations this disease resembles the human ailment usually described as mumps, but the two affections are quite distinct from each other. Mumps is a specific contagious fever commu...
-Fistula Of The Parotid Duct
The parotid duct, or duct of Stenson, is the vessel or canal by which saliva is conveyed from the salivary gland into the mouth. On leaving the gland the parotid duct (fig. 92, p. 259) passes along th...
-Salivary Calculi
Although of rare occurrence calculi are now and again met with in the course of the salivary ducts, and more especially in that one which conveys the saliva from the parotid gland into the mouth. Sali...
-Choking
Choking results when some solid body or substance becomes fixed in some part of the oesophagus or gullet. In this condition swallowing is either imperfectly performed or rendered altogether impossible...
-Vomiting
Vomiting, or the ejection of the stomach's contents by the nostrils and mouth, is comparatively rare in the horse; so much so that many persons believe that it never occurs. In the chapter on choking ...
-Acute Indigestion
Indigestion presents itself in one of two forms - either it is acute and attended with severe pain and suffering of short duration, or it assumes a less noticeable but lingering and chronic character....
-Chronic Indigestion
Causes This form of the disease may have its origin in a variety of causes. Some of these refer to faults or weaknesses in the animal itself; others are connected with feeding and management. In rega...
-Gastritis
Definition Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, especially involving the more highly vascular or villous portion contiguous with the intestine. It differs from mere gastric irritation ...
-Acute Gastritis
Causes Acute gastritis is not uncommonly associated with engorgement of the stomach, and may result from the presence of a foreign body, or from the action of irritant poison on the lining membrane. ...
-Chronic Gastritis
Chronic gastritis is more frequently met with than the condition previously described. It may follow upon the acute form as a sequel to irritant poisoning or engorgement, or arise out of a long-contin...
-Chronic Dilation Of The Stomach
Dilation of the stomach may arise either from physical or physiological causes. In the former case it results from the slow growth of malignant and other formations in or around the pyloric opening by...
-Ruptured Stomach
Ruptured stomach is rarely met with in young horses except as a result of extraordinary violence when the stomach has been greatly distended by food. In many cases the mishap is preceded by structural...
-Colic Or Gripes
There are two kinds of colic, distinguished as spasmodic colic and flatulent colic, both of which are characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain Spasmodic colic results from morbid contraction or spa...
-Flatulent Colic
Definition This is a condition in which the large bowels are distended with gas brought about as a result of decomposition of the food contained in them. It may follow upon spasmodic colic, or result...
-Constipation
Definition Constipation is a condition of the intestines in which for various reasons the faeces are too long retained, too hard in consistence, and voided with difficulty in inadequate quantity. Ca...
-Diarrhoea
Definition Diarrhoea is the expression of an irritable condition of the alimentary canal, sometimes resulting from an excess, or deficiency or impaired quality of one or other of the digestive secret...
-Superpurgation
Definition This term is used to describe an artificially-induced diarrhoea by the injudicious use of purgative medicines. Causes The administration of a dose of purgative medicine too large for the...
-Dysentery
Definition Dysentery is a destructive inflammatory disease resulting in ulceration of the lining membrane of the bowel. It is attended with more or less haemorrhage and a copious discharge of mucus w...
-Enteritis
Enteritis, or inflammation of the bowels, is one of the most frequently fatal diseases of the horse with which we have to contend. It may affect the large bowel, the small one, or both. It is the form...
-Rupture Of The Intestine
This condition is usually brought about by external violence acting upon a distended or overloaded bowel, or it may result from overdistension alone. The force with which a horse comes to the ground w...
-Intestinal Obstruction
For various reasons presently to be indicated, we do not include this disorder under the title of constipation. Here the food, or whatever else may be the offending body, is arrested in its course alo...
-Calculi (Stones)
Calculi (calx, lime) are masses of crystalline matter of stony hardness formed in the interior of hollow organs, such as the bladder, the bowels, the pelvis of the kidney, the ducts of glands, etc. Th...
-Intestinal Calculi
Intestinal calculi are dense masses of earthy matter derived from the salts of the food, and by their close texture assume the form of stones - a term by which they are commonly known. They usually pr...
-Concretions
These formations differ from calculi in the fact that they are made up of masses of vegetable and earthy matter agglomerated together, while the latter consist exclusively of salts which have crystall...
-Inversion Of The Rectum
Now and again, in the course of violent paroxysms of straining, the rectum, or posterior bowel, is forced through the anal opening, with the inner or mucous membrane turned outward. The extent to whic...
-Diseases Of The Liver Congestion Of The Liver
Definition When the vessels of the liver contain blood in excess of the requirements for bile formation and the nutrition of the gland, it is said to be congested. Causes Accumulation of blood here...
-Jaundice, Icterus, The Yellows
This disease is so termed from the yellow discoloration imparted to the tissues of the body by bile, which, in consequence of some functional or structural disorder of the liver, has been allowed to a...
-Hepatitis (Inflammation Of The Liver)
Inflammation of the liver may assume an acute or a chronic form. In the former it usually results in the development of one or more abscesses, while in the latter it brings about general enlargement ...
-Acute Hepatitis
This disease is of rare occurrence in the adult horse, and more prevalent in tropical climates than in Europe. The reason for this difference is no doubt to be found in the much-higher temperature to...
-Chronic Inflammation - Cirrhosis
These terms are employed to describe a condition we cannot with any certainty determine during life. It is one of abiding inflammatory irritation of the connective tissue which unites the ducts and se...
-Fatty Liver
Definition Some amount of fat is always to be found in the cells of the healthy liver, but the term fatty liver is used to express a morbid state in which the cells have either accumulated large quan...
-Pathology
The accumulation of oil-globules in the cells of the liver has the effect of interfering with their functional activity. The size of the liver is not necessarily increased, though such is generally th...
-Rupture Of The Liver
Definition This condition may involve the gland structure alone, or it may also extend through the fibrous capsule enclosing it. It is usually attended with more or less internal bleeding. More when...
-Abdominal Ascites - Dropsy
Definition An accumulation of serous or sero-fibrinous fluid within the abdominal cavity. Causes Although an occasional sequel to peritonitis of a chronic type, it is in most instances wholly uncon...
-Spasm Of The Diaphragm
The diaphragm is a muscle which, with its broad central tendon, separates the chest from the abdominal cavity. Under some circumstances it is excited to violent contraction, which is repeated at short...
-Parasitic Diseases Of The Liver
These happily are not numerous in the horse. The chief offenders are the distomes or flukes, and the cestodes or bladder-worms. Of the former the Distoma hepaticum, fig. 112, is the particular spe...
-Hernia Or Rupture
Definition Hernia is the protrusion of an organ, or part of an organ, from its proper cavity, whether as the result of a rent in the tissues, as when the belly is broken, or an escape through a natur...
-Exomphalus Or Umbilical Hernia
Definition An enlargement of the floor of the belly caused by the extrusion of a portion of bowel or omentum through the navel opening. Fig. 114. - Truss for Umbilical Hernia. In foals it is ...
-Inguinal Hernia - Bubonocele
These terms are used to indicate the escape and lodgment of some of the abdominal contents in the inguinal canal. Although a common form of rupture in man, it is of rare occurrence in horses, owing ch...
-Strangulated Inguinal Hernia
It is more especially in stallions advanced in years, and who have been much used at the stud, that inguinal hernia calls for active treatment. Here.the internal abdominal ring having become enlarged,...
-Scrotal Hernia
This form of the disease exists when, instead of being arrested in the inguinal canal, the displaced gut or mesentery descends through it into the scrotum or purse. Scrotal hernia, like inguinal hern...
-Ventral Hernia
In speaking of umbilical hernia we pointed out that the escape of the abdominal contents took place through a natural opening (navel or umbilical opening). In ventral hernia it is otherwise. Here the ...
-Irregularities And Diseases Of The Teeth
Since the advent of so-called horse-dentists, and the prominence given to the subject in connection with the illness of the Duke of Westminster's Orme, the horse-owning public has been awakened to t...
-Numerical Excess And Deficiency Of Development Of Teeth
Many instances occur in which the teeth are too numerous. When this is so they are usually crowded together or appear out of their proper place. This irregularity of numbers may occur in the incisor ...
-Special Defects Of The Molar Teeth. Disparity Of Length
In this connection the most common defect is that which results when the first and last molar teeth in the upper and lower row do not exactly cover each other. The upper row may extend a little farthe...
-Marginal Irregularity
The commonest irregularity of the molar teeth is that in which the outer edge of the upper molars, and the inner margin of the lower ones, become ragged and protrude beyond the corresponding margins a...
-Fracture Of The Teeth
The incisor teeth are sometimes broken by external violence, and the same accident may result to the molar teeth from being brought forcibly together while a piece of stone, or a nail, or some other h...
-Caries
Decayed teeth are comparatively infrequent. The causes are said to be external injury, and chronic inflammation of contiguous structures, as gums inflamed by lodgment of food in the interdental spaces...
-Parrot Mouth
In this deformity the teeth of the upper jaw project beyond those of the lower one, and are consequently not subjected to any attrition or wear (figs. 127 and 128). Where the malformation is extreme, ...
-Wolves' Teeth
This term is applied to small conical teeth which occasionally appear in front of the grinders of the upper jaw. In the early ancestors of the horse seven molar teeth existed on either side of the upp...
-3. The Urinary Apparatus
From an anatomical point of view, the urinary apparatus consists of two kidneys with their ducts, named the ureters, which open into a mus-culo-membranous sac, the bladder, and this again has a tube, ...
-The Arrangements For The Retention And Discharge Of The Urine
The urine secreted by the kidneys enters the pelvis of these organs and then trickles down the ureters (fig. 131, a) to the bladder. It is remarkable that a kind of alternation in functional activity ...
-The Quantity And Composition Of The Urine
The quantity of urine secreted depends, of course, chiefly upon the quantity of water that has been ingested, but it is in part determined also by the activity of the skin. With free exercise, and abu...
-Hippuric Acid
This acid, the name of which ( horse) is derived from its abundance in the urine of the horse, is closely connected with the aromatic benzoic acid. It can, in fact, be made to appear in the urine o...
-Uric Acid
This acid, which has the composition represented by the formula C5H4N4O3, only presents itself as a trace in the normal urine of the adult horse, though it is found in rather larger quantity in the fo...
-Kreatin (Uric Acid 20089
flesh) This substance, which is found in muscle, is a nitrogenous, very weak base, of bitter taste, having the composition expressed by the formula C4H9N3O2 + H2O. When crystallized from its solutio...
-Urea Ferment
Shortly after urine is passed it undergoes decomposition, the urea it contains becoming converted into ammonium carbonate. This change is associated with the appearance of large numbers of a yeast-lik...
-Morbid Condition Of The Urine
The tissues of the body are constantly wearing away and being renovated from the nutritive substances contained in the blood, and the blood is at the same time constantly taking into itself the worn-o...
-Colour
In a healthy condition the urine presents a bright yellowish hue. When, as is sometimes the case, carbonate of lime is very abundant, the fluid wears a distinctly muddy appearance. Change of colour a...
-Albumen
This substance is not a constituent of healthy urine, although it is sometimes found as a temporary contamination. When existing as a permanent condition it is a matter of serious importance, inasmuch...
-Mucus
The whole of the urinary channels being lined by mucous membrane, it is not remarkable that mucus should be found in healthy urine. Sometimes, however, it exists in such amount as to render the fluid ...
-Casts
In addition to mucous casts, just referred to, others of various composition are met with as the result of inflammatory disease of the kidneys. Of these some are composed of epithelial cells in variou...
-Diabetes, Polyuria, Or Profuse Staling
Definition A morbid activity of the kidneys, resulting in an excessive secretion of urine. Diabetes assumes two forms, distinguished as diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. The former is charac...
-Haematuria Or Bloody Urine
Urine may become contaminated with blood from various sources. In all cases, however, this condition denotes broken blood-vessels, either as the result of disease or accident. As to the precise seat o...
-Disease Of The Kidneys. Nephritis
Inflammation of the kidneys of the horse is much less frequent than in man - a difference which no doubt finds explanation in the absence in the one of those serious dietetic and alcoholic abuses ...
-Inflammation Of The Bladder - Cystitis
Definition An inflamed condition of the lining membrane, extending more or less to the other structures of the bladder. Causes This disease is the result of some irritant acting upon the mucous mem...
-Retention Of Urine
Definition Partial or complete inability to expel urine from the bladder by the usual natural method. Causes It is frequently due to spasmodic constriction of the neck of the bladder, and may also ...
-Incontinence Of Urine
Here there is an inability to retain urine, which is discharged involuntarily, and cannot be controlled by the patient. Causes This may be due to a relaxed or paralytic condition of the muscle which...
-Stone In The Bladder. Composition Of The Urine
At the time of its discharge the urine of the horse differs in its appearance on different occasions. In colour it varies from a pale-yellow to a deep brownish-yellow. It is usually transparent, but f...
-Origin Of Stone
On the origin of vesicular calculus there is very little of a definite nature to be advanced. It is a well-established truth that under certain local as well as general conditions of the body the rena...
-Composition Of Vesical Calculus
The following table of analyses of vesical calculus of the horse and ass is given by Furstenberg: - Horse. ASS. Yellowish White. Brown. Brown. White Hard. ...
-Symptoms Of Stone
The symptoms attending the existence of vesical calculus are far from uniform, either in their number, nature, or intensity. In some cases they are few, slight, and dubious, while in others they are m...
-Internal Remedies
The internal remedies which have been recommended and employed in this branch of treatment have been selected purely on the ground of their chemical properties and action on alkaline carbonates out of...
-Injection Of Stone Solvents Into The Bladder
Acid solutions directly introduced into the bladder stand in a very different position to the calculus from those which, having been swallowed and having traversed the alimentary canal, now enter the ...
-The Operation Of Lithotomy
Great and important as have been the innovations and improvements in the course of the development of human surgery during the past fifty years, it must be admitted that operative measures of procedur...
-Preparing For The Operation
Preparing the patient for the operation of lithotomy or lithotrity is in all cases more or less desirable. It should ever be borne in mind that the aim and object of extracting a stone is not merely t...
-Exploring The Bladder
The urethra having been laid open as far as it is deemed requisite to admit the passage of the stone, an exploration with the finger should be made. While the left forefinger, already in the bladder, ...
-Dilating The Urethra And Cervix Vesica
Having devoted a few minutes to the very interesting and instructive task above referred to, we now proceed to dilate the urethra and neck of the bladder. It is a great consolation, when confronted wi...
-Lithotripsy
The operation of lithotripsy or crushing may be resorted to when the stone, though too large to be moved entire, is yet small enough to be seized and broken up into fragments by means of the lithotrit...
-The Operation
In performing the operation of crushing, the horse is thrown as for castration, and when under the influence of chloroform the urethra is opened in precisely the same manner and place as directed for ...
-Vesical Calculus In The Mare
Mares are seldom the subjects of vesical calculus. This immunity may be referred in part to the short and straight outward course of the urethra, which favours the free extrusion of solid matter with ...
-General Considerations On The Structure And Formation Of Calculi
Vesical calculi are usually ovoid in form, with their surfaces sometimes slightly and unequally flattened. If they have been enclosed, or partly enclosed, in a pouch or offshoot from the bladder, they...
-Inversion Of The Bladder
The bladder of the mare may be turned inside out by spasmodic contraction of its walls, when it may be said to evert itself. The mucous membrane will then be on the outside. The accident is of very ra...
-4. The Nervous System
The possession of a nervous system is not essential to life, since in the whole vegetable kingdom, as well as in the lower animal organizations, multitudes of living forms are to be seen, which, altho...
-Cervical Sympathetic
The cervical sympathetic consists of two large ganglia united by an intervening cord. The ganglia are distinguished as the superior and the inferior cervical. Sometimes there are three. The superior c...
-The Inferior Cervical Ganglion
As we have already pointed out, this is sometimes double, the two being joined together by a short grayish band. When this condition exists, the portion in front, which is always the smaller, is known...
-The Dorsal Sympathetic Chain
When the inferior cervical ganglion has given branches to the heart, the dorsal sympathetic chain is continued on from it in a backward direction, between the costo-vertebral articulation and the pleu...
-Lumbar Sympathetic
This is a continuation of the dorsal sympathetic, and has upon it ganglia corresponding to the number of lumbar nerves from the inferior division of which it receives its afferent branches. Behind, it...
-Sacral Sympathetic
This region is supplied by a continuation backwards of the lumbar division. It presents four long ganglia, which communicate with the inferior sacral nerves by a few small filaments. This plexus dist...
-Structure Of The Cerebro-Spinal Nervous System
If a fragment of the brain or spinal cord be examined with the unassisted eye, it appears to be composed of a soft curd-like material with red points and streaks distributed irregularly through it, di...
-The Nerve-Cells
The nerve-cells are bodies of rounded, oval, or irregular form, varying greatly in size, but always microscopic, and having an average diameter of about 1-2000th of an inch. Each cell contains in its ...
-The Nerve-Fibres
Nerve-fibres are processes or outrunners from the cells. At the point where a fibre springs from a cell it is exceedingly fragile and delicate, but as it travels away from the cell it gradually acquir...
-The Spinal Cord
The spinal cord or spinal marrow is a long, nearly cylindrical mass of nerve substance which extends from the head to the sacral region of the spine, and weighs about 10 ozs. It is contained in a cana...
-The Bulb, Or Medulla Oblongata
This portion of the nervous system (d, fig. 174) occupies a position intermediate between the spinal cord and the pons (o, fig. 174), and is continuous with both. It forms a kind of capital to the cor...
-The Brain
The large mass of nervous substance which fills the cavity of the cranium or skull, to which the term brain is ordinarily applied, in reality consists of two parts - the cerebrum or brain proper, and ...
-The Functions Of The Nervous System
Having thus acquired some knowledge of the anatomical and microscopical characters of the nervous system, we may proceed to consider the purposes it fulfils in the body. Of the two constituents of the...
-The Functions Of The Nervous System. Continued
The spinal cord is primarily to be regarded as formed by the union or joining together of many nerve centres, that is to say, of many groups of cells, which commonly act together or in an orderly sequ...
-Nerves, Arteries, And Muscles Of The Limbs - I
Nerves, Arteries, And Muscles Of The Limbs - I. I. Inner Deep Aspect of Thigh. II. Inner Aspect of Fore Limb. I. Inner Deep Aspect Of Thigh 1. Adductors. 2. Obturator externus. 3. Semimembr...
-Cerebro-Spinal Nerves The Cranial Or Encephalic Nerves
If we examine the base of the brain, a number of nerves are seen to come off from its surface. They vary in size, as they do also in function, and among them are numbered the nerves of the special sen...
-First Pair, Olfactory
The first pair of cranial nerves is the olfactory, a number of fine filaments whose superficial origin is the olfactory bulbs. These bulbous bodies are lodged in the ethmoidal fosste of the ethmoid bo...
-Second Pair, Optic Nerves
These nerves are derived from two thick bands which wind round the crura cerebri in their course from their deep origin in the corpora quadrigemina. On reaching the inferior surface of the cranium, t...
-Third Pair, Motores Ocillorum
These nerves have their superficial origin in the under surface of the cerebral peduncles. From this point they proceed in a forward direction, and enter the orbit through the foramen lacerum orbitale...
-Fourth Pair, Pathetici
A very thin, long, and slender nerve originating behind the corpora quadrigemina, from which it descends in a forward and downward direction to the supra-sphenoidal fissure. By this it is conducted to...
-Fifth Pair, Trigeminal
This is much the largest of the cranial nerves, and the variety and importance of its functions imbue it with more than ordinary interest. To commence with, it possesses (1) a sensory and (2) a motor...
-Sixth Pair, Motores Oceulomm
This is a small nerve arising from the anterior part of the medulla oblongata, just behind the pons varolii. It proceeds in a forward direction in company with the superior maxillary nerve in order to...
-Seventh Pair, Portio Dura Or Facial
Arising from the medulla oblongata immediately behind the pons varolii in company with the eighth. From this point it is directed outward, and, with the eighth nerve, enters at once the internal audi...
-Eighth, The Auditory Nerve
Eighth, the Auditory Nerve, arises in company with the seventh nerve from the medulla oblongata, immediately behind the pons varolii. It enters the internal auditory meatus at once, and divides into t...
-Ninth, Glosso-Pharyngeal
This nerve arises from the outer edge of the medulla oblongata, and passes from the cranium through the back part of the foramen lacerum basis cranii. At this point it has upon it Andersen's ganglion,...
-Tenth, Pneumogastric Or Vagus
This is a most important nerve, not only on account of its wide distribution, but equally so in reference to the variety and complexity of its functions. It is a mixed nerve, and arises from the side...
-Eleventh, Spinal Accessory
This nerve arises from the whole cervical spinal cord, and passes up the neck between the superior and the inferior roots of the cervical spinal nerves. In its course along the neck it gradually becom...
-Twelfth, Hypoglossal
Originating from the posterior part of the medulla oblongata the hypoglossal nerve leaves the cranium through the anterior condyloid foramen and descends between the pneumogastric and spinal accessory...
-Spinal Nerves
These nerves differ from those last described, in the fact that each of them arises from the side of the spinal cord by two roots - one sensitive, the other motor. The sensitive root is the upper one ...
-Cervical Nerves
Of these there are eight pairs. The first cervical nerve leaves the spinal canal through the antero-internal foramen of the atlas. The superior branches accompany the occipital artery and vein to betw...
-Brachial Plexus
The mixing or joining together of nerves to form plexuses is one of the methods which nature adopts in order to establish a material relation of distant parts, and to some extent a dependency of one p...
-Nerves, Arteries, And Muscles Of The Limbs - II
I. Inner Aspect Of Thigh And Leg 1. Os innominaturn. 2. Gracilis. 3. Rectus fernoris. 4. Vastus in tenuis. 5. Sartorius. 6. Popliteus. 7. Flexor metatarsi. 8. Extensor pedis. 9. Flexor pedis ...
-The Phrenic Or Diaphragmatic Nerve
The Phrenic or Diaphragmatic Nerve is formed mainly by the union of the .sixth and seventh cervical nerves, and sometimes also by a small branch of the fifth. It then enters the chest by passing betwe...
-The Suprascapular Nerve
The Suprascapular Nerve is short and somewhat thick. It is derived from the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical roots, and passes between the supraspinatus muscle and the subscapularis. After winding ...
-Nerve To The Subscapularis
All the cervical roots of the brachial plexus contribute to form the nerve going to the subscapularis. After crossing the supra-spinatus some of the fibres pass between it and the subscapularis, and t...
-Nerve To Serratus Magnus
Nerve to Serratus Magnus is derived from the seventh and eighth cervical nerves, which pass through the upper division of the scalenus muscle, and uniting distribute branches to the serratus magnus mu...
-Nerve Of The Teres Major
Nerve Of the Teres Major is a small nerve situated beneath the shoulder on the inner face of the subscapularis. It springs from the seventh .and eighth pairs in common with the circumflex nerve, and g...
-Latissimus Dorsi Branch
A long nerve situated beneath the scapula, and derived mainly from the root of the eighth cervical nerve, and to some extent also from the dorsal roots of the brachial plexus. It crosses the subscapu...
-Nerves To The Levator Anguli Scapulae
The levator anguli scapulae, together with the rhomboideus, receive their supply from the inferior branch of the sixth cervical nerve, and the levator also receives a slight contribution from the seve...
-Radial Or Musculo-Spiral Nerve
This nerve derives its fibres from the seventh and eighth cervical pairs, and also from the first dorsal root. It is the largest of the branches furnished by the brachial plexus. From its point of ori...
-Median Nerve
The median nerve is formed by the union of two branches: one comes from the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical, the other from the eighth cervical and the first dorsal. It passes clown the limb at fi...
-The Ulnar Nerve
This nerve is chiefly derived from the dorsal roots of the brachial plexus. It is less considerable in size than the one just described. Placed behind the humeral artery, it dips down beneath the scap...
-Subcutaneous Thoracic Nerve
A long slender nerve situated on the side of the chest beneath the panniculus and above the spur vein, whose course it follows, to be lost in the panniculus of the flank. It is formed mainly of the do...
-Circumflex Or Axillary Nerve
This is a nerve of considerable size; it is derived from the seventh and eighth cervical roots, and after crossing the subscapularis soon enters the interspace between that muscle and teres major. It ...
-Dorsal Nerves, Eighteen Pairs
These nerves on issuing from the spinal canal divide into two sets of branches, as we saw occur in the case of the cervical nerves. The upper divisions, which are the smaller, ascend to reach the dors...
-Lumbar Nerves, Six Pairs
The lumbar nerves, like the dorsal, divide, after leaving the spinal cord, into a superior and inferior branch. The former, passing in an upward direction, ramify through to the muscles of the loins, ...
-Sacral Nerves, Five Pairs
There are five sacral nerves. The first four pass out of the spinal canal by the sacral foramina, and the fifth by the opening between the last sacral foramen and the first coccygeal bone. After emerg...
-Coccygeal Nerves
These number five or six pairs, which decrease in volume from the first to the last. The first coccygeal communicates with the last sacral nerve, and then with others passes backwards, and is expended...
-Lumbo-Sacral Plexus
This is a combination of nerves for the supply of the hind-limb. It corresponds with the brachial plexus of the fore-limb in being formed by the inferior branches of the fourth, fifth, and sixth lumba...
-Anatomy Of Horse's Head
Anatomy Of The Horse's Head. Fig. I A. Seventh nerve. B. Posterior auricular vein. C. Anterior auricular vein. D. Temporalis muscle. E. Corrugator supercilii. F. Orbicularis palpebr...
-The Great Sciatic Nerve
The Great Sciatic Nerve is the largest in the body. It is derived from the lumbo-sacral plexus, and issues from the great sciatic opening as a broad white band; thence it takes a downward course betwe...
-The External Popliteal Nerve
The External Popliteal Nerve is a branch of considerable size given off from the great sciatic near to the gemini muscles. It then passes downward and forward between the biceps femoris and the outer ...
-The Anterior Tibial Nerve
The Anterior Tibial Nerve, after leaving the one last described, passes underneath the extensor pedis muscle, and having supplied branches to it, the flexor metatarsi, and short extensor of the foot, ...
-The Internal Saphenous Nerve
This is a branch of the anterior crural nerve, from which it is given off at the brim of the pelvis. From this point it passes downwards in company with the femoral artery, and gives branches to the s...
-The External Saphenous Nerve
The External Saphenous Nerve leaves the great sciatic, and passes over the outer head of the gastrocnemius under cover of the biceps femoris, where it receives a branch of the external popliteal nerve...
-The Internal Popliteal Nerve
This nerve consists of a bundle of nerve branches proceeding from the great sciatic. Passing downwards and forwards between the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, it gives branches to it, to the f...
-The Posterior Tibial Nerve
The posterior tibial is a branch of the internal popliteal. In passing down the leg it is situated beneath the inner head of the gastrocnemius. It then becomes enclosed in the deep fascia of the leg, ...
-Diseases Of The Nervous System
Affections of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, must necessarily be of a very grave character. Physiologists allow that the brain is chiefly concerned with the mental fu...
-Cerebritis And Meningitis
Very early in the history of veterinary science the French writers separated diseases of the brain into two distinct forms, which were designated by different terms - cerebritis when the substance of ...
-Vertigo
Vertigo, megrims, or giddiness may be associated with organic disease of the brain, or be occasioned by derangement of the liver or other organs of the digestive system. A fit of vertigo may also aris...
-Abscess In The Brain
A more serious result of a blow on the head is the formation of abscess in one of the hemispheres of the brain, or inflammation of the membranes, which is usually indicated by violent excitement. Absc...
-Epilepsy
Epilepsy, eclampsia, catalepsy, and chorea (St. Vitus' dance) are all disorders of the nerve centres, and are associated with eccentric muscular action, and often with derangement of consciousness, bu...
-Eclampsia
This disease borders so closely upon the one previously considered, epilepsy, that its manifestations are allowed to be identical with those of reflex epilepsy. It is also stated that eclampsia may be...
-Chorea (St. Vitus' Dance)
This disease is perfectly well known as it affects the dog. It is frequently one of the results of distemper; its chief manifestation is constant rhythmical contraction and spasm of some of the muscle...
-Stringhalt
This condition, which is very well known to horsemen, is another of the ill-defined affections of the nervous system. The condition is indicated by spasmodic movement of the muscles of one, sometimes ...
-Apoplexy
In very hot seasons horses which are called upon to undergo violent exertion are likely to suffer from cerebral derangement due to determination of blood to the vessels of the brain. This condition is...
-Crib-Biting
A practice in which some horses indulge has the effect of wearing down the incisor teeth, especially towards the outer edge (fig. 129). It is very seldom, however, that any dental disease or derangeme...
-Tumours In The Brain And Cranium
Tumours in the brain are not of rare occurrence in the horse, although they are very limited in variety. Moreover, they are seldom found to exist save in the lateral ventricles or cavities within the ...
-Edema Of The Choroid Plexus
This is a condition in which the choroid plexuses of the ventricles are infiltrated with fluid which has escaped from the fine net-work of veins of which they are mainly composed. So far as is known i...
-Exostoses Or Bone Tumours
Hard ivory-like growths from the petrous temporal bone sometimes extend into the cavity of the cranium and occasion pressure upon and absorption of the brain substance. These tumours, developing very ...
-Thickening Of The Membranes
Professor Williams, in his Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medicine, refers to a case in which the dura mater or outermost covering of the brain attained a thickness varying from one inch at the...
-Diseases Of The Spinal Cord And Its Membranes. Acute Spinal Meningitis - Inflammation Of The Membranes Of The Spinal Cord
Acute inflammation of the coverings of the spinal cord is of seldom occurrence, and mostly involves the two innermost membranes - the pia mater and arachnoid. The causes which give rise to this disea...
-Acute Myelitis - Inflammation Of The Spinal Cord
The causes which give rise to inflammation of the membranes of the cord are also responsible for inflammation of the cord itself, and mostly affect both structures in varying degrees at the same time....
-Paralysis
By paralysis is understood a loss of power in the muscles to contract, and consequently greater or less impairment of voluntary motion. There is also a second form of paralysis, by which a part may be...
-Hemiplegia
In this form of paralysis one lateral half, the right or the left side of the body, is involved. It is a rare affection in the horse, but in man it is one of the most common forms of the disease, and ...
-Paraplegia - Spinal Paralysis
Paraplegia indicates some disorder of the spinal cord, and consists of paralysis of the posterior half (more or less) of the body. The extent of the disablement will depend upon the seat of the diseas...
-Peripheral Or Local Paralysis
When paralysis is confined to muscles supplied by a particular nerve it is said to be peripheral. The most common example of this form of the malady is that in which the seventh nerve is involved. ...
-Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis
A fatal affection among horses implicating the spinal and cerebral membranes appears to have been known for a long period in various parts of the world. In the United States of America cerebro-spinal ...
-5. The Absorbent System
This important system is composed of two parts, of which one is especially connected with the alimentary canal, whilst the other is widely distributed throughout the body. The former is named the lact...
-The Lymphatic System
This system commences in the skin, and in the little spaces between the elements of the tissues in almost all parts of the body. It can be easily demonstrated by means of injections, for if a needle w...
-The Lymphatic Glands
These bodies may be likened to oval or rounded masses of sponge, into which the lacteals convey chyle and the lymphatics lymph. Fig. 183 represents the structure of one of these glands. The gland has...
-6. The Organs Of Circulation. The Blood
From the earliest ages the blood has been held to be one of the most important constituents of the body, for it was natural, when death was seen to follow alike in animals and in man the infliction of...
-6. The Organs Of Circulation. The Blood. Continued
Carbon. Hydrogen. Nitrogen. Oxygen. Iron and Salts. 712 ... 1130 ... 214 ... 245 ... 2 The coloured corpuscles of the blood are constantly undergoing destruction, whilst new ones take th...
-The Coagulation Of The Blood
When the blood is withdrawn from the body, it sets, coagulates, or clots, becoming converted from a fluid into a jelly. This process occasionally occurs in disease, whilst the blood is still contained...
-The Mechanism Of The Circulation
The blood, the characters of which have just been considered, circulates through the body by the agency of the heart and blood-vessels. The heart is a portion of the vascular system, consisting of a c...
-The Nerves Of The Heart
The heart continues to beat in an orderly and regular manner even when quite removed from the body, and in the process of development the speck which represents it in the young begins to beat rhythmic...
-Blood-Vessels
The first vessels into which the blood is driven by the beat of the heart are the arteries. These are tubes which conduct it from the heart to all parts of the body. Of large size where they commence,...
-The Pulse
The pulse is the wave-like movement which traverses the arteries with each beat of the heart, and which is perceived when a vessel is slightly compressed with the fingers against an unyielding surface...
-Blood Pressure
That when the skin is cut the blood spurts out is a proof that it is subject to pressure within the vessels. The Rev. Stephen Hales, the rector of Faringdon in Hampshire, was the first, at the beginni...
-Prevention Of Death By Hemorrhage
Several circumstances concur to prevent the loss of life that would certainly occur, owing to the fluidity of the blood, when even a small vessel is divided. The first and most important of these is t...
-The Capillaries
As the arteries proceed to the proper tissues of the body, they divide and subdivide till they are no longer visible to the unassisted eye, and they finally break up into minute vessels named capillar...
-The Chief Arteries And Veins
We may now, with advantage, take a short survey of the chief vessels that have their origin in the heart, and which are engaged in the distribution of the blood through the system. The large arteries ...
-Distribution Of The Systemic Arteries
Excepting as regards the lungs, all the arteries distributed over the system have their origin in the aorta (fig. 193). This vessel, the largest in the body, arises from the base of the heart, where i...
-Distribution Of Arteries - I. Anterior Mesenteric Artery
A. First part of colon. B. Suprasternal flexure, c. Second part of colon. D. Pelvic flexure. E. Third part of colon. F. Diaphragmatic flexure. g. Fourth part of colon. h. Caecum. i. Ilium. J. Gr...
-Arteries Of Stomach, Spleen, Liver, Kidneys, Etc
1. Left lobe of liver. 2. Middle lobe of liver. 3. Right lobe of liver. 4. Vena porta. 5. Hepatic artery. 6. Right sac of stomach. 7. Left sac of stomach. 8. Gastric splenic omentum. 9. Anteri...
-Anterior Aorta
This vessel, the smaller of the divisions of the common aorta, is about 2 to 2 1/2 inches in length. On leaving its parent trunk it passes in a forward direction beneath the trachea or windpipe, and s...
-The Anterior Aorta And Its Branches
1. Sterno-thyro-hyoideus muscle. 2. Stemo-maxillaris muscle. 3. Thyroid gland. 4. Parotid glaud. 5. 5. Trachea. 6. Jugular vein. 7. Carotid artery. 8. Esophagus. 9. Longus colli muscle. 10. V...
-Brachial Or Humeral Artery
This vessel descends on the inner aspect of the humerus and distributes branches to the muscles of the upper arm and other adjacent structures, the larger and more important of which are - 1. Prehume...
-Cephalic Artery
This vessel, as we have previously pointed out, is a branch of the right axillary and runs forward beneath the trachea until it reaches the entrance to the chest, where it divides into a right and lef...
-Carotid Arteries
These vessels ascend the neck, one on the right and the other on the left side of the trachea, in company with two important nerves, the vago-sympathetic and the recurrent. On reaching the larynx, the...
-Posterior Aorta
This is a large vessel of considerable length situated immediately beneath the spine, along which it runs from the seventh or eighth dorsal vertebra as far back as the sacrum. It is the largest divisi...
-Distribution Of Arteries II. Arteries Of Male Pelvis
1. Retractor penis. 2. Suspensory ligament of rectum. 3. Sphincter ani. 4. Rectum. 5. Vesicuke seminales. 6. Urinary bladder. 7. Ureters. 8. Prostate gland. 9. Uowper's gland. 10. Vesico- pro...
-Arteries Of The Brain
1. Anterior cerebral artery. 2. Middle cerebral arteries. 3. Anterior communicating arteries. 4. Internal carotid arteries. 5. Posterior communicating arteries. 6. Posterior cerebral arteries. 7...
-Anterior Tibial Artery
This is the larger of the two, and, as its name implies, is situated in front of the tibia or second thigh, down which it passes beneath the flexor metatarsi muscle. On reaching the tibio-tarsal artic...
-Pedal Or Great Metatarsal Artery
This vessel is a continuation of the anterior tibial. It commences in front of the hock-joint, and passes obliquely outwards beneath the peroneus and the short extensor of the foot, to reach the furro...
-Diseases Of The Heart. General Consideration Of The Pathology Of Heart-Disease
It seems to be agreed among veterinary writers that diseases affecting the heart of the horse are either not so numerous as those which attack the heart of the human subject, or that they pass to a gr...
-General Consideration Of The Pathology Of Heart-Disease. Part 2
The natural result of this is, that diseases of remote structures or distant organs may so adversely influence the heart as to lead to indications which may easily, although incorrectly, be ascribed t...
-General Consideration Of The Pathology Of Heart-Disease. Part 3
It will be perceived that the majority of these symptoms would not be recognized in the lower animals, and the few that would be apparent, such as unsteadiness of movement, attacks of vertigo (megrims...
-Pericarditis - Inflammation Of The Heart Sac
Inflammation of the pericardium may occur under a variety of circumstances, sometimes in connection with rheumatism, strangles, and influenza, or any low form of fever or specific blood disease. It ...
-Endocarditis - Inflammation Of The Lining Membrane Of The Heart
This disease is said to be more frequent in the horse than the one which has just been referred to. When it occurs in association with rheumatism, it is more likely to end fatally in a short time than...
-Myocarditis, Or Inflammation Of The Muscular Structure Of The Heart
This disease occurs very rarely in the lower animals, and most probably when it does happen it is connected with other diseases which have been described, i.e. pericarditis and endocarditis, in both o...
-Diseases Of The Valves Of The Heart
Endocarditis in the chronic form may be expected to lead to a certain alteration in the valves which guard the openings leading to and from the different cavities of the heart. The alterations of stru...
-Hypertrophy - Enlargement Of The Heart
The different forms of disease and deformity affecting the valves, which have been adverted to in the preceding remarks, necessarily cause obstruction to the circulation, attended with regurgitation o...
-Symptoms Of Enlarged Heart
It is certain that very considerable changes may take place in the muscular structure of the heart without any symptoms at all being apparent. When, however, the changes are such as to disturb materia...
-Atrophy Of The Heart
This condition, which refers to a diminution in the size of the organ owing to wasting of the muscular tissue and a general failure of its contractile power, is much less common than the enlarged stat...
-Fatty Disease Of The Heart
Two perfectly distinct conditions are included in the term fatty disease of the heart. One consists in mere infiltration of the fatty material among the muscular fibres of the heart, which may be obse...
-Fatty Degeneration
This condition of the heart may be associated with long-continued fatty infiltration, or it may follow an attack of inflammation (Myocarditis), or arise in the course of some wasting disease, or as a ...
-Rupture Of The Heart
The various alterations in the structure of the heart, arising out of acute myocarditis and the different kinds of degeneration, naturally lead to a weakness and a diminution in the resisting power of...
-Diseases Of The Arteries And Veins
Certain structural changes occur in both arteries and veins owing to inflammatory attacks and certain forms of degeneration and injuries occasioned by the presence of parasites, etc. ...
-Arteritis
Arteritis, or inflammation of the walls of an artery, is by no means a rare disease in the horse. It is usually the result of some irritant acting upon the vessel from within. In man the causative ag...
-Atheroma (Endarteritis Deformans)
This is a disease most commonly seen in the arch of the aorta, or at a little distance posterior to that point. The early stages of the disease are marked by the appearance of small greyish-white spo...
-Thrombosis
Both arteries and veins are liable to become more or less completely obstructed during life by the coagulation of blood within them. When this condition occurs it is described as thrombosis, and the...
-Iliac Thrombosis
The most notable example of thrombosis in the horse is that which is seen now and again in the iliac arteries - the vessels into which the abdominal aorta breaks up beneath the lumbar spine, and whose...
-Thrombosis Of The Jugular Vein (Phlebitis)
As already noticed, thrombosis of the jugular vein was a disease of common occurrence in the days of indiscriminate blood-letting and unclean surgical practice as pursued before the advent of antisept...
-Aneurism
Under certain conditions arteries are liable to undergo dilatation in certain 'parts, so that the cavity of the vessel is more or less enlarged. Such a state is known as an aneurism. This form of dise...
-Anemia
Anaemia is a term employed to denote a condition of the blood in which there is a deficiency of iron, an element essential to the formation of red blood cells, deficiency in which results in poverty, ...
-Plethora
This abnormal condition is now seldom described in works on veterinary medicine, and some authorities have even denied its existence. The better management of horses has greatly reduced the number of...
-Septicaemia
The term septicaemia is employed to indicate certain forms of blood-poisoning which result from the entrance into the circulation of disease-producing bacteria or their products. All the various conta...
-7. The Organs Of Respiration And The Respiratory Process
The act of breathing is so intimately associated with the continuance of life that we commonly speak of the first and last breath as terms synonymous with the beginning and end of existence. Yet...
-The Lungs
When full of air the lungs are two voluminous soft elastic organs of pink colour, which occupy with the heart nearly the whole of the thoracic cavity. In old animals they are more or less mottled with...
-The Larynx
The Larynx (fig. 198) is a chamber of irregular form externally, which is connected with the hyoid bone or bone of the tongue (a, b, c) above and in front by means of a small ligament, and is continuo...
-The Trachea
The Trachea is a long wide tube occupying the middle line of the neck, and separated from the spine by the oesophagus or gullet. It extends from the cricoid cartilage of the larynx to about the fourth...
-The Bronchi
The trachea on reaching the chest divides into the two bronchi, one going to each lung. As seen in fig. 200, they then divide and subdivide again and again till the tubes are scarcely larger than a ha...
-The Air-Cells
These cups constitute the air-cells, alveoli, or vesicles of the lungs. They are surrounded by a close net-work of minute bloodvessels (capillaries), and it is here that the aeration of the blood take...
-Effects Of Respiration. Composition Of The Air
The composition of the atmosphere has been proved, by the analyses of many chemists, to be nearly uniform in all parts of the world, excepting in regard to the quantity of watery vapour it contains, w...
-Air After Respiration
When air that has been once inspired is examined, it is found to have undergone considerable alteration. The proportion of nitrogen, indeed, is not materially altered - it still remains at about 79 in...
-Air-Changes In The Blood
We may now enquire into the nature of the changes that take place in the blood from the time that it leaves the lungs in an aerated state, or in the condition of arterial blood, till it is returned to...
-The Mechanism Of Respiration
The mechanism by which the respiratory acts are accomplished consists of the partly fixed and partly movable bony and cartilaginous framework of the chest and of the muscles, which form a large part o...
-The Nerves And Nerve - Centres Of Respiration
The nerve-centres which are implicated in quiet respiration are situated in that part of the brain termed the medulla oblongata, at the point where the vagi nerves take their origin. The destruction o...
-Asphyxia
This term, which, etymologically speaking, signifies pulselessness, has been erroneously applied to that condition in which there is great deficiency of oxygen, and, as a rule, increase of carbon diox...
-Ventilation
It may be taken for granted that air which has been once breathed is unfit for further respiration. Such air, we have seen, contains about 4 1/2 per cent of carbon dioxide, and experiment has shown th...
-Diseases Of The Respiratory Organs Catarrh Or Cold
Definition The term catarrh is generally used to describe an inflammatory condition of the lining membrane of the upper portion of the air-passages, commonly spoken of as a cold, the special featur...
-Infection
An infectious form of catarrh is now generally recognized, and as such the disease periodically visits most lai'ge establishments where a great number of horses are stabled. Young horses, fresh from t...
-Chronic Nasal Catarrh - Nasal Gleet
Definition A lasting discharge from the nasal chambers, of varying quantity and character. When accompanied by an offensive odour it is known as ozoena. Causes Chronic discharges from the nostrils ...
-Hemorrhage
When blood escapes from the vessels into an open space, whether it be into one of the cavities of the body (chest or belly, etc.) or on to the surface, it is described as hemorrhage. If, instead, it p...
-Bleeding From The Nose - Epistaxis
In race-horses and hunters, when highly strung and in a plethoric condition, bleeding from the nose frequently occurs in the course of a race or the chase, and many a brilliant performer in either cap...
-Pus In The Guttural Pouches
The guttural pouches (fig. 204) are two somewhat capacious cavities situated between the base of the skull above and the pharynx and larynx below. The inner walls of the sacs are in apposition with ea...
-Diseases Of The Larynx
Diseases of the larynx more especially involve the mucous membrane by which it is lined. Of these the more common are: (1) Laryngitis or inflammation; (2) ulceration; (3) oedema or effusive swelling. ...
-Laryngitis, Or Inflammation Of The Larynx
Laryngitis, or inflammation of the larynx, although by no means a common disorder in the horse, is nevertheless of serious import when it assumes a severe or acute character. In some instances it prov...
-Roaring And Whistling
Roaring and whistling are defects of respiration, arising out of a diseased condition of some portion of the air-passages, whereby one or the other of these sounds is produced, according to the nature...
-Acute Roaring
We have hitherto spoken of the one principal cause of roaring, but, as we have already pointed out, there are others of a less serious character, and some of them amenable to treatment. It will be und...









TOP
previous page: The Horse | by Isaac Phillips Roberts
  
page up: Horse Books
  
next page: The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol4-5 | by J. Wortley Axe