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The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol4-5 | by J. Wortley Axe



The Organs Of Respiration. Diseases Of The Lungs. Constitutional Diseases. Rheumatism. Contagious Diseases. Influenza Of Horses. The Organs Of Reproduction. Anatomy Of The Male Organs Of Generation. The Eye. Anatomy Of The Eye. The Skin (Integument) And Its Appendages. Parasitic Diseases Of The Horse. Introductory. Organs Of Locomotion - Bones. Composition Of Bone. Fractures. Articulations Of Joints. The Muscular System.

TitleThe Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease V4-5
AuthorJ. Wortley Axe
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonThe Horse. Its Treatment In Health And Disease
-7. The Organs Of Respiration. Continued. Diseases Of The Lungs
General Considerations Under this general term are included the disorders affecting the bronchial tubes, the lung tissue itself, and its investing membrane - the pleura. Although the diseases are con...
-Bronchitis
Definition Bronchitis is an inflamed condition of the mucous membrane lining the bronchial tubes. It may occur as a primary disorder in which the larger bronchi are chiefly involved, or it may follo...
-Chronic Bronchitis
Except as a sequel to acute bronchitis, the chronic form is seldom met with. It differs from it in the absence of fever, the persistence of the cough, and the character of the matter coughed up. Sligh...
-Congestion Of The Lungs
Definition By congestion of the lungs is meant an undue fulness or engorgement of the pulmonary vessels with blood, and especially those concerned with respiration as distinguished from others engage...
-Inflammation Of The Lungs, Pneumonia
Definition Inflammation of the true lung substance. This may exist as an independent disease or it may complicate an attack of bronchitis. Causes are all such as induce catarrh, or inflammatory cond...
-External Applications
The efficacy of counter-irritation has been called in question by men whose attainments should command respect, but they are in a minority, and most practical veterinarians are agreed that the greates...
-Bleeding From The Lungs - Hemoptysis
Bleeding from the lungs and bronchial passages is not of common occurrence in the horse, but sufficiently so to warrant a reference to it here. Causes The causes that bring it about are: (1) Externa...
-Asthma. Definition Of Asthma
This is a diseased state of the lungs, marked by paroxysms of difficult breathing and distress, accompanied by a wheezing sound. It is believed to be due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchial tube...
-Emphysema Of The Lungs - Broken Wind
Definition This is a disease in which the air-cells of the lungs are abnormally dilated; the lungs themselves are consequently enlarged or ruptured and their elasticity impaired, as a result of which...
-Pleurisy, Pleuritis
Definition Inflammation of the serous membrane that invests the lungs and lines the cavity of the chest. It may exist as a distinct disorder or complicate an attack of lung disease. One side only or ...
-Spasm Of The Larynx
We have seen, in speaking of roaring and whistling, that the muscles which regulate the size of the opening into the larynx are liable to become thrown out of use as the result of paralysis. In the di...
-Cough
A cough is a more or less violent expiratory effort, indicating irritation of some part of the breathing organs. The act is commenced by a deep inspiration, during which the lungs are distended with a...
-High Blowing
The sound to which this term is applied is produced in the act of breathing while the air is being expelled from the lungs during forced respiration. It is most marked while the horse is doing a brisk...
-8. Constitutional Diseases. Rheumatism
Definition Rheumatism is a specific constitutional disease, sometimes assuming an acute febrile character. It is specially marked by local manifestations of pain of varying degrees of intensity, with...
-Lymphangitis - Weed
Definition A constitutional disorder, with local manifestations of an inflammatory nature, affecting the lymphatic glands and vessels of the limbs. It is usually confined to one hind extremity, but o...
-Purpura Hemorrhagica
Definition A disease involving the entire system, and believed to be connected with changes in the composition and character of the blood, leading to rupture of the small vessels and the development ...
-Haemoglobinuria
Definition Haemoglobinuria is an acute blood disease characterized by sudden and severe lameness in one hind-limb, general paralysis, and dark discoloration of the urine, which is loaded with albumen...
-Estimation Of Moisture In Muscle Tissue Of Horse Suffering From "Azoturia"
1. From the psoae muscles 8 ounces or 3840 grains of flesh were removed and correctly weighed. 2. On some of the fluid being removed, by squeezing, it was found to have lost 1050 grains. 3. It was the...
-Estimation Of Moisture In Hepatic Tissue Of A Horse Suffering From "Azoturia,"
1. Eight ounces of liver were taken and correctly weighed. 2. On some of the fluid being removed, by squeezing, it was found to have lost 1125 grains. 3. The liver was now minced up and put into a wat...
-Estimation Of Moisture In Muscular Tissue Of A Horse In Health
A piece of psoae muscle was taken from a horse and weighed. After the water had been expelled, it was found to have lost 50.37 per cent of moisture. ...
-Estimation Of Moisture In Hepatic Tissue Of A Horse In Health
A piece of liver was taken from a mare and weighed. After the water had been expelled, it was found to have lost 44.2 per cent of moisture. ...
-Analysis Of Urine In Health
Three samples of urine were taken from three mares, and yielded respectively the following proportion of urea: - 1st sample 11.9 parts per 1000 2nd sample 12.4 3rd...
-Analysis Of Urine In "Azoturia"
On Wednesday, June 13th, 1883, a portion of urine removed from a bay cart mare suffering from Azoturia was submitted for analysis. ...
-Physical Characters
Colour, in bulk, chocolate-brown; viewed in a test-tube, bright red, transparent, somewhat thicker than water; a small amount of granular matter visible in suspension. Specific gravity 1.015. To test-...
-9. Contagious Diseases. Influenza Of Horses
A low form of catarrhal disease affecting the horse has for a long time been distinguished from common catarrh by the term influenza or distemper. It has existed in this country as far back as veterin...
-Results
Influenza is not, under ordinary circumstances, a fatal disease; the mortality has been stated by different authorities to amount to 3, 4, 9, and 10 per cent. In the outbreak which occurred in the ...
-Contagious Pneumonia Of The Horse
The disease which has lately been described as contagious pneumonia is generally included in the term influenza; it is, in fact, that form of the infection in which the central respiratory system is s...
-Glanders And Farcy
It cannot be said that the horse is particularly subject to diseases which are propagated by contagion, but it is certainly the case that the animal is the victim of one malady which, from its insidio...
-Infection Of Glanders
Communication of glanders from one horse to another with which it may be in contact is a fact which is hardly questioned in the present day, but it is also true that in many cases a glandered horse ha...
-Incubation
Experiments go to prove that an inoculated ass, an animal which is very susceptible to glanders, will be visibly affected in the course of six or seven days. It is, of course, almost impossible to det...
-Symptoms Of Glanders
Since the introduction of the mallein test it is not of so much importance as it formerly was to estimate the value of certain indications which were once looked upon as sufficient to render an animal...
-Precautions To Be Taken To Prevent The Spreading Of Glanders
It is now perfectly well known that glanders is communicable to the human subject, and by inoculation to guinea-pigs, sheep, and goats. Cattle only suffer local disease, rabbits are very slightly susc...
-Use Of Mallein In The Detection Of Glanders
Before the discovery of mallein, a few years ago, the only test which could be applied in doubtful cases was the inoculation of an ass with the nasal discharge. Later on, guinea-pigs were found to ans...
-Strangles Of The Horse
Strangles, or pyrogenic fever, or external scrofula, are names given to this catarrhal disease, which is so very common among young horses. On the question of the infectious nature of the disorder opi...
-Anthrax Of The Horse
The disease which is recognized as true anthrax is due to the existence in the body of a specific organism, the Bacillus anthracis (fig. 218), a motionless rod which is found in the blood and in all t...
-Horse-Pox
Veterinarians in this country do not generally recognize the existence of small-pox in the horse. The disease is described by Continental authorities as an eruption on the pasterns, the posterior surf...
-Gloss-Anthrax
This is a form of anthrax in which the disease specially involves the tongue, and, in a less degree, the tissues of the throat. It is not, however, to be confounded with septic glossitis, a malady in ...
-Rabies Of The Horse
It is well known that the bite of a rabid animal is the sole cause of this disease in the horse. In this country it is always traced to the bite of a rabid dog. The time which elapses between the ino...
-Tetanus Of The Horse
Tetanus occupies a somewhat dubious position in the classification of diseases. Formerly it was looked upon as a tonic spasm of the voluntary muscles, resulting from irritation affecting the nerves fr...
-Symptoms Of Tetanus
At the commencement of the disease, from ten to sixteen days after the introduction of the infectious material, some stiffness in the muscles of the head and neck may be observed. The animal exhibits ...
-Post-Mortem Appearances
There are no very important changes recognized in the nerve centres or in the nerve fibres beyond slight congestion, which sometimes is apparent in the nerves proceeding from the wound. The blood is d...
-Stomatitis Pustulosa Contagiosa
This is a specific contagious disease of a febrile character, in which an eruption appears in the mouth and on the lips, and sometimes on the skin of the face, rarely on other parts of the body. It is...
-Measures Of Prevention
In this connection it must be remembered that the chief source of the virus is the saliva. When the disease makes its appearance, the sick should be promptly removed from the healthy, the bedding sho...
-Tuberculosis Of The Horse
It was for a long time believed that the horse was refractory to the invasion of tubercle, and the impression still remains that the disease is extremely rare in this animal. Recent enquiries, however...
-Morbid Appearances
The structural changes which are met with depend very much upon the organ which is affected. In the lungs there are sometimes found miliary tubercles, while in other cases masses of deposit an inch or...
-Dourine (Maladie Du Coit)
This is a specific contagious disease which, like rabies, is communicated only by contact of the virus with an abraded or broken surface. Whether occurring in the male or female horse, it primarily af...
-Origin
The cause of this disease is the entrance into the blood of a species of protozoa - the Trypanosoma equipedum. This is a unicellular organism having a flagellum by which it is capable of considerable ...
-South African Horse Sickness
Definition A contagious disease, the precise cause of which has not yet been determined. It is essentially a disorder of the equine species. It occurs in relatively low-lying districts along the east...
-Preventive Measures
All animals should be stabled before sunset, and not removed from stables until some time after sunrise, when the dew and fog have disappeared. Smoke should be kept going through stables or picket-lin...
-Epizootic Lymphangitis
English literature is seriously deficient in articles referring to this disease. True, so far as we are aware, the malady only appeared in this country in 1902, following upon the war in South Africa,...
-Staining
Although the organism is readily seen without being first stained, some may prefer to stain it, and we therefore give the most easy and at the same time most effectual method of carrying out this proc...
-Zoological Distribution
Although solipeds would appear to be the only animals affected by it, it has been said to have occurred in cattle, and in referring to this Pallin remarks: Care should be taken not to confound it wit...
-Zoological Distribution. Continued
It is, however, not always the case that suppuration is the immediate result. In some cases the swelling subsides, and apparently for the time it disappears, but sooner or later it reappears and goes ...
-10. The Organs Of Reproduction. Anatomy Of The Male Organs Of Generation
The principal organs which subserve the function of reproduction in the male are: (1) the testis, (2) the excretory ducts which convey the spermatic fluid to the urethra, (3) the urethra, (4) the peni...
-Coverings Of The Testicle
In its descent the testis becomes invested with two coverings of peritoneum - one, the tunica vaginalis, derived from the roof of the abdomen, is closely adherent to its outer surface; the other, the ...
-Testis
The testis (fig. 223) in the horse weighs approximately about 8 ounces. It is oval in shape, with somewhat flattened sides, and hangs suspended by the spermatic cord in the scrotum. The testicle is a ...
-Tunica Albuginea
This is a dense membrane not unlike the sclerotic coat or white of the eye. It is made up of a number of closely - interwoven strands of white fibres, and encloses within it the glandular or secreting...
-Gland Substance
The substance of the testicle is composed of large numbers of minute convoluted tubes termed tubuli seminiferi (e, fig. 223). These are grouped together in small masses or lobules, and occupy the ...
-Spermatic Cord (Fig. 224)
This is the structure by which the testis is suspended in the scrotum. It is composed of arteries and veins, the former going; to and the latter from the organ, of nerves and lymphatics, as well as th...
-The Scrotum
The scrotum, commonly called the purse, is a bag in which the testes are suspended by the spermatic cord. It is composed of six layers, the chief of which are the skin and the dartos. The skin is a...
-Vesiculse Seminales
Two small elongated sacs situated on the upper surface of the bladder (fig. 225 D); they form reservoirs for the reception of the semen, and secrete a fluid accessory to that of the testicles which is...
-The Penis
The penis (fig. 226) is the male organ of copulation. In a quiescent condition it is hidden away in a double fold of skin termed the sheath or prepuce, from which, in a state of erection, it prot...
-Corpus Spongiosum
This, the smaller of the three bodies composing the penis (g, fig. 226), is situated in a groove which runs along the lower border of the corpora cavernosa. Behind, it commences at the perineum in an ...
-Urethra
The urethra (d and K, fig. 220) is a long tube extending from the bladder to the end of the penis. It conducts the urine out of the body, and serves also to convey the spermatic fluid and some other s...
-Openings Into The Urethra
Besides the inlet from the bladder by which the urine escapes, there are a number of openings into the urethral canal. In the prostatic portion, on either side of a small ridge of mucous membrane, is ...
-Muscles Of The Urethra
The Accelerator Urinae (e, fig. 227). - This muscle extends nearly the whole length of the spongy portion of the urethra, commencing at the ischiatic arch and continuing as far forward as the glans pe...
-Wilson's Muscle
This muscle is composed of two portions, one spread over the upper, and the other over the lower surface of the membranous portion of the urethra. At either side the two layers unite together, and are...
-Muscles Of The Penis
Erector Penis (a, fig. 227). - These are two short, thick fleshy muscles which arise from the crest of the ischium, and are inserted into the cruras of the penis. They assist in bringing about erecti...
-Anatomy Of The Female Organs Of Generation
The entrance to the uro-genital passage in the female is a vertical fissure some 4 or 5 inches in length, bounded on each side by a skin fold (the labium magnus). The folds meet above at an acute angl...
-Uterus (fig. 230)
This is the organ which receives the ovum and in which the foetus is developed. It is composed of a neck and a body, which divides into two horns of approximately equal size. Fig. 230. - Uteri wit...
-The Ovum
This is a spherical cell, just visible to the naked eye (about 1/120 inch), composed of the following parts: - A transparent finely striated outer investment, the zona pellucida; within this is the ...
-Diseases Of The Organs Of Reproduction Of The Horse
The male organs of reproduction are not so frequently the seat of disease as those of digestion or of respiration, but it should be remembered that the comparative immunity enjoyed by our horses, empl...
-Phymosis, Or Enclosure Of The Penis
In this condition the penis becomes enclosed within the sheath, and incapable of being protruded. In new-born colts it is not due to any disease or contraction of the sheath, or enlargement of the pen...
-Paraphymosis
This condition is the opposite of that described above, and consists in the horse's inability to withdraw the extended penis within the sheath. The causes are excessive debility, from poverty, old ag...
-Oedema Of The Sheath
Oedema of the sheath is a form of local dropsy in which the tissues of the part become soaked with fluid, and consequently swollen. The fluid consists of the watery constituents of the blood which hav...
-Paralysis Of The Penis
Protrusion of the penis from the sheath, with loss of power to draw it back again, sometimes arises from paralysis of the muscle by which it is retracted. Inability to withdraw the organ into the pre...
-Amputation Of The Penis
This is not so difficult or so dangerous an operation as it might at first appear. Various more or less complicated methods have been suggested, but experience has taught us that the greatest success...
-Orchitis, Or Inflammation Of The Testicles
Inflammation of the glandular substance whose office it is to secrete semen. The causes are usually to be found in external violence, inflicted at the time of service by kicks, blows, and ...
-Diseases Of The Organs Of Reproduction In The Female
These are not of such frequent occurrence in the mare as among some other domesticated animals, but are usually of serious import. ...
-Uterine Hemorrhage Or Flooding
This accident is less often encountered among quadrupeds than among bipeds, owing chiefly to structural differences which need not here be specified, and also to the erect posture of the latter favour...
-Inflammation Of The Womb
Inflammation of the womb is technically known as Metritis, and distinctions are drawn between endo-metritis and metro-peritonitis, the former affecting chiefly the internal layers of the uterus, ...
-Vaginitis
By this term is understood an inflammatory condition of the passage through which the foetus has to pass after leaving the uterus. While commonly associated with metritis, or inflammation of the womb,...
-Leucorrhcea
This is a more or less chronic discharge from the vagina. From its frequently white, viscid nature it is known among studsmen as the whites , and as having its analogue in the human subject, passin...
-Mammitis
The importance of the udder cannot well be exaggerated. Upon its integrity and efficiency depends the life of the foal in nearly all cases, foster mothers being difficult to procure, and milk substitu...
-Parturient Fever
Parturient fever can hardly be considered without reference to those maladies which are its precursors, the chief of which are known as metritis, and divided by pathologists into endo-metritis, as aff...
-Prophylaxis
Having regard to the causes of parturient fever, too much care cannot be exercised when assisting delivery, in order to avoid injury to the vaginal or uterine membranes by the operator's nails or inst...
-Inversion Of The Uterus
To turn the uterus inside out is not an event of common occurrence in the mare. In the cow it is not only more frequently observed but it is likewise less serious in its consequences, though it is in ...
-Cystic Disease Of The Ovary
Cystic disease of the ovary is by no means of seldom occurrence in the mare, and is no doubt the cause of many cases of sterility in this animal which may occur at any period of sexual activity. Cyst...
-11. The Eye. Anatomy Of The Eye
The eye is an instrument by which light, colour, form, and movement are recognized, and by which, combined with other faculties, we acquire a knowledge of distance, relation, position, and size of obj...
-The Retina
This, which is the most internal of the tunics of the eye, is a sheet of nerve tissues situated between the choroid coat and the vitreous humour, specially organized to receive and transmit impression...
-The Humours Of The Eye
The aqueous humour (fig. 240, k) is a limpid fluid which occupies the space between the cornea and the lens. The quantity is estimated at about 1 fluid drachm. It appears to be secreted by the ciliary...
-Diseases Of The Eye And Its Appendages
It is perhaps impossible to overestimate the importance of perfect soundness of the eyes of a horse. The extreme inconvenience of a slight defect is very apparent to a rider or driver of an animal whi...
-Examination Of The Eyes
For the purpose of making an examination of the eye, the horse should be so placed by the observer that the light may fall on the organ either from a window or from the stable entrance, while the anim...
-Diseases Of The Eyelids
An account of the different diseases to which the organ of vision is liable may conveniently deal, in the first instance, with the eyelids, which are frequently implicated in one way or another in dis...
-Laceration Of The Eyelids
Laceration of the eyelids, upper or lower, generally occurs in consequence of the presence of a nail or a splinter of wood, etc, projecting out from some part of the stall or box, against which the an...
-Entropium And Ectropium
In consequence of muscular spasm, or from loss of structure due to disease or injury, burns especially, the eyelids are liable to become more or less distorted. Two forms of distortion are recognized,...
-Entropium
In this deformity the diseased lid is inverted or turned inwards, so that the eyelashes are brought in contact with the sensitive conjunctiva, causing considerable pain and inflammation, with an exces...
-Ectropium
This condition is exactly the opposite of the one previously described; the affected lid is turned outwards instead of inwards, exposing the conjunctival membrane with which it is lined. Like the othe...
-Diseases Of The Lachrymal Apparatus
Disease of the lachrymal gland, which secretes the tears, and obstruction of the lachrymal duct, which carries any excess of their secretion into the nasal cavity, are morbid conditions only occasiona...
-Diseases Of The Conjunctiva And Cornea. Simple Ophthalmia
Inflammation of the membrane which lines the eyelid (conjunctiva) is known as simple ophthalmia or conjunctivitis. The disease may present itself in various forms, from the acute to the chronic. In ...
-Inflammation Of The Cornea, "Keratitis"
Affections of the cornea include inflammation, which is sometimes followed by suppuration, or the development of matter between the layers of the cornea, and ulceration. In all these morbid conditio...
-Periodic Or Recurrent Ophthalmia
A form of ophthalmia which is known as periodic, or sometimes as moon-blindness, is peculiar to the horse, and in all probability is chiefly due to heredity. The cause to which it was formerly attri...
-Cutaneous-Piliferous Growth From The Cornea
Every now and again these hairy growths are noticed to present themselves on some portion of the eyeball of a horse. For the most part they are congenital formations, but very rarely they do not appe...
-Cataract
As the term cataract is usually understood, it includes changes in the crystalline lens, which convert it from a transparent body into an opaque mass (fig. 256), which may be compared to a small bicon...
-Disease Of The Optic Nerve - Amaurosis
Total blindness may be the consequence of disease of the optic nerve, or its expanded filaments which form the retina within the globe, without the exhibition of any symptoms which would be apparent i...
-Glaucoma
This disease is of very rare occurrence in the horse. It consists of an increased tension within the eyeball in consequence of an excessive secretion of the aqueous and vitreous humours. As a result o...
-12. The Skin (Integument) And Its Appendages
The external covering of the body, whether of the vegetable or of the animal organism, is familiarly known as the skin, a word of somewhat obscure derivation, most probably going back to the Anglo-Sax...
-Cuticle
The cells comprising the cuticle are arranged layer upon layer, and derive their nourishment entirely from the secretory vessels of the underlying derma. The cells which are immediately in contact wit...
-Cutis Or Derma
The cutis, derma, or true skin, is composed of a basis of dense fibrous structure, the fibres of which are closely interwoven one with another. Distributed through the meshes of the fibrous base of th...
-Glands Of The Skin
The glands of the skin are of two kinds: 1, sebaceous or fat-forming; 2, sudoriparous or sweat glands. Those from which the sebaceous secretion is produced are minute lobulated structures situated i...
-Uses Of The Skin. Skin As A Protective Covering
One most obvious function of the integument is that of binding the structures beneath it in such a way as to allow freedom of movement, while it keeps them in their relative positions. It varies consi...
-Skin As An Organ Of Touch
The skin is described commonly as an apparatus of touch, a sense which resides in a special manner in the terminal parts of the extremities and the lips. It is, however, distributed more or less over ...
-Skin As An Organ Of Absorption
Absorption through the surface of the integument has always been a matter of dispute. At one time a system of administration of medicine was in fashion, under the name of the endermic system, and was ...
-Skin As An Organ Of Secretion
Whatever importance may be attached to skin as an organ of absorption, its activity as a secreting organ is altogether beyond question. In the first place, the cuticular cells are constantly being th...
-Sebaceous Secretion
Glands which furnish this secretion are found distributed more or less over the entire body. As we have explained, the majority of them open into the hair follicles, where they discharge their secret...
-Appendages Of The Skin. Hair
The appendages of the skin are only two in number: i.e. hair, and its modifications in the form of horn, nails or claws. Hair arises from the bottom of small pits, or follicles, situated in the true ...
-Horn
This structure may be correctly described as a form of hair cemented together into a dense mass, and employed to protect those parts of the body - the feet, for example - which are subject to constant...
-Diseases Of The Skin Classification
A section on diseases of the skin presents to the writer certain difficulties, not on account of the want of material, but rather from its redundancy. The reader may be inclined to observe, speaking f...
-General Observations On The Subject Of Diagnosis And Treatment
It may be stated at the outset that the horse is comparatively exempt from many of the diseases referred to in the systems of classification which have been quoted; but in making this admission it is ...
-Wheals
This term is used to indicate certain elevations of the surface of the skin, the centre of which presents a pale colour, having the appearance produced by the sting of the nettle. Wheals are caused b...
-Pustules
These elevations are distinguished from vesicles by their contents. While the vesicle contains clear watery fluid, the pustules always contain pus, and are the result of more active inflammation than ...
-Squamae
The word is used to indicate scales, which are obvious enough on a mere cursory examination. A scaly condition of the skin may be an accidental condition, and simply denote want of cleanliness, or it ...
-Etiology
The causes of skin disease are numerous, and will naturally be a subject of enquiry as soon as a diagnosis is arrived at. First, it will be evident that the causes must be either general or local, but...
-Prognosis
Having considered the possible or probable causes, the next step will be to decide as to the duration of the disease, and the chances or otherwise of cure - matters in which the owner of the horse is ...
-The Principles Of Treatment
Reference to the causes which have been indicated will at once suggest that the remedies required may be purely local, or constitutional, or a combination of the two. In the case of purely local affec...
-Eruptions Of The Acute Specific Diseases. Variola Equina Or Horse-Pox
It is a matter of history that at one time it was an accepted doctrine, in regard to the origin of vaccine matter, that the disease in the cow which was described as cow-pox was the result of infectio...
-American Horse-Pox
For several years past an eruptive disease of the skin of the horse, characterized by the development of small pustules, has been recognized in this country, particularly among animals sent for exhibi...
-Eruptions Due To The Contact Of Irritating Agents, Or To The Circulation Of Specific Poisons In The Blood
It is well known that various forms of skin eruptions are due to the attacks of various insects, as lice, fleas, gnats, gadflies, etc, also from the ravages of acari; and certain vegetable parasites w...
-Local Inflammations
A considerable number of the most common affections of the skin of the horse, among them erythema, urticaria, eczema, ecthyma, etc, come under the head of local inflammations. Erythema is the term ap...
-Catarrhal Inflammation
Eczema is the most common disease occurring in the horse, typical of the catarrhal condition of the skin. It consists, in the first instance, of inflammation of the superficial layers of the true skin...
-Plastic Inflammations
The diseases included under this heading are lichen and prurigo. Lichen is a papular disease, which is described by Williams as the papular form of eczema. It commences by an eruption of small papule...
-Prurigo
This disease is distinguished by an eruption of slightly raised papules, which in the case of a horse can be felt more easily than seen. Considerable itching attends the eruption, and as a result of t...
-Bullous Inflammation
Herpes is the only disease which comes under this heading, so far as the horse is concerned. It consists of the eruption of vesicles in patches of an irregular form; the vesicles are sometimes very la...
-Suppurative Inflammations
Diseases occurring in this class are limited to those in which pustules constitute the primary lesion. In the lower animal the affection which is known as ecthyma is the only disorder which may be con...
-Squamous Inflammations
Pityriasis and psoriasis are the two affections which come properly in this class. Pityriasis, as the name implies, is a disease of the skin in which the surface becomes covered with white scales hav...
-Psoriasis
The characteristic features of this disease are the accumulation of scales in raised patches and thickening of the underlying skin. In the horse psoriasis mostly prevails in the heavier breeds, and es...
-Ichthyosis
This disease is characterized by more or less hypertrophy of the skin as a whole, but especially by the free and morbid outgrowth and accumulation of epidermis upon it. In man it is congenital and he...
-Hypertrophies And Atrophies Hypertrophies. Verrucae
Verrucae or Warts are of very common occurrence, and consist in a local enlargement or overgrowth of all the constituents of the skin. The horse is particularly liable to them; they appear in differen...
-Fibroma
Fibro-cellular growths in the skin are of occasional occurrence in the horse; they are sometimes described as soft warts. The presence of the cellular element in the tumour renders their permanent rem...
-Atrophies
Any form of senile decay would be reckoned amongst atrophies, but the condition is rarely observed in the horse excepting as the result of continuous pressure on a particular part. The hair appears to...
-Hemorrhages
Extravasation of blood into the superficial layer of the true skin is described as purpura. The hemorrhage occurs as a consequence of some change in the composition of the blood, excessive pressure of...
-Neuroses
The diseases which are included in this division are increased sensibility, diminished sensibility, and perverted sensibility. The last of these is known in the horse as pruritus, which is really, as ...
-Mallenders And Sallanders
Eczema in a local form is seen in that condition of the legs known to stablemen as mallenders and sallanders. Here the disease is confined to the flexures or bends of the knees and hocks respectivel...
-Hemophilia, Hemorrhagic Diathesis, Bleeders
By these terms is understood a disposition to bleed on the slightest provocation. In animals so constituted very slight injuries, which in others would prove perfectly harmless, are attended with prof...
-13. Parasitic Diseases Of The Horse. Introductory
Parasites, in the common acceptation of the term, are presumed to be worms of some kind which infest the internal organs of the higher animals. In reality the word has a much more extensive meaning, a...
-Parasites Derived From The Plant World
Classification Parasitic plants belong for the most part to the large family of fungi. Their history is in many points obscure, and the various attempts at classification have not been entirely satis...
-Parasites Derived From The Animal Kingdom
Classification Animal parasites are divided into three classes:-L. Protozoa. 2. Helminths. 3. Arthropedes. Protozoa include all organisms of the most simple form - the mere beginnings of life, in re...
-Helminths (Worms)
Between the highly organized parasites which are described as worms and the elementary forms which have just been referred to there do not appear to be any connecting links; at least none have been di...
-Arthropedes
In this division is included all animals with jointed limbs, all kinds of insects which, either in their mature or larval form, become parasitic permanently or temporarily to any of the higher animals...
-Diseases Which Are Induced By Particular Parasites. External Parasites Of The Horse
Numerous parasites belonging both to the animal and plant kingdoms take up their residence on or in the skin of the horse, and occasion considerable derangement. The common affection which is known as...
-Ringworm Of The Horse
It may be observed at the commencement that ringworm in the horse is a comparatively rare affection. In cattle it is constantly found in young animals; very rarely, however, is it seen in an animal af...
-Parasites Of The Skin Derived From The Animal Kingdom
The skin of the horse is infested by several varieties of parasites, which occasion disease of the structures, attended with itching, and in some cases with considerable eruption. The two most common ...
-Phthiriasis (Lousiness)
Lice which infest the skin of the horse are of two kinds: one which, by its sharp-pointed mouth, is able to puncture the skin and live on the blood, hence called Haematopinus, and another the head and...
-Acariasis (Mange)
The parasites which belong to this division are the different varieties of ticks and mange-mites. The presence of ticks on the skin may be looked upon as an accidental circumstance, from which the hor...
-Parasites Of The Digestive System Of The Horse
Numerous organisms derived from the animal and also from the plant world inhabit the digestive system of the horse. The majority of them may be passed over with very slight notice, as it has not yet b...
-Parasites Of The Digestive System Of The Horse. Continued
Two other nematode worms are found in the intestine of the horse. Both of them deposit their eggs beneath the mucous membrane, giving rise to small tumours. The two parasites are known as (1) the Stro...
-14. Organs Of Locomotion - Bones. Composition Of Bone
All bones are made up of two parts: 1, an organic matrix; 2, mineral matter or bone-ash. If the rib of a horse be macerated for a few days or weeks in dilute hydrochloric acid, the mineral or earthy m...
-Structure Of Bone
When a long bone is cut through it is found to consist of a hard outer shell of compact tissue enclosing a looser portion made up of thin bony plates, interlacing with each other to form a number of s...
-Skeletons Of Horse And Man
(The same figures indicate the corresponding parts in each). 1. Skull. 2. Atlas. 3. Dentata. 4-8. Cervical vertebrae. 9-27. Dorsal vertebrae. 28-33. Lumbar vertebras. 34-38. Sacral vertebrae. 39-5...
-Classification Of Bones
Bones are divided into three classes, distinguished as long bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones make up the extremities, where they give support to the body, and act as so many levers ...
-Growth Of Bones
In the course of the growth of the foetus much of the skeleton is laid clown in a soft flexible substance termed cartilage or gristle, out of which bone is ultimately developed by a succession of chan...
-Skeleton
The skeleton is the bony framework which gives attachment to muscles, forms cavities for the safe lodgment of the organs essential to life, and gives general support to the body. When the bones are un...
-Vertebral Column
The vertebral column consists of a long series of irregular-shaped bones termed vertebrae, united together in various ways to form a long undulating column commonly known as the spine. Vertebrae ar...
-Particular Vertebrae
The first vertebra or Atlas (fig. 1, Plate XXXVIII), so described because in the human family it supports the head, differs in a striking manner from the typical vertebra, being a mere ring of bone, h...
-Plate XXXVIII. Cervical And Dorsal Vertebrae
Fig I. ATLAS (supero-posterior surface). 1. Wing. 2. Supero-anterior foramen. 3. Postero-inferior foramen. 4. Surface for articulation with axis. 5 Inferior tubercle or inferior spinous surfac...
-Skull
The skull or bony framework of the head is situated at the anterior extremity of the vertebral column, from which it is suspended by ligaments and muscles, and on which it is capable of being freely m...
-Cranium
As compared with the body, the cranium or brain-case of the horse is remarkable for its small size. Of the thirty-two bones forming the skull, fourteen are engaged in enclosing the cranium, of which f...
-Occiput
This bone is situated at the superior extremity of the cranium, and, as we have already pointed out, furnishes two large condyles, by which it articulates with the atlas, or first bone of the neck (15...
-Parietal
The parietal bones are two, situated immediately beneath the bone last described and above the frontal bones. They are united by the sagittal suture in the middle line of the cranium, and serve to for...
-Temporal Bones
These are four in number, two pairs, distinguished from each other as the squamous and the petrous temporal bones, the former having a shell-like structure, while the latter are of great density and h...
-Petrous Temporal
Two small hard irregular bones, but of considerable importance owing to their having within them the special organs of hearing. They are interposed between the occipital bones above, and the parietal ...
-Sphenoid Bone
This bone assists in forming the base of the cranium. It is situated immediately below the occipital bone, with which it articulates. Its middle part or body is somewhat thick, and from it proceed up...
-Ethmoid Or Sieve Bone
The ethmoid bone is situated in front of the sphenoid, and forms the lower part of the division separating the cranium from the face. It consists of two lateral halves, separated by a perpendicular pl...
-Frontal Bones
These bones form a portion of the inferior wall of the cranium, as well as that part of the face corresponding to the forehead. They are situated between the parietal bones above and the nasal and lac...
-Bones Of The Face. Nasal Bones
These bones form the anterior part of the face below, and are situated beneath the frontal bones, and between the lachrymal and the superior and anterior maxillary bones. They are the slender bones co...
-Superior Maxillary Bones
The upper jaw - bones are situated on the side of the face, and join together by means of a flattened plate (palatine process) in the centre of the roof of the mouth, a large portion of which they for...
-Anterior Maxillary Bones
These bones are situated at the lower part of the face, and carry the upper incisor teeth. They are joined together in front, and also by a thin flexible plate which forms the anterior part of the roo...
-Lachrymal Bone
This is a small bone situated at the inner angle of the orbit, which it assists in forming. It has running through it a funnel-shaped cavity (lachrymal fossa), which gives lodgment to a small sac (lac...
-Malar Bone
This is placed at the outer and inferior part of the orbit, where it sends a branch backward and joins the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch, and the socket for the lodgment of the eye and its ...
-Palatine Bones
The palatine bones are situated at the back part of the roof of the mouth, and form a narrow border to the posterior nares or opening between the nostrils and the throat. ...
-Pterygoid Bones
These are two small slender bones placed immediately above the palate bones. On the outer side of each is a groove or pulley, through which a small tendon plays, belonging to the muscle (tensor palat...
-The Vomer
A single bone running along the whole length of the floor of the nasal cavities, where it occupies a central position. Its anterior border is deeply grooved, and gives lodgment to a flat piece of cart...
-Turbinated Bones
These are four in number, two situated in each nasal passage, where they are attached to the outer walls one above the other. They are long, thin, fragile plates of bone, folded upon themselves into r...
-Inferior Maxillary Bone Or Lower Jaw
This is a single bone composed of two flattened branches, which converge from above downward, and unite in front to form the body. It is the largest bone of the face. It carries six molar teeth, or gr...
-The Thorax Or Chest
The bony framework of this cavity is formed by the dorsal vertebrae above, which we have already referred to, the sternum below, and the ribs which form the sides and part of the roof. ...
-Sternum Or Breast-Bone (Fig. 292)
This is a long bone, suspended from the dorsal spine by the ribs, the first eight of which articulate with it. In early life it is made up of six distinct pieces, united by intervening-cartilage or gr...
-The Ribs (Plate XXXVII)
We have already pointed out that there are eighteen ribs on each side, distinguished numerically as the first, second, third, and so on. The first eight are attached to the sternum and designated true...
-Costal Cartilages
These are cylindrical pieces of cartilage extending in a forward direction from the lower extremities of the ribs, which they serve to elongate. The first eight are united with the sternum, and are th...
-The Pelvis (Figs. 294, 295)
The bony pelvis or hip girdle consists of two portions, termed coxae or ossa innominata, which, together with the sacrum and the front segments of the tail-bones, form the cavity of the pelvis. The o...
-The Fore Limb
The fore extremity is made up of twenty bones: the scapula, humerus, radius, and ulna above the knee; the scaphoid, lunar, cuneiform, pisiform, trapezoid, os magnum, unciform in the knee; and the larg...
-Scapula (Figs. 296, 297)
This is the uppermost bone of the fore limb, a flat triangular segment placed on the side of the chest, where it takes an oblique direction downward and forward. Its base is turned upward, and its ape...
-Humerus (Figs. 298, 299)
The humerus, or arm-bone, is a bone of great thickness and density, and is situated between the scapula or blade-bone above and the radius and the ulna below. Externally the body of the bone is deeply...
-Forearm
Two bones, the radius and the ulna, which in early life are separate, but in the adult are ossified together, constitute this region. ...
-Radius (Fig. 300)
This is the longest bone in the fore limb, and extends from the humerus above to the knee below. Its superior extremity is divided into two concavities by a small ridge, and corresponds with the two c...
-Ulna (Fig. 300)
The ulna is a long tapering bone, united by ossification to the outer and posterior surface of the radius. Its superior extremity is of considerable length and thickness, and projects from the head of...
-Carpus Or Knee
This (fig. 301) is the analogue of the wrist of man. It is made up of seven, sometimes eight, small irregular bones arranged in two rows of three each, one resting upon the other, with the seventh bon...
-Metacarpal Bones
These are three in number. and are distinguished as the large metacarpal bone, which occupies the centre, and two smaller ones at the sides. ...
-Os Metacarpi Magnum (Fig. 303)
Os Metacarpi Magnum (fig. 303), or large metacarpal, or canon bone, extends from the knee to the fetlock joint, which it assists in forming. It is rounded in front, flattened behind, and very dense an...
-Os Suffraginis, Large Pastern, Or First Phalanx (Fig. 304)
The large pastern is a short stout bone placed between the small pastern below and the fetlock joint above. Its superior extremity is larger than the inferior, and presents two shallow depressions sep...
-Os Pedis (Figs 306, 307), Coffin-Bone, Or Third Phalanx
The coffin-bone is contained in the hoof, of the shape of which it in a large measure partakes. It is a porous bone, having a number of holes in its front and sides for the passage of blood-vessels, a...
-Os Naviculare Or Shuttle Bone (Fig. 305)
The navicular bone is a small flattened bone, broad in the middle and tapering towards each extremity. It is situated in the hoof, below the os corone and behind the os pedis, with both of which it ar...
-Bones Of The Hind Limb
The bones comprised in this region are the femur or thigh-bone, the patella or knee-cap, and the tibia and fibula. Then come the bones of the hock, the astragalus, calcis, cuneiform magnum, cuneiform ...
-Os Femoris Or Thigh-Bone (Figs. 308, 309)
This is a large, thick, strong bone, extending obliquely downward and forward from the hip-joint above to the stifle-joint below. The shaft presents a number of roughened places for the attachment of ...
-Patella (Fig. 310)
This is a small irregular bone analogous to the knee-cap of man, and in the horse frequently becomes displaced. Behind it is covered with articular cartilage, and conies into contact with the trochlea...
-Tibia Or Second Thigh (Fig. 311)
A long bone extending from the femur to the hock joint. It is broad above and narrow below. The superior extremity articulates with the condyles of the femur, and is divided into two lateral articular...
-The Fibula (3, Fig. 311)
The Fibula (3, fig. 311) is a long slender bone connected with the outer side of the tibia, with the head of which it unites by a small synovial articulation. It is broad above and tapers downwards to...
-The Tarsus Or Hock
This joint (fig. 312) is composed of six bones, viz., the calcis, astragalus, cuboid, cuneiform magnum, cuneiform medium, and cuneiform parvum. The Calcis is situated at the posterior and outer part ...
-Astragalus Or Knuckle-Bone
This is the largest bone in the hock. It is placed in front of the calcis, and from it project forward two pulley-like ridges separated by a deep groove. These ridges are received into two correspondi...
-The Cuboid
The Cuboid is a small irregularly-shaped bone situated on the outer and back part of the hock, having the calcis above it and the large and outer small metacarpal bones below. Inwardly, it articulates...
-The Cuneiform Magnum
The Cuneiform Magnum is a flat bone covered on its two surfaces with cartilage. It occupies a position between the astragalus above and the cuneiform medium below, and articulates besides with the cub...
-The Cuneiform Medium
The Cuneiform Medium is a triangular bone, and, like the magnum, presents two flattened surfaces for articulation with the magnum above, and the large metacarpal or canon-bone below. By smaller articu...
-The Cuneiform Parvum
The Cuneiform Parvum, the smallest bone in the hock, is situated at the inner and inferior part of the joint, inclining backwards, where it articulates with the large and inner small metatarsal bones ...
-Diseases Of Bones. Ring-Bone
A ring-bone is an enlargement extending over the front, and sometimes also over the back, of the pastern. It consists of a diffused bony excrescence growing out of or upon the large or small pastern b...
-Splint
Splint (fig. 315) is a bony excrescence situated on or near the small splint bones, and is often the means of permanently uniting the latter to the canon. Not fewer than 90 per cent of our light horse...
-Ostitis - Inflammation Of Bone
A casual inspection of a bone shows it to consist of several structures. Outwardly will be noticed a thin fibrous membrane (periosteum). This not only covers the exterior of the bone, but serves as a ...
-Periostitis
This disease is mostly found to exist in the long bones of the limbs of young animals when growth of the skeleton is most active, and the vessels of the membrane are highly charged with blood for the ...
-Chronic Periostitis
This form of the disease most commonly presents itself in that affection of the limbs termed sore shins and splints. It may, of course, attack any of the bones of the skeleton, but those of the legs ...
-Chronic Ostitis
This is the form in which ostitis most frequently presents itself in the horse. Ringbones, some splints, and various other excrescences on the bones of the limbs and other parts of the skeleton are fr...
-Necrosis And Caries
When bone is so far damaged by disease or accident as to cause it to die, it is said to be affected with necrosis or caries, one or the other, according to the mode of death. If a considerable quantit...
-Necrosis
Causes. The more common causes of necrosis as it affects horses are blows and bruises directly applied to the bone; hence it occurs that those bones or parts of bones most superficially placed, and co...
-Osteo-Porosis - Big Head
By this term is understood a swollen, soft, and porous state of the bones. It is a constitutional disease usually involving the entire skeleton, but manifesting itself with much greater severity in so...
-Post-Mortem Examination
After death no special lesions are found to exist in the abdominal or thoracic viscera. Many or all the bones of the skeleton are enlarged (fig. 323), spongy in texture, and soft in consistence. The ...
-Spavin
The term spavin is applied to two distinct forms of enlargement of the hock, one being a bony excrescence (bone-spavin), and the other a distension of the joint capsule with fluid (bog-spavin). Spavin...
-Bone-Spavin
A bony outgrowth on the inner and lower part of the hock is termed a bone-spavin (fig. 324). The enlargement usually appears towards the front, but it may occupy a backward position, or extend from f...
-Metacarpal Periostitis - Sore Shins
This is an ailment of common occurrence in race-horses, but comparatively seldom seen in other varieties. The greater liability of the one over the others is associated with early training, while the ...
-15. Fractures
When a bone is broken into two or more parts it is said to be fractured. Fractures assume a variety of forms, each of which presents some feature requiring special consideration, either in regard to d...
-Predisposing Causes
For various reasons some bones are more liable to fracture than others, and this represents their predisposition. In looking over the body it is not difficult to see that certain bones are much more ...
-Predisposing Causes. Part 2
Of the many symptoms attending a fracture crepitus is the one which should be specially sought for. It is the sensation or sound which results from the rubbing of one broken piece against the other. I...
-Predisposing Causes. Part 3
The prospect of treatment - as to whether it is likely to be successful or otherwise - will depend upon a variety of circumstances, all of which should be well considered before a decision is arrived ...
-Predisposing Causes. Part 4
Where difficulty is experienced in bringing the displaced parts into their proper position, the lower segment of the limb should be moved in various directions by an assistant while the operator manip...
-Compound Fracture
Whether the fracture be simple or compound, the method employed for the reposition of the broken fragments will be the same; but the presence of a wound, and maybe also the protrusion of a portion of ...
-Particular Fractures Fracture Of The Bones Of The Skull
Fracture in this region is comparatively rare, and serious in proportion as the bone is depressed and the brain subjected to compression and traumatic injury. Those bones forming the front of the cra...
-Fracture Of The Vertebrae
Fracture of the vertebral column is an accident which is now and again brought to the notice of most veterinarians in the course of their practice, but it is by no means an event of common occurrence ...
-Fracture Of The Dorsal And Lumbar Vertebra
It is here, in the back or loins, that fracture of the vertebrae most frequently occurs. In this as in other fractures old animals are much more liable to the mishap than younger ones, owing to their ...
-Fracture Of The Bones Of The Face
Fracture of the facial bones is not as common as might be expected considering the prominent and exposed position of the face. From time to time, however, such cases are brought under the notice of th...
-Fracture Of The Frontal Bone
This bone, forming a considerable area of the face, and arching over the eye, is much exposed, and sometimes suffers fracture from one or another of the causes referred to above. The fracture may inv...
-Fracture Of The Lower Jaw
Fracture of the lower jaw may take place through the neck of the right branch or the left, or both. It may proceed vertically through the body and divide or separate the two branches from each other. ...
-Fracture Of The Anterior Maxillary Bone
The most common form of fracture of this bone is that in which it becomes broken away from its fellow at their joining, and displaced either to one side or in an upward or downward direction. Fracture...
-Fracture Of The Bones Of The Fore Extremity Fracture Of The Scapula Or Blade-Bone
Fracture of the scapula is fortunately of rare occurrence, partly because it is covered with thick muscles and rests on others on the elastic chest wall, partly also because its movements are of limit...
-Fracture Of The Humerus
The humerus or upper arm is seldom broken. The large muscles which everywhere enclose it serve as a protection against external violence. When this fracture does occur, and the breakage extends throu...
-Fracture Of The Ulna
The prominent position occupied by the ulna predisposes it to fracture beyond that of some other bones of the extremities. The olecranon, which forms the point of the elbow, is more especially the sea...
-Fracture Of The Radius
Fracture of the radius, or fore-arm, like most other fractures of the bones of the limbs, is the result of kicks and blows, or false steps, or it may arise in the struggles to recover the leg from som...
-Fracture Of The Knee-Bones
This is comparatively rare. When it does occur it is mostly associated with broken knees, and assumes the form of a compound fracture, complicated with inflammation of the joint and damage to tendons ...
-Fracture Of The Metacarpal Bones
In adult and aged horses the metacarpal bones are generally united together by ossific union, and it results from this, when fracture occurs, that all the bones are involved in it. In colts, where the...
-Fracture Of The Os Suffraginis Or Large Pastern
Fractures of the large pastern are perhaps the most common of all affecting the limbs of the horse. They mostly take an oblique direction, extending from above downwards towards the outer or the inne...
-Fracture Of The Sesamoid Bones
Fracture of the sesamoid bones is by no means of uncommon occurrence. It happens most frequently in old hunters and chasers when carrying heavy weights over deep ground, and mostly at the end of a lon...
-Fracture Of The Navicular Bone
The frequent occurrence of navicular disease, as a result of which the bone becomes weakened by ulceration and rarefaction of its tissue, renders, the bone in question peculiarly liable to fracture, a...
-Fracture Of The Ribs
Having regard to the large and exposed surface formed by the back ribs, and the peculiar occupation and surroundings of the horse, fracture of the ribs is much less common than might reasonably be exp...
-Fracture Of The Pelvis
The large size of the pelvis, its projecting angles and position, render it specially liable to fracture, and modern road-making in our large towns contributes not a little to this result. Wood paveme...
-Fracture Of The Bones Of The Hind Extremity. Fracture Of The Femur
Notwithstanding the large muscles which everywhere surround and protect the femur, it is sometimes made to yield to the violence which in one form or another is applied to it. The causes which determi...
-Fracture Of The Tibia
Fracture of this bone is comparatively frequent. Its greater length, more exposed position, and less ample protection by muscles than the femur render it more liable to succumb to external violence. ...
-Fracture Of The Bones Of The Hock
This is an accident of exceptionally rare occurrence, and mostly concerns the calcaneum (os calcis) or bone forming the point of the hock. Occupying a prominent position, and standing exposed to exter...
-16. Articulations Of Joints
The bones of the skeleton are joined together in various ways to form joints. The manner in which they are united will depend upon the purpose they are intended to perform, hence joints are divided in...
-Ball-And-Socket Joints
Some diarthrodial joints are formed by the rounded head of one bone fitting into a cup-like cavity or socket contained in another bone. This is the case in the hip-joint (fig. 358), which allows the l...
-Hinge Joints
Others assume the form of hinge joints, in which convexities or prominences on one bone fit into depressions or grooves in its fellow. In this form of articulation the movement of the joint, like that...
-Arthrodia Or Gliding Joints
This variety of diarthrodial joint is found in the knee (fig. 354) and the hock joints where the small flat bones are closely united together, one upon the other, so as to allow simply a limited glidi...
-Amphiarthrosis Or Mixed Joints
In this variety the bones are connected by a disc of fibro-cartilage, and possess just as much movement as the flexibility and compressibility of the joining substance allows. Mixed joints have no smo...
-Pivot Joints
Here a pointed extremity of one bone furnishes a pivot on which another bone turns. This is the case with the odontoid process of the dentata or second vertebra (fig. 350), which, as has been previous...
-Synarthrosis Or Immovable Joints
This form of articulation prevails where flat bones are united together by their borders to form cavities, as in the case of the cranium and the cavities of the face. In some of these a joining is eff...
-Articulations Of The Trunk. Intervertebral Articulations
All the vertebras beyond the second and as far backward as the first sacral are united together by their bodies and processes. The bodies are connected one to another by circular discs of fibro-cartil...
-Union Of The Processes
The superior processes are connected by the supraspinous ligament and the inter-spinous ligament (fig. 346). The former runs along the tops of the superior spinous processes, to each of which it beco...
-Interspinous Ligaments (2, Fig. 346)
In the dorso-lumbar region there is a series of short flat layers of connective tissue passing in a backward and downward direction from the posterior border of the superior spinous process of one ver...
-Articulations Of The Head
It has elsewhere been pointed out that these are for the most part immovable, and the mode of formation has been described. The Tempero-Maxillary Articulation (fig. 348) or joint formed between the l...
-Hyoidal Articulations - Joints Of The Tongue
These are three in number, two cartilaginous and one synovial. The cartilaginous or amphiarthrodial joints are formed by the union of the superior extremity of the long horn of the hyoid bone with the...
-Articulations Of The Ribs
All the ribs are connected with the vertebrae above, and the first eight true ribs are also united with the sternum below, by synovial articulations or joints, by which means they are enabled to move ...
-Costo-Vertebral Articulations
Each of these joints is formed by the articulation of the head of a rib between the bodies of two vertebrae, and by the union of the tubercle of the rib with the transverse process of the vertebra beh...
-Costo-Sternal Articulations
These are the joints formed by the union of the inferior extremities of the cartilages of the eight true ribs with the sternum or breast-bone. Each articulation has a capsular ligament lined by a syno...
-Articulations Of The Head With The Neck. Occipito-Atloid
The union of the head with the neck is effected by the articulation of the two occipital condyles with corresponding concavities on the anterior face of the atlas. This joint is enclosed in a capsular...
-Atlo-Axoid
The atlo-axoid joint is formed by the projection of the odontoid process of the axis into the ring of the atlas, where it is retained by the odontoid ligament (fig. 351). Other ligaments, the superio...
-Scapulo-Humeral Or Shoulder-Joint
The shoulder-joint results from the union of the glenoid or shallow cavity on the inferior extremity of the scapula or blade-bone, with the much larger articular surface provided by the head of the hu...
-Humero-Radial Or Elbow-Joint
Three bones are engaged in the formation of this joint - the humerus above, the radius below, and the ulna behind. It has two lateral ligaments passing from the humerus to the radius. The outer one is...
-Articulations Of The Carpus Or Knee-Joint
As we have elsewhere pointed out, the knee is not one joint but several; the chief of which are: 1, the radio-carpal; 2, the carpal; 3, the carpo-metacarpal. In addition, other small articulations exi...
-The Metacarpo-Phalangial Articulation Or Fetlock-Joint
The bones which enter into the construction of the fetlock-joint are four in number, the large metacarpal or canon-bone, the os suffraginis or long pastern, and, behind these, two small sesamoid bones...
-First Interphalangial Articulation Or Coronet-Joint
This is a simple joint, of limited action, and formed by the union of the lower extremity of the os suffraginis with the upper extremity of the small pastern. The ligaments which unite these bones tog...
-Second Interphalangial Articulation Or Coffin-Joint
The bones concerned in the construction of this joint are the os coronae or coronet-bone, the os pedis or foot-bone, and the os naviculare or navicular bone. The two last-named bones are united togeth...
-Coxo-Femoral Articulation Or Hip-Joint
The hip-joint is formed by the union of the head of the femur or thigh-bone with the cotyloid cavity of the coxa (fig. 358). Four ligaments are engaged in connecting the two bones, viz. the capsular,...
-The Capsular Ligament
The Capsular Ligament is attached around the articular margin of the femur, to the margin of the cotyloid cavity, and to the cotyloid ligament. Its inner surface is lined by a synovial membrane. ...
-The Cotyloid Ligament
The Cotyloid Ligament is a ring of fibro-cartilage attached around the margin of the cotyloid cavity. It serves to increase the depth of the cup, and at the same time to give it a yielding margin for ...
-The Round Ligament (Jiga-Mentum Teres)
The Round Ligament (Jiga-mentum teres) is a short, strong fibrous cord extending from the bottom of the acetabulum to the inner side of the head of the femur. ...
-The Pubio-Femoral Ligament
The Pubio-femoral Ligament, although short, is longer and thicker than the round ligament. It is derived from the tendons of the abdominal muscles, which, in front of the pubes, cross from right to le...
-Femoro-Tibial Articulation Or Stifle-Joint
This is the corresponding joint to the knee of man. It is formed by the union of the femur with the tibia on the one part, and with the patella or knee-cap on the other. The femur articulates with the...
-Patellar Ligaments
These are five in number - two lateral and three straight. The lateral ligaments extend from the inner and outer sides of the patella to corresponding parts of the lower extremity of the femur. The s...
-The Femoro-Tibial Ligaments
The Femoro-tibial Ligaments are five in number, viz. two lateral, two crucial, and a posterior. The lateral ligaments are situated one on either side, and extend from the inner and outer condyle of th...
-The Crucial Ligaments
These are two thick short bands situated in the notch which separates the two condyles, where they cross each other like the lines of the letter X. The anterior branch is attached to the spine on the ...
-Tibiofibular Articulation
This joint, of very small dimensions and of most limited action, is formed by the union of the inner surface of the head of the fibula with the upper and outer part of the tibia. The two bones are con...
-The Articulations Of The Tarsus Or Hock-Joint
The so-called hock-joint, like the knee, is formed of a number of articulations, by which the various bones are enabled to move one upon the other. The extent of movement between the different pieces ...
-The Internal Lateral Ligaments
The Internal Lateral Ligaments are placed one within the other, and are distinguished as the superficial, the middle, and the deep. All of them are attached above to the tuberosity (internal maleolus)...
-The Internal Middle Ligament
The Internal Middle Ligament, situated beneath that last described, divides into two short strands, one of which is implanted into the astragalus, and the other into the calcaneus. The Internal Deep ...
-The Anterior Ligament
This presents the form of a broad membranous or capsular ligament stretching over the front of the true hock-joint. It is lined by synovial membrane, and is that portion of the capsule which bulges in...
-The Posterior Ligament
The Posterior Ligament is situated behind the joint, and is much thicker than the anterior, having in its centre a quantity of fibro-cartilage, over which glides the perforans tendon in its course to ...
-Diseases Of The Joints
As we have elsewhere pointed out, joints vary very considerably, not only in their structure, but also in the purpose they serve. Some, as those by which the bones of the head are united, are fixed an...
-The Local Origin Of Joint Disease
The Local Origin of Joint Disease varies in different cases. It may first commence in the synovial membrane, or in the bone or the cartilage. It does not, however, always confine itself to the structu...
-Anchylosis
Anchylosis is that condition of a joint in which the bones forming it are united in such a way as to restrict or altogether prevent their natural movement taking place. The various means by which this...
-Synovitis - Inflammation Of The Synovial Membrane
When the lining membrane of a free-moving joint becomes inflamed, the disease is known as synovitis. The attack may be acute or severe, subacute, or chronic, in which last case it continues for a mor...
-Acute Synovitis
This form of the disease most frequently results from wounds which injure or puncture the capsule of the joint, and especially such as are contaminated with septic matter at the time of or after infli...
-Chronic Synovitis
Chronic synovitis may follow upon an acute attack of the disease, or arise directly from an injury inflicted upon a joint. As in acute synovitis, the joint capsule is more or less distended with flui...
-Loose Cartilages In Joints
It sometimes occurs that small bodies, varying in size from a pea to a walnut, are found loose in the cavities of joints, especially the larger ones, such as the stifle, hock, or knee. These formatio...
-Rheumatic Arthritis
In this disease we recognize a local expression of a constitutional disorder arising out of some as yet undefined noxious principle in the blood. Aged animals are more especially its victims, but it ...
-Pyaemic Arthritis
This is one of the most destructive of joint ailments. Foals a few days old are its most common victims, although now and again older horses suffer from it also. It ranks with the infective diseases, ...
-Sprains To Joints, Tendons, And Ligaments
The severe efforts which horses are called upon to make, and often under the most trying circumstances, render them specially liable to overtax the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints of the extre...
-Bog-Spavin
This disease is of an entirely different nature from that referred to in the section on Diseases of the Organs of Locomotion. It is presented by a soft fluctuating enlargement at the upper and inner...
-Sprain Or Strain
A sprain is an injury to a ligament, a tendon, a muscle, or a joint, in which there is over-extension and sometimes laceration of fibres and maybe displacement of parts. Fig. 364. - Bog-spavin Tru...
-Sprain Of The Flexor Brachii
In the anatomical portion of this work the flexor brachii muscle is described as largely tendinous. It is wholly so in the portion which passes over the bicipital groove in front of the humerus, where...
-Sprain Of The Radial Or Supra-Carpal Ligament
This accident occurs in resisting over-extension of the superficial flexor muscle of the fore-limb when undue weight is imposed upon it (fig. 354). Symptoms Besides lameness, there is heat, swelling...
-Sprain Of The Check Ligament
This ligament (fig. 366), it will be remembered, has its origin behind the knee, and joins the perforans tendon about one-third of the distance between the knee and fetlock-joint. Sprain of this impo...
-Sprain Of The Suspensory Ligament
The reader who has studied the anatomy of the limb, and informed himself of the origin, attachments, and divisions of this structure (figs. 356 and 366), will be prepared to learn that the ligament ma...
-Sprain Of The Perforans And Perforatus Tendons
This may occur to either one or the other separately, or to both at the same time, when the muscles to which they belong are over-fatigued, and fail to act in time and with sufficient force to prevent...
-Sprain Of The Fetlock-Joint
By a sprained fetlock-joint is generally understood a stretching or rupture of some or all of the ligaments which unite the bones, but a not infrequent result or concomitant of such strain is inflamma...
-Sprained Back
When a horse's hind-feet slip under him, and especially if carrying a heavy load, he may suffer a strain of the muscles of the back, or in jumping those under the loin may be sprained. Horses, when ju...
-Sprain And Rupture Of The Flexor Metatarsi
The function of this muscle is to flex the canon on the hock and advance the limb. The action displayed by our best movers is for the most part due to its vigorous contractions. Arising from the lower...
-Curb
A curb is an enlargement on the posterior part of the hock-joint,, about 4 or 5 inches below its point. Pathologically it consists in an inflammatory thickening of the sheath of the flexor pedis perfo...
-Bowed Knees
This affection is very common in foals at the time of birth, and to such an extent does it occasionally exist, that the breeder is doubtful as to whether the young animal will ever become upright upon...
-17. The Muscular System
There are two kinds of muscle, distinguished as striated or voluntary and non-striated or involuntary. Striated muscle is red in colour, and forms nearly one-half of the entire weight of the body. It...
-Tendons
Muscles are attached to bones either directly by their fleshy fibres or by tendons which proceed from them. Tendons transmit the action of muscles to the bones to be acted upon. They exist in the form...
-Muscles Of The Face And Head
The muscles of the face comprise a number of longer or shorter strips, most of which are attached by one extremity to the bones above, and by the other to parts about the lips and nostrils below. Thos...
-Masseter
A broad, thick, square muscle situated on the outer face of the lower jaw. It is largely intersected by tendinous layers and covered by a strong fibrous membrane. Origin. - From the zygomatic ridge o...
-Pterygoideus Interims
A broad, thick, flat muscle situated on the internal aspect of the superior broad portion of the lower jaw. Origin. - From the sphenoid and palatine bones. Insertion. - Into the inner surface of the...
-Pterygoideus Externus
A short, thick, fleshy muscle situated within and in front of the articulation of the lower jaw with the temporal bone. Origin. - From the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull. Insertion. - Into t...
-Temporalis
This muscle lies on the side and front of the cranium, extending into the temporal fossa. Origin. - From the outer surface of the parietal, squamous temporal, and frontal bones, in the temporal fossa...
-Stylo-Maxillaris
This is a short, thick muscle situated in the region of the throat. Origin. - From the styloid process of the occipital bone above in company with another small muscle - the digastricus. Insertion. ...
-Muscles Of The External Ear
The external ear consists of a short bony tube projecting from the petrous temporal bone, termed the external auditory canal, together with three pieces of cartilage, and a number of muscles, vessels,...
-The Superficial Muscles Exposed
1. Orbicularis oris. 2. Dilatator naris lateralis. 3. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. 4. Levator labii superioris proprius. 5. Depressor labii inferioris. 6. Zygomaticus. 7. Buccinator. 8...
-Zygomatico-Auricularis
This comprises two thin slips of muscle arising from the zygomatic process of the squamous temporal bone. They become inserted into the scutiform cartilage, and into the outer and inferior part of the...
-Parieto-Auricularis Externus
A broad, thin muscle spread over the superior part of the forehead and covering the temporalis muscle. Origin. - From the parietal crest or bony ridge in the centre of the forehead. Insertion. - By ...
-Scuto-Auricularis Externus
This muscle attaches the scutiform cartilage to the inner side of the concha. It assists in drawing the ear inwards and directing the opening forward. ...
-Cervico-Auricularis
Three muscles are included in this term - the superficial, the middle, and the deep. Origin. - All three arise from the ligamentum nuchae at the summit of the head, where they are placed one upon ano...
-Parotido-Auricularis
A long, thin, ribbon-shaped muscle situated on the external surface of the throat in contact with the parotid gland. Origin. - From the outer surface of the parotid gland, from which it ascends to be...
-Parieto-Auricularis Internus
A triangular muscle placed beneath the one last described. Origin. - From the superior part of the parietal crest. Insertion. - Into the inner side of the base of the conchal cartilage. Action. - T...
-Scuto-Auricularis Internus
This muscle is composed of two small divisions, which cross each other somewhat obliquely. Origin. - From the inner surface of the scutiform cartilage. Insertion. - Into the posterior part of the ba...
-Mastoido-Auricularis
A very small muscle, situated at the inner side of the root of the ear. Origin. - From the margin of the auditory process of the petrous temporal bone. Insertion. - Into the base of the conchal cart...
-Muscles Of The Hyoid Region. Mylo-Hyoid
This muscle is situated beneath the tongue and between the branches of the lower jaw. With its fellow they stretch across from one branch to the other, and support the tongue as in a sling. Origin. -...
-Genio-Hyoideus
This is a long, narrow muscle, with tapering extremities, situated beneath the tongue. Origin. - From the lower jaw, near the symphysis or joining of the two branches. Insertion. - Into the spur-pro...
-Stylo-Hyoid
Situated in the region of the throat. Origin. - From the superior and posterior part of the long cornu of the hyoid or tongue bone. Insertion. - Into the outer part of the heel-like process of the s...
-Hyoideus Trans Versus
This is a small single muscle placed between the two small cornua of the tongue bone. It is attached to the inner surface of each, and crosses over from one side to the other. Action. - To maintain t...
-Kerato-Hyoid
A small, flat, triangular muscle situated at the root of the tongue. Origin. - From the posterior border of the lower end of the long cornu, and from the posterior border of the small cornu. Inserti...
-The Digastricus
This is composed of two small muscular masses united by a short tendon; hence it is called digastric or a double-bellied muscle. Origin. - With the stylo-maxillaris from the styloid process of the oc...
-Occipito-Styloid
A very short, small, flat muscle situated at the posterior part of the base of the skull. Origin. - From the anterior part of the styloid process of the occipital bone. Insertion. - Into the upper e...
-Muscles Of The Tongue. Stylo-Glossus
A long, narrow, Hat muscle situated on the side of the tongue. Origin. - From the outer part of the inferior extremity of the long-cornu of the tongue bone. Insertion. - Into the tip of the tongue. ...
-Great Hyo-Glossus
Situated in the substance of the tongue. Origin. - From the heel-like process and body of the tongue bone. Insertion. - Into the front part of the mucous membrane of the tongue along the greater por...
-Genio-Hyo-Glossus
A broad, thin, fan-shaped muscle placed in the centre of the tongue. Some of its fibres pass downwards to the tip, others to the centre, and a third portion to the root of the tongue. Origin. - From ...
-Small Hyo-Glossus
A very small muscle surrounded by fat and situated at the root of the tongue. Origin. - From the inferior extremity of the small cornu and the body of the tongue bone. Insertion. - Into the posterio...
-Second Layer Of Muscles Exposed
1. Temporalis. 2. Levator labii superioris aloequae nasi. 3. Levator labii superioris. 4. Dilator naris lateralis. 5. Orbicularis oris. 6. Zygomaticus. 7. Depressor labii inferioris. 8. Buccina...
-Palato-Glossus
A small collection of muscle fibres arising from the side of the pharynx and becoming inserted into the root of the tongue. Action. - To constrict the fauces. ...
-Muscles Of The Pharyngeal Region. Pterygo-Pharyngeus
A thin, flat, triangular muscle lying above the pharynx. Origin. - From the pterygoid process, from which its fibres spread out fan-like and become inserted into the upper and lateral aspect of the p...
-Hyo-Pharyngeus
A small muscle situated on the inferior and lateral parts of the pharynx in front. Origin. - From the heel process of the hyoid bone. Insertion. - Into the roof of the pharynx, where its fibres inte...
-Thyro-Pharyngeus
Situated behind the one last described. Origin. - From the outer surface of the thyroid cartilage. Insertion. - Into the roof of the pharynx, where its fibres interlace with those of its fellow. ...
-Crico-Pharyngeus
Placed behind the thyro-pharyngeus. Origin. - From the outer surface of the cricoid cartilage. Insertion. - Into the roof of the pharynx, where its fibres interlace with those of its fellow. Action...
-Stylo-Pharyngeils
A triangular muscle situated above the pharynx. Origin. From the inner surface of the long cornu of the hyoid bone. Insertion. - Below it spreads out its fibres and becomes inserted into the outer e...
-Muscles Of The Soft Palate. Palato-Pharyngeus
This muscle lies in the posterior part of the soft palate. It is attached to its fellow on the opposite side, to the outer wall of the pharynx, and to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage. Ac...
-Tensor Palati
A small, flat, thin muscle placed above the pharynx. Origin. - From the styloid process of the petrous temporal bone. Insertion. - The tendon of this muscle plays over a pulley-like arrangement on t...
-Levator Palati
A thin band of muscle situated above the pharynx. Origin. - With the muscle last described from the styloid process of the temporal bone. Insertion. - Into the soft palate. Action. - To raise the v...
-Muscles Of The Larynx. Thyro-Hyoid Muscle
A flat triangular muscle spread over the side of the thyroid cartilage. Origin. - From the entire length of the heel process of the hyoid or tongue bone. Insertion. - Into an oblique ridge on the ou...
-Hyo-Epiglottideus
A short, small bundle of fibres situated at the root of the tongue in a mass of fatty tissue. Origin. - From the upper surface of the body of the hyoid bone. Insertion. - Into the front and lower pa...
-Crico-Thyroid Muscle
A small, narrow muscle placed on the outer side of the cricoid cartilage. Origin. - From the upper and anterior part of the cricoid cartilage. Insertion.. - Into the inferior part of the thyroid car...
-Posterior Crico-Arytenoid Muscle
It occupies the upper and back part of the larynx, a great portion of which it covers. It is the largest and most powerful of the intrinsic muscles connected with this organ. Origin. - From the poste...
-Lateral Crico-Arytenoid Muscle
A small muscle situated on the upper and posterior part of the larynx. Origin. - From the upper part of the anterior border of the cricoid cartilage. Insertion. - Its fibres, passing upwards and bac...
-Thyro-Arytenoid Muscle
This muscle is composed of two small bundles of fibres situated on the inner side of the thyroid cartilage, where they are separated from each other by the interposition of a pouch of mucous membrane ...
-Arytenoideus Muscle
A pair of small muscles situated on the upper and posterior surface of the arytenoid cartilages. They are united in the middle line by the intermixing of their fibres, and are inserted into the poster...
-Muscles Of The Neck. Rhomboideus
This is a long triangular muscle situated at the upper border of the neck, where it commences at the second cervical vertebra and extends backward to the fifth dorsal vertebra. Origin. - From the sup...
-Levator Anguli Scapulae
A muscle of considerable size spread over the lower half of the side of the neck, from which its fibres converge toward the cervical angle of the scapula. Attachments. - To the transverse processes o...
-Splenius
A broad, triangular, fiat muscle, situated on the side of the neck, and extending from the summit of the head backward to the withers. Origin. - From the superior spinous processes of the 2nd, 3rd, a...
-The Complexus
This is a strong, fleshy muscle deeply seated on the side of the neck, in close apposition with the ligamentum nuchae, which divides the right from the left complexus. It extends from the back behind ...
-Trachelo-Mastoideus
Situated on the side of the neck beneath the splenitis. It is a long muscle, composed of two fleshy divisions which pass from the head downwards to the anterior extremity of the hack. Origin. - It ta...
-Spinalis Colli
Five thick, short strands of muscle deeply seated on the side of the neck in proximity with the bones. They are in continuation of similar short muscular fasciculi, presently to be noticed, in the reg...
-Intertransversales Colli
These are six short muscles placed on the side of the neck in apposition with the vertebra?. Each extends from the oblique process of one vertebra to the transverse process of the one preceding it, ex...
-Obliquus Capitis Superior
A short, thick, square muscle situated on the side of the poll. It is largely intersected by strands of tendinous tissue, and covers over the articulation between the occiput and the first cervical ve...
-Obliquus Capitis Inferior
Obliquus Capitis Inferior is a thick, fleshy muscle, somewhat longer than the last described, and situated immediately below it. Origin. - From the outer surface of the superior spinous process of th...
-Rectus Capitis Posticus Major
A short, fleshy muscle placed beneath that last described, and partly divisible into two portions. Origin. - From the superior spinous process of the dentata or second cervical vertebra. Insertion. ...
-Rectus Capitis Posticus Minor
A small, wide, flat muscle placed beneath that last described, and extending over the articular capsule of the joint formed by the occiput and the first cervical vertebra. Origin. - From the superior...
-Cervical Panniculus
This is a thin layer of muscular tissue spread over the front of the neck, extending from the breast below, upward, to behind the jaws, and on to the sides of the face. Below, it is attached to the c...
-Mastoido-Humeralis
This is a long, broad, fleshy muscle, extending from the top of the head downward along the side of the neck over the point of the shoulder to the humerus or upper arm bone. Origin. - Above from the ...









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