1. Aniseed (Pimpinella Anisum); a. Flower enlarged.

b. Fruit enlarged.

c. Section across fruit.

d. Star Aniseed (Illicium verum) partly open.

e. Carpel.

2. Ipecacuanha (Cephaelis Ipecacuanha) a. Corolla enlarged.

b. Calyx and pistil enlarged.

c. Piece of root.

d. Section of root enlarged.

e. Section of stem enlarged.

3. Aloes, Barbados (Aloe vulgaris): a. Flower.

6. Section of flower.

c. Anthers.

d. Section of ovary.

4. Red Pimento (Pimenta officinalis) a. Bud enlarged.

b. Flower enlarged.

c. Fruit.

d. Bottom and top and seed.

e. Cross section of fruit enlarged.

Bottom, top, and seed of Grey Pimento (Pimenta acris).

5. Catechu (Acacia Catechu): a. Flower enlarged.

b. Pod.

c. Seed.

MEDICINAL PLANTS   III.

PLATE XLVII. MEDICINAL PLANTS - III.

Pepsin

Given to foals in ten- to fifteen-grain doses, pepsin assists digestion and arrests diarrhoea and looseness of the bowels.

Pimento

As a stomachic and carminative it is useful in slight derangements of the function of digestion, and especially so when combined with capsicum.

Prussic Acid

Allays irritation of the skin in prurigo and eczema. Has been largely used to subdue spasm in tetanus, but with no lasting result.

Salicylate Of Sodium

See Salicylic Acid.

Salicylic Acid

Lowers the temperature in fevers, strangles, and influenza, and as salicylate of soda it is found useful in acute rheumatism.

Solution Of Acetate Of Ammonium

Combined with spirit of nitric ether it promotes activity of the skin, and with plenty of clothing induces sweating. It is useful at the outset of infectious fevers, and in the course of colds, bronchitis, etc.

Solution Of Ammonia (Strong)

Counter-irritant. Commonly used in conjunction with turpentine and oil as a dressing for sore-throat and sprains to tendons, ligaments, and joints. It is administered in flatulence, and as a stimulant in debility. Neutralizes the poisons of some insects, and allays pain and swelling resulting from sting.

Solution Of Chloride Of Zinc

See Chloride of Zinc.

Solution Of Chromic Acid

Disinfectant. Deodorizer and caustic. Sometimes employed locally to destroy morbid growths and dress fun-gating wounds and indolent ulcers on mucous surfaces. It is also useful in solution as an application to greasy legs, and mixed with tar is beneficial in thrush and canker of the foot.

Spirit Of Nitrous Ether

A diffusible stimulant, antispasmodic and diuretic. Serviceable in chills, fevers, colic, and oedematous swellings of the legs following upon debilitating diseases.

Sublimed Sulphur

Useful as an alterative in conjunction with nitrate of potash and antimony. Mixed with linseed oil and oil of tar, or formed into an ointment with lard, it destroys lice and other skin parasites.

Sulphate Of Iron

Tonic, astringent and styptic. Given in debilitating and wasting disease it enriches the blood and imparts tone to the general system. It arrests mucous discharges in nasal catarrh, and suppresses bleeding in capillary haemorrhage.

Sulphate Of Magnesium

See Epsom Salts.

Sulphate Of Quinine

As a tonic quinine is administered in general debility, following upon an attack of one or other of the specific fevers of the horse. Given in large doses during the course of the fever, it acts as an antipyretic and reduces temperature.

Sulphate Of Sodium

Administered as a preventative against contagious diseases, but with doubtful efficacy.

Sulphate Of Zinc

It is only as an external application that sulphate of zinc is used in veterinary practice. In this connection it is applied to wounds and ulcers to keep proud flesh down and promote the healing process. It is also useful as an injection in leucorrhoea in mares.

Sulphocarbolate Of Sodium

Sometimes used in flatulence arising out of indigestion.

Sulphurated Antimony

As an alterative it is serviceable in some skin diseases, swelling of the legs, and general unthriftiness.

Sulphurated Potash

Chiefly employed as a remedy against skin parasites and some chronic skin diseases. In weak solutions (1 grain to the ounce) it has been used as an injection to destroy ascarides in the rectum.

Sulphuric Acid

A powerful caustic. Useful in the removal of warts and proud flesh from wounds.

Sulphuric Acid (Diluted)

Useful as an antidote to lead-poisoning. Sometimes given as a tonic in combination with vegetable bitters.

Sulphuric Ether

Inhaled in the form of vapour, it reduces sensibility to pain. Given internally, it is a powerful diffusible stimulant and antispasmodic. Useful at the outset of a chill, and as a remedy in colic in conjunction with opium.

Sulphurous Acid

In solution in glycerine it is useful for ringworm. In its gaseous condition it is employed for disinfecting stables, etc. For this purpose sulphur is burnt on charcoal with closed doors and windows.

Tannic Acid

Astringent. Used as an outward application in skin diseases, impetigo, and eczema. Internally in diarrhoea and intestinal haemorrhage, and in catarrhal affection of the larynx.

Vinegar Of Cantharides

Useful in splints, spavins, and chronic sprains to tendons, ligaments, and joints, and for other purposes.

Drugs And Their Doses

Name.

Dose.

Acetate of Lead ...

to 1 dram.

Acetate of Morphine

3 to 10 grains.

Acid, Carbolic (Liquid) ...

10 to 40 grains.

Acid, Hydrochloric (Diluted)

to 2 drams.

Acid, Hydrocyanic (Prussic Acid)

20 drops to 1 dram.

Acid, Nitric (Diluted) ............

1 to 2 drams.

Acid, Sulphuric (Diluted) .........

1 to 2 drams.

Aloes

2 to 8 drams.

Aloin ..................

1 to 3 drams.

Alum

2 to 4 drams.

Aniseed

1 to l ounce.

Areca Nut ...

to 1 ounce.

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia

1 to 2 ounces.

Arseniate of Iron ...

5 to 10 grains.

Arsenic, Solution of

1 to 2 ounces.

Asafoetida ...

3 to 4 drams.

Benzoic Acid

1 to 3 drams.

Bicarbonate of Potassium...

to l ounce.

Bicarbonate of Sodium

2 drams to 1 ounce.

Black Pepper

1 dram.

Boric Acid ...

1 to 2 drams.

Bromide of Potassium

\ to 1 ounce.

Calumba Root

2 to 5 drams.

Camphor ...

1 to 2 drams.

Cantharides

5 to 10 grains.

Capsicum Fruit

10 to 40 grains.

Caraway Seeds

1 to l ounce.

Carbonate of Ammonium...

2 to 4 drams.

Carbonate of Iron...

1 to 8 drams.

Carbonate of Lime

1 to 2 ounces.

Castor Oil ...

10 to 30 ounces.

Catechu

1 to 4 drams.

Chloral Hydrate ...

1 to 1 ounce.

Chlorate of Potassium

1 to 4 drams.

Chloride of Sodium

to 1 ounce.

Chlorinated Lime ...

1 to 2 drams.

Chloroform

1 to 2 drams.

Cinchona Bark, Red

2 to 4 drams.

Citrate of Iron and Ammonium ...

1 to 2 drams.

Citric Acid...

1 to 2 drams.

Cod-Liver Oil ...............

1 to 4 ounces.

Colchicum Seeds ...

to 1 dram.

Copaiba

1 to l ounce.

Creasote

10 to 40 minims.

Croton Oil ...

10 to 20 minims.

Cubebs

2 to 4 drams.

Digitalis

10 to 30 grains.

Name.

Dose.

Ergot

to 1 ounce.

Ergotin

10 to 20 grains.

Ether ..................

1 to 2 ounces.

Ether, Chloric

1 ounce.

Ether, Nitrous (Sweet Spirit of Nitre) ...

1 to 2 ounces.

Ether, Sulphuric ...

1 to 2 ounces.

Extract of Aconite

3 to 10 grains.

Extract of Belladonna

1 to 2 drams.

Extract of Gentian

1 to 2 drams.

Extract of Hemlock

1 to 2 drams.

Extract of Henbane

1 to 2 drams.

Extract of Indian Hemp ...

to 4 drams.

Extract of Jaborandi

20 to 70 grains.

Extract of Male Fern

2 to 6 drams.

Extract of Nux Vomica ...

3 to 10 grains.

Gallic Acid ...... ... ......

to 2 drams.

Gentian Root

to 1 ounce.

Ginger

2 drams to 1 ounce.

Gum Acacia

2 to 3 ounces.

Hydrated Peroxide of Iron

1 to 2 ounces.

Hydrochlorate of Morphine

3 to 10 grains.

Iodide of Potassium

2 to 6 drams.

Iodine

10 to 50 grains.

Ipecacuanha

1 to 2 drams.

Linseed Oil ... ... ... ......

10 to 20 ounces

Mercury with Chalk

1 dram.

Nitrate of Potassium (Saltpetre)...

2 to 8 drams.

Nitrate of Silver ...

5 to 10 grains

Nux Vomica

to 2 drams.

Oak Bark ...

2 to 4 drams.

Oil of Juniper

1 to 2 drams.

Oil of Peppermint

20 drops.

Oil of Turpentine ...

to 2 ounces.

Opium

to 2 drams.

Oxide of Zinc

1 to 2 drams.

Perchloride of Mercury ...

2 to 8 grains.

Phosphate of Calcium

1 to 3 drams.

Pimento

2 to 6 drams.

Potassio-Tartrate of Antimony (Tartar Emetic) ...

1 to 2 drams.

Rectified Spirit

1 to 2 ounces.

Resin

2 drams to 1 ounce.

Saccharated Carbonate of Iron.........

1 to 2 drams.

Salicine

to 1 dram.

Salicylate of Sodium

2 to 6 drams.

Salicylic Acid

1 to 3 drams.

Santonin ...

15 to 60 grains.

Soda, Hyposulphate

1 to 2 ounces.

Solution of Acetate of Ammonium ......

2 drams to 1 ounce.

Solution of Ammonia

2 drams to 1 ounce.

Strychnine

to 3 grains.

Subchloride of Mercury (Calomel) ......

to 1 dram.

Name.

Dose.

Sublimed Sulphur...

1 to 4 ounces.

Sulphate of Atropine

to 1 grain.

Sulphate of Copper

1 to 2 drams.

Sulphate of Iron ...

1 to 2 drams.

Sulphate of Magnesium (Epsom Salts) ...

1 to 4 ounces.

Sulphate of Quinine

15 to 60 grains.

Sulphate of Sodium

1 to 2 ounces.

Sulphate of Zinc ...

1 to 2 drams.

Sulphurated Antimony ...

1 to 3 drams.

Sulphurous Acid (Solution)

1 dram to 1 ounce.

Tannic Acid

to 2 drams.

Tincture of Aconite (B.P.)

20 to 50 minims.

Tincture of Aconite (Fleming's) ...

5 to 15 minims.

Tincture of Belladonna

to 1 ounce.

Tincture of Cantharides ...

1 to 4 drams.

Tincture of Capsicum

2 to 6 drams.

Tincture of Cardamoms (Comp.) ...

1 to 2 ounces.

Tincture of Cinchona

1 to 2 ounces.

Tincture of Colchicum Seeds

1 to 4 drams.

Tincture of Digitalis

1 to 4 drams.

Tincture of Ergot...

1 to 1 ounce.

Tincture of Gentian (Comp.)

1 to 3 ounces.

Tincture of Ginger

4 drams to 1 ounce.

Tincture of Hemlock

to 2 ounces.

Tincture of Henbane

to 2 ounces.

Tincture of Indian Hemp,

to 2 ounces.

Tincture of Iodine

1 to 6 drams.

Tincture of Nux Vomica ...

2 to 6 drams.

Tincture of Opium

to 2 ounces

Tincture of Perchloride of Iron ...

2 to 6 drams.

Vinegar ...............

1 to 3 ounces.

Weights And Measures

Fluid Measure

60 minims ...

one fluid dram.

8 drams

one fluid ounce.

20 ounces

one fluid pint.

8 pints

one gallon.

For all practical purposes a minim may be regarded as the equivalent of a drop, although the latter is liable to slight variation according to the nature of the material dealt with and the form of that part of the vessel from which it is made to fall.