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The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol6-7 | by J. Wortley Axe



Diseases Of The Joints, Muscles, Tendons, And Ligaments. Dislocations. Diseases Of The Feet. Sand Crack. Defective Action And Injuries Arising Out Of It. Stringhalt. Wounds And Their Treatment. Wounds. First Aid To The Sick And Injured. Medicines. Nursing. The Nurse. Poisoning. Veterinary Hygiene. Operations. Means Of Restraint.

TitleThe Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol6-7
AuthorJ. Wortley Axe
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonThe Horse. Its Treatment In Health And Disease
-Muscles Of The Neck. Sterno-Maxillaris
This is a long, narrow muscle situated in front of the neck, along the entire length of which it runs from the breast below to the lower jaw above. Its inferior portion is united with its fellow on th...
-Sterno-Thyro-Hyoideus
A long slender muscle, which becomes tendinous about the middle of the neck and then divides into two thin, narrow, muscular branches. It passes along in front of the trachea or windpipe. Origin. - J...
-Subscapulo-Hyoideus
A long, flat, narrow muscle, passing obliquely up the neck from beneath the scapula or blade-bone to the space between the branches of the lower jaw. It separates the jugular vein from the carotid ar...
-Rectus Capitis Anticus Major
Situated at the side and front of the upper part of the neck, it extends from the fifth cervical vertebra to the base of the skull. Origin. - From the transverse processes of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th bo...
-Rectus Capitis Anticus Minor
A small, flat, fleshy muscle placed beneath the articulation of the head with the neck. Origin. - From the under surface of the atlas. Insertion.- Into the basilar process of the occipital bone and t...
-Rectus Capitis Lateralis
A small, fleshy muscle placed beneath the atlas. Origin. - From the body of the bone last named. Insertion. - Into the styloid process of the occipital bone. Action. - To assist in flexing the head...
-Scalenus
This muscle is situated in front of the first rib, and extends upwards as high as the fourth neck bone. It is composed of two unequal parts, the lower of which is the larger. Between them the axillary...
-Longus Colli
The long muscle of the neck occupies the under sur-face of the bodies of all the cervical and the first six dorsal vertebrae. Attachment - To the bodies of the first six dorsal vertebrae. This portio...
-Muscles Of The Back And Loins. Trapezius
Situated beneath the skin on the side of the neck and withers. It is a flat, triangular muscle, divided by a tendon into two portions, and sometimes described as two muscles-the cervical and dorsal tr...
-Latissimus Dorsl
A flat, triangular muscle spread over the back and loins, where it commences in a broad aponeurotic tendon. It extends obliquely downward and forward over the side of the chest, and, gradually becomin...
-Serratus Anticus
Situated on the side of the chest. The serratus anticus consists of a number of fleshy slips, whose fibres are directed backwards and end above in a flat aponeurotic tendon. Origin. - From the 2nd to...
-Serratus Posticus
Situated behind the one last described, of which it seems to be a continuation. It is composed of a flat or aponeurotic tendon and a number of fleshy segments. Origin. - From the spinous processes of...
-Longissimus Dorsl
This is the longest, the largest, and most powerful muscle in the body. It is situated on the arches of the ribs, in close connection with the spines of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae, and extends fr...
-Transversalis Costarum
This is a long, narrow muscle, stretching across the ribs a little distance from the spine. Origin. - It is composed of two sets of tendons. By one set it arises from the transverse process of the fi...
-The Semispinalis Of The Back And Loins
This is situated on the sides of the spines of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae, and extends along their entire length from the sacrum to the neck. It is made up of a number of short slips passing obli...
-Retractor Costal
A small, thin, triangular muscle arising from the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Insertion. - Into the posterior border of the last rib. Action. - To assist in expiration. By some th...
-Muscles Of The Inferior Lumbar Region. Psoas Magnus
This is a broad, flat muscle placed beneath the loins, and extending from beneath the spine backward to the upper part of the thigh. Origin. - From the bodies of the last two dorsal vertebrae, from t...
-Psoas Parvus
Situated beneath the loins on the inner side of the muscle last described. Origin. - From the bodies of the three or four last dorsal and all the lumbar vertebrae. Insertion. - To a small bony emine...
-Iliacus
The iliacus is a stout, fleshy muscle, extending from the under part of the ilium or haunch bone to the thigh. Origin. - From the under surface of the ilium. Insertion. - To the small internal troch...
-Quadratus Lumborum
Situated underneath the loins, and covered over below by the great psoas muscle. The quadratus lumborum is composed of several flat, narrow slips of muscle, whose fibres pass in a direction forward an...
-Intertransverse Muscles Of The Loins
These are short, flat muscles filling in the spaces between the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. They are attached to the anterior border of the transverse process of one vertebra and the...
-Muscles Of The Tail. Erector Coccygis
Origin. - From the sides and upper extremities of the three or four sacral spines. Insertion. - To the superior surfaces of the tail bones by a succession of small tendons. Action. - When acting wit...
-Depressor Coccygis
This muscle is situated beneath the tail, and consists of two muscular segments. Origin. - From the under surface of the sacrum. Insertion. - Into the inferior face of the bones of the tail. Action...
-Curvator Coccygis
Origin. - From the spines of the two or three posterior lumbar vertebrae and from the posterior sacral bones. Insertion. - Into the side of the bones of the tail. Action. - To move the tail to the s...
-Compressor Coccygis
A small triangular muscle situated at the posterior part of the pelvis. Origin. - From the internal surface of the sacro-sciatic ligament, and from the ischiatic spine. Insertion. - Into the last sa...
-Deep Muscles Of The Neck And Trunk
1. Complexus. 2. Trachelo-Mastoideus. 3. Obliquus Capitis Inferior. 4. Obliquus Capitis Superior. 5. Rectus Capitis Anticus Ma. 6. Scalenus. 7. Sterno-Thyro-Hyoideus. 8. Lateralis Sterni. 9. L...
-Axillary Region. Superficial Pectoral
Situated on the inner aspect of the arm. It is broad above, and becomes narrower as it descends. In front it presents a thick fleshy mass, while its posterior part is flat and thin. This muscle forms ...
-Anterior Deep Pectoral
A long fleshy muscle extending from the side of the sternum upward in front of the scapula or blade-bone. Origin. - From the side of the sternum and the cartilages of the first four ribs. Insertion....
-Posterior Deep Pectoral
This is a broad, flat muscle of considerable length. It extends from the under surface of the abdomen along the side of the chest to the inner aspect of the arm. Origin. - From the fascia covering th...
-Muscles Of The Fore Extremity. External Scapular Region. Supraspinatus
This muscle lies on the outer surface of the scapula or blade-bone, the anterior half of which it covers. Origin. - From the whole of the outer surface of the scapula in front of its spine, and from ...
-Infraspinatus
A fleshy muscle covering the posterior half of the external surface of the scapula. Origin. - From the entire outer surface of the bone behind the central ridge or scapular spine. Insertion. - By tw...
-The Deltoid Muscle
A short muscle on the outer aspect of the shoulder and arm. Origin. - By a broad sheet of tendon from the scapular fascia, and from the posterior or dorsal angle of the scapula. Insertion. - Into th...
-Teres Minor
Situated beneath the muscle last described. Origin. - From the posterior border, and the lower part of the outer surface of the scapula. Insertion. - Into the lower part of the bony ridge beneath th...
-Internal Scapular Region. Subscapularis
A broad, flat muscle covering over the internal face of the scapula or blade-bone, where it is lodged in a hollow or fossa, which it fills. Origin. - From the internal surface of the scapula. Inse...
-Teres Major
A narrow muscle tapering towards the extremities, and situated on the internal face of the shoulder. Origin. - From the posterior or dorsal angle of the scapula, and from the fascia underlying the su...
-Coraco-Humeralis
A short muscle situated on the upper aspect of the humerus or upper arm-bone. Origin. - From a small tubercle on the inner side of the lower extremity of the scapula. Insertion. - By two divi...
-Seapillo-Humeralis Gracilis
A very small slender muscle situated at the back of the shoulder-joint. Origin. - From the lower part of the scapula behind, immediately above the articular cavity. Insertion. - Into the posterior p...
-Muscles Of The Arm. Flexor Brachii (Biceps Of Man)
A long, round muscle with tapering ends, largely intersected with bands of tendinous tissue. Origin. - From a bony projection (coracoid process) at the lower and front part of the blade-bone. Insert...
-Humeralis Externus
This is a long fleshy muscle partly encircling the upper arm. Origin. - It arises from the posterior part of the head of the humerus, and winds round the outer side of the bone in the furrow of torsi...
-Scapulo-Ulnaris
A broad, thin muscle extending from the scapula to the elbow, on the inner aspect of the arm. Origin. - By a broad, thin aponeurotic tendon from the posterior border of the scapula. Insertion. - Int...
-Triceps Extensor Cubiti
This is the largest muscle of the fore extremity. It fills in the triangular space between the hinder edge of the shoulder and the point of the elbow. It is made up of three portions or heads, distin...
-Anconeus
A small fleshy muscle situated in the angle between the elbow and the arm. Origin. - From the lower extremity of the humerus behind. Insertion. - Into the anterior and outer part of the ulna. Actio...
-Flexor Metacarpi Internus (Internal Flexor Of The Metacarpus Or Canon)
This muscle lies on the inner and back part of the radius or forearm, with which it is in contact. Origin - From the inner surface of the internal condyle of the humerus-or upper-arm bone. Insertion...
-Flexor Metacarpi Medius (Middle Flexor Of The Metacarpus Or Canon)
Situated behind the fore-arm to the outer side of the preceding muscle. It is divided above into two parts, the posterior of which is the smaller. Origin. - By its anterior and larger division from t...
-Flexor Metacarpi Externus (External Flexor Of The Metacarpus Or Canon)
Placed on the outer and posterior part of the fore-arm. Origin.-From the point of the ridge on the outer and inferior extremity of the humerus. Insertion. - By two tendons - (l) a broad flat one int...
-Flexor Pedis Perforatus
Superficially placed behind the lower arm. Origin. - From a ridge on the inner and inferior part of the humerus by a tendon common to this muscle and the flexor pedis perforans. Insertion. - About t...
-Flexor Pedis Perforans
This muscle is situated behind the lower arm, with which it is in contact. It is composed of three unequal portions - the humeral, the ulnar, and the radial. The humeral is much the largest of the thr...
-Lumbricales
These are two very small muscles, one of which is situated on each side of the tendon of the flexor pedis perforans. Origin. - From the sides of the perforans tendon. Insertion. - By a very fine gli...
-Extensor Metacarpi Magnus
This is a muscle of considerable size and strength, and gives to the upper part of the arm in front its prominence and width. Origin. - In common with the extensor pedis from the outer surface of the...
-Extensor Metacarpi Obliqiuus
A small muscle placed on the outer side of the lower arm. Origin. - From the external surface of the radius. Insertion. - The tendon of this muscle passes obliquely forward and inward over a groove ...
-Extensor Pedis
This muscle lies on the outer part of the fore-arm, inclining to the front and immediately behind the extensor metacarpi magnus. It consists of two unequal portions, each having a separate tendon. Or...
-Extensor Suffraginis
A small muscle situated on the outer part of the fore-arm, between the extensor pedis and the flexor metacarpi externus. Origin, - From the external lateral ligament of the elbow-joint, and from the ...
-Muscles Of The Ribs. Serratus Magnus
A broad fan-shaped muscle situated on the side of the chest and partly concealed beneath the shoulder. Attachments. - Below, to the outer surface of the first eight ribs, by a corresponding number of...
-External Intercostal Muscles
These form a series of thin, flat muscles occupying the spaces between the ribs from near the spine downward to their inferior extremities. The fibres take an oblique direction from before downward an...
-Internal Intercostal Muscles
Placed beneath the muscles last described. These also occupy the spaces between the ribs, and in addition extend between the sternal cartilages below. They resemble the external intercostals in their ...
-Levatores Costarum
These are situated beneath the longissimus dorsi, and form a long series of small flat muscular slips passing downward and backward from the spine to the superior part of the ribs. Origin. - They ari...
-Triangularis Sterni
A fiat muscle situated on the floor of the chest from one extremity to the other. Origin. - From the superior surface of the sternum. Insertion. - By a series of slips into the cartilages of the rib...
-Lateralis Sterni
A thin, narrow, flat muscle placed on the outer part of the chest in front. Origin. - From the external surface of the first rib. Insertion. - From its origin it passes obliquely downward and backwa...
-Abdominal Muscles. Pannicullls Carnosus
This is a thin, broad sheet of muscular tissue spread over a large extent of the surface of the body, especially the sides of the shoulder, chest, and belly, the front of the neck, and the sides of th...
-Abdominal Tunic
When the panniculus carnosus is removed, a broad sheet of yellow elastic tissue is exposed, spread over the under surface and sides of the abdomen, to which the term abdominal tunic is given. This e...
-Obliquus Abdominis Externus (External Oblique Muscle Of The Abdomen)
This is the outermost and the largest of the abdominal muscles. It is broad behind and narrow in front, and gives off a wide aponeurotic tendon, which passes obliquely downward and backward. Origin. ...
-Obliquus Abdominis Internus (Internal Oblique Muscle Of The Abdomen)
Like the muscle last described, the internal oblique muscle is flat, and comprises a thick, fan-shaped fleshy portion spreading out from above forward and terminating in a broad aponeurotic tendon. It...
-Rectus Abdominis (Straight Muscle Of The Abdomen)
A long, somewhat wide muscle passing from the sternum or breast-bone in front to the pubis behind. It is situated between the broad tendons of the internal oblique and the transversalis muscles, and f...
-Transversalis Abdominis (Transverse Muscle Of The Abdomen)
The innermost of the abdominal muscles. Like those already referred to, it consists of a flat fleshy portion and a broad aponeurotic tendon. Origin. - From the lower extremities of the false ribs, an...
-Diaphragm Or Midriff
The diaphragm is the muscular and tendinous partition which divides the chest from the abdomen (fig. 377). Fig. 377.-The Diaphragm and Sub-lumbar Muscles, seen from below. 1, Fleshy periphery of ...
-The Abdominal Cavity, Or Cavity Of The Belly
Placed behind the chest, from which it is separated by the diaphragm, the abdominal cavity passes backward and becomes continuous with the pelvis. It is the largest cavity of the body, bounded above b...
-Muscles Of The Croup. Superficial Gluteus
The most superficial muscle of the croup. It is V-shaped, and situated immediately beneath the gluteal fascia. Origin. - By its anterior arm from the point of the ilium or haunch-bone. By its posteri...
-Middle Gluteus
This is a thick, broad, fleshy muscle to which the croup owes its characteristic roundness. In a forward direction it extends for some distance over the loins, and terminates behind in the upper extre...
-The Deep Gluteus
A small but strong muscle placed between the one last described and the hip-joint. Origin. - From the superior surface of the ilium and from the ischium above the hip-joint. Insertion. - Into the ma...
-Muscles Of The Hip And Thigh. Tensor Vaginae Femoris
A thin triangular muscle situated in front of the thigh, having its base directed downwards. By its posterior border it is intimately connected with the anterior branch of the superficial gluteal musc...
-Rectus Femoris (Straight Muscle Of The Thigh)
This is a thick, rounded muscle covering the front of the femur. Origin. - By two short tendons, one from the upper and the other from the under surface of the ilium in front of the hip-joint. Inser...
-Vastus Externus
A fleshy muscle covering the whole of the outer surface of the thigh-bone. Origin. - From the outer surface and front of the femur. Insertion. - Into the upper and outer part of the patella or knee...
-Vastus Internus
A thick fleshy muscle lying on the inner face of the thigh-bone. Origin. - From the internal surface and front of the femur. Insertion. - Into the upper part of the patella and its internal lateral ...
-Rectus Parvus
A small short muscle placed in front of the hip-joint immediately in contact with the capsular ligament. Origin. - From the ilium above and in front of the joint. It passes between the vastus externu...
-Biceps Femoris
Along, thick, fleshy muscle extending from the superior part of the croup to the stifle. It is narrow above and widens out below, where it is divided into three segments. Origin. - From the superior ...
-The Semitendinosus
Situated immediately behind the biceps. A long fleshy muscle arising by two heads, and extending from the summit of the haunch to the superior part of the tibia. Origin. - By one head from the spines...
-Semimembranosus
A somewhat considerable muscle placed behind and to the inner side of the one last described, and extending from the root of the tail downward to the inferior extremity of the thigh. Origin. - From t...
-Internal Crural Region. Sartorius
This is a long slender muscle partly contained in the abdominal cavity, after leaving which it traverses the inner part of the thigh. Origin. - From the fascia (iliac fascia) on the under surface of ...
-Gracilis
A flat four-sided muscle situated beneath the skin in the inner aspect of the thigh, which it wholly covers. Origin. - From the under surface of the pelvis along the side of the ischio-pubic symphysi...
-Pectineils
The pectineus is a conical muscle, with its base directed upwards. It is divided above by the pubio-femoral ligament which passes between its two segments on its way to the hip-joint. Origin. - By tw...
-Adductor Parvus
A small muscle deeply situated in the substance of the thigh. Origin. - From the under surface of the pubis. Insertion. - Into the middle of the posterior aspect of the femur. Action. - To adduct t...
-Adductor Magnus
A long thick muscle placed on the inner part of the thigh. Origin. - From the under surface of the ischium and from the tendon of the gracilis. Insertion.- - By two divisions: (l) Into the p...
-Quadratus Femoris
This is a small flat band lying deep in the substance of the thigh behind. Origin.- -From the under surface of the ischium in front of the tuberosity. Insertion. - Passing in a forward and downward ...
-Gemelli
A small, flat, thin muscle situated behind the last described. Origin. - From the external border of the ischium. Insertion. - Its tendon joins with those of the obturator internus and pyriformis, a...
-Obturator Extemus
This is a small, thin, flat muscle situated beneath the pelvis. It covers the obturator foramen, and its fibres converge outwards, and end in a short flattened tendon. Origin. - From the under surfac...
-Obturator Internus
A small fiat muscle situated on the floor of the pelvis, where it is spread over the obturator foramen. Origin. - From the inner circumference of the obturator opening. Insertion. - By a tendon comm...
-Pyriformis
A small flat muscle situated within the pelvis. Origin. - From the internal surface of the ilium near the hip-joint. Insertion. - Into the trochanteric fossa, a deep cavity behind and below the head...
-Muscles Of The Leg. Outer Aspect Of The Leg. Extensor Pedis (Leg)
This muscle is situated on the outer and front aspects of the limb between the stifle and the hock-joint. It is thick in the middle and tapering towards the extremities. Origin. - By a short strong t...
-Peroneus
A small elongated muscle placed behind the one last described on the outer side of the leg. Origin. - From the outer part of the fibula and the external lateral ligament of the stifle. Insertion. - ...
-Flexor Metatarsi
The flexor metatarsi is placed on the anterior and outer face of the tibia, and extends from the stifle to the hock-joint. Origin. - A tendinous band from this muscle blends with the tendon of origin...
-Extensor Brevis
A short, flat, thin muscle situated in front and below the hock-joint beneath the tendons of the extensor pedis and peroneus. Origin. - From the outer part of the os calcis and the astragalus. Inser...
-Posterior Aspect Of The Leg. Gastrocnemius
A short stout muscle situated behind the leg. It consists of two separate portions, which converge and unite below to form a single strong tendon. Origin. - From either side of the supracondyloid fos...
-Soleils
A small muscle situated on the outer aspect of the leg. Origin. - From the outer surface of the head of the fibula. Insertion. - Into the tendon of the gastrocnemius. Action. - To assist in extendi...
-Flexor Pedis Perforatus (Superficial Flexor Of The Pastern)
This is a round cord-like muscle in which tendinous tissue predominates. It is placed in front of the gastrocnemius, which completely covers it. Origin. - From a deep depression (supracondyloid fossa...
-Popliteils
Situated behind the stifle-joint, over which it passes obliquely downward and inward in close contact with the upper extremity of the tibia. Origin. - From the external condyle of the femur by a shor...
-Flexor Pedis Perforans (Deep Flexor Of The Foot)
A long muscle situated behind the tibia or leg-bone, with which it is in contact. Origin. - From the posterior surface of the tibia and the fibula. Insertion. - After passing over the back of the ho...
-Flexor Pedis Accessorius (Accessory Flexor Of The Foot And Pastern)
A small muscle situated at the back of the leg on the inner side of the one last described. Origin. - From the upper and back part of the head of the tibia or leg-bone. Insertion. - After passing th...
-18. Diseases Of The Joints, Muscles, Tendons, And Ligaments. Dislocations
Dislocation results where the articular ends of bones which enter into the formation of a joint are displaced. Bones forming joints are held together by ligaments and muscles. When dislocations occur...
-Accidental Dislocations
Accidental dislocations are as numerous almost as the joints themselves; horses, by the nature of their employments and the dangers to which they are exposed, incur injuries which dislocate and damage...
-Shoulder Slip
By this term is understood a loosening of the union between the bones forming the shoulder-joint, in consequence of which the head of the humerus or arm-bone is outwardly displaced from the shallow ca...
-Dislocation Of The Patella
The patella is a small floating bone situated at the point of the stifle and corresponds to the knee-cap of man (fig. 378). It enjoys a large range of up - and - down motion in playing over two promin...
-Sprain Of The Back Sinews
The accidental overstretching and rupture of the fibres composing the back sinews is of common occurrence, and is usually designated breakdown. The structure most frequently implicated in this accide...
-Wind-Galls
These are small, rounded, fluctuating enlargements occurring in the neighbourhood of joints, more especially on the outer and inner aspects of the fetlocks, and also on the hocks and knees (fig. 381)....
-Thoroughpin
A thoroughpin is recognized as a fluctuating enlargement situated above and behind the hock-joint, between the tendo-Achilles or ham-strings and the lower part of the leg-bone (fig. 382). The swelli...
-Capped Elbow
When a rounded swelling occurs on the point of the elbow, the part is said to be capped. Sometimes the enlargement is solid throughout, at others it consists of a sac containing a straw-coloured or ...
-Capped Knee
This condition is analogous to that already described as capped elbow. It consists of a prominent - sometimes pendulous - enlargement, the result of an inflamed and swollen state of the skin and subcu...
-Capped Hock
When an enlargement appears on the point of the hock, the part is said to be capped (fig. 386). There are two conditions to which this term is applied - one involving the skin and tissue beneath it,...
-Filled Legs - Oedema
Oedema is a state of disease in which the tissues of a part become infiltrated or saturated with the watery constituents of the blood, causing more or less swelling of a soft, doughy character. It fre...
-19. Diseases Of The Feet. Sand Crack
This term is used to denote a fissure or rent in the crust or wall of the hoof. Usually the crack extends from above downward or from below upward, in the direction of the horn fibres. It may appear i...
-Shelly Feet
Although not a disease, shelly feet mark the existence of a serious defect in the secreting properties of the horn-producing structures of the foot. Large numbers of otherwise valuable animals are ren...
-Seedy Toe
The crust or wall of the hoof is composed of two layers: an outer one made up of closely-packed horn fibres, and an inner one composed of horny laminae. In a normal condition these parts blend with ea...
-Keratoma - Horn Tumour
Fig. 393. - Keratoma or Horn Tumour. Notch or groove in the pedal bone resulting from pressure of Keratoma. A tumour composed of horn sometimes forms on the internal face of the hoof, from which ...
-Thrush
Thrush consists in a congested condition of the sensitive frog associated with a discharge from the cleft and a ragged state of the horn. It is mostly seen in the fore-feet, although the hind ones now...
-Corn
Definition A corn is a bruise to the sole of the foot occurring at the inner heel, in the angle between the crust and its inflection - the bar. The almost invariable occurrence of the injury at thi...
-Laminitis - Fever In The Feet
Definition Laminitis consists of an inflamed condition of the sensitive laminae, or, more properly, of the entire thickness of the layer of skin which intervenes between the hoof and the pedal or foo...
-Quittor
This is a fistulous wound on any part of the coronet just above the hoof, having one or more openings communicating with each other under the skin by pipes or channels (sinuses), and usually involving...
-Canker
This is a malignant disease of the feet characterized by the development of a soft, spongy growth on the frog or sole, or both, attended by a thick, offensive discharge of the consistence of soft chee...
-Chronic Villitis
Beneath the hoof-horn extending round the coronet is a prominent band of fibrous tissue called the coronary cushion. Its surface is covered with a large number of closely-packed vascular villi - littl...
-Pricks And Wounds To The Sole And Frog
The feet, notwithstanding their dense horny covering, are by no means proof against pricks and other penetrating wounds. In the operation of shoeing, a misdirected nail is often accountable for the fo...
-Side-Bones
Side-bones are hard, unyielding formations situated immediately above the coronet towards the heel. Pathologically considered, they consist in a transformation of the lateral cartilages into bone by t...
-Navicularthritis - Navicular Disease
This is a disease of the foot, and, excepting perhaps splints, one of the most common causes of lameness from which horses suffer. From a rough estimate, it may be said that not less than 60 to 70 per...
-Contracted Feet
It is not far from the truth to state that there are few horses in active work whose feet are not more or less contracted. In saying so much, we are not overlooking the fact that horses' feet vary con...
-20. Defective Action And Injuries Arising Out Of It. Stringhalt
This is a spasmodic upward jerk of the limbs during progression. It is chiefly observed in the hind extremities, but rarely also affects the fore ones. In the former it is marked by a convulsive flex...
-Interfering
In this term are included a variety of disordered movements, during which the foot of one limb is brought into more or less forcible contact with another, giving rise to wounds and contusions of vario...
-Brushing
This takes place when the foot of one limb habitually though lightly strikes the inner side of the fetlock or coronet of the corresponding leg of the opposite side. The defect may be confined to one l...
-Cutting
Cutting is distinguished from brushing only in the fact that the blows are more severe and inflict a wound in the skin. Causes Conformation plays an important part in disordering the movements of th...
-Overreach
This results when the toe of the hind-foot strikes the heel or coronet of the fore one on the same side. Somewhat serious wounds are occasionally inflicted by this movement, and horses are not only la...
-Forging
This is a defect in the action of the limbs which allows the toe of the hind shoe to strike the under surface of the corresponding fore one. The point struck varies in different cases, and may be anyw...
-Speedy Cutting
When horses strike the inner side of the knee, or parts immediately below or above it, with the foot of the opposite leg, they are said to speedy cut. Causes All causes of this accident are mainly...
-21. Wounds And Their Treatment. Wounds
A wound is a division or rent in the soft parts of the body, the result of violence. Wounds differ in kind according to the manner of their production, and are classed as follows: - 1. Incised Wound...
-Healing Of Wounds
The manner in which the divided surfaces of a wound are united is not always the same. How this will be effected will depend upon a variety of circumstances, notably the time which elapses between the...
-General Treatment Of Wounds
As wounds vary in their nature and character, the details of treatment require to be modified accordingly. There are, however, certain general principles applicable to wounds of every description whic...
-Arrest Of Bleeding
The method to be adopted for this purpose will depend upon the size of the divided vessels. When these are small, the less the part is interfered with the better. A short period of exposure to cold ai...
-Cleansing
When haemorrhage has ceased, the time will have arrived for cleansing the wound and preparing it for adjustment. This should be done with gentleness and care, lest bleeding be induced to recur. Every...
-Incised Wounds
Of the several descriptions of wounds, that which is clean-cut lends itself most readily to adjustment and rapid healing. The divided surfaces are regular, smooth, and easily brought into exact appo...
-Lacerated Wounds
This variety of wound is usually inflicted by blunt instruments, such as hooks, nails, pieces of iron or wood, which are forcibly driven into the flesh. Lacerated wounds in the horse are commonly asso...
-Punctured Wounds
Punctured wounds result when sharp-pointed instruments, such as forks, nails, pieces of wire, splinters of wood, etc, enter the flesh. The danger attaching to them will be in proportion as they are d...
-Poisoned Wounds
Poisoned Wounds are for the most part due to one or another of the various micro-organisms which gain an entrance to them. In addition there are the stings of insects, such as bees and wasps, which so...
-Disinfection Of Instruments And Appliances
As we have already pointed out, bacteria and their products are not only obstacles to the healing process, but the active causes of the diseases incidental to it. It is desirable, therefore, that ever...
-Sutures Or Stitches
Various kinds of sutures are employed for bringing together and securing the edges of wounds during healing. The materials used for this purpose are chiefly flexible wire, catgut, silk, horse-hair, an...
-Uninterrupted Or Continuous Suture
This form of suture is employed where the wound or incision is superficial though extensive. The blanket or button-hole stitch (fig. 414) is the one most to be preferred. The stitch is commenced at on...
-The Twisted Suture
This variety of suture is much employed in veterinary surgery, especially in connection with short superficial wounds. It is formed by inserting two or more pins or needles, or other suitable material...
-The Quilled Suture
The Quilled Suture (fig. 417) is employed in the adjustment of deep wounds, the surfaces of which it maintains in apposition, while the edges are brought together by additional sutures of wire, silk,,...
-Stitching Up The Wound
In dealing with superficial wounds, or with those to which pressure may be applied, the edges, after being brought accurately together, are secured by one or another of the several forms of suture, ac...
-Plasters
There are many wounds in the horse which do not admit of being bandaged, and difficulty is experienced in maintaining antiseptic dressings in position. In some of these cases strong plasters may be fo...
-Antiseptics Employed In The Treatment Of Wounds
Carbolic Acid, the first antiseptic introduced by Lister, has a direct germicidal action in strong solutions and an inhibitory effect in weaker ones. The crystals when heated with 10 per cent of wate...
-Broken Knees
The knee is said to be broken when the skin is cut partially or completely through. In the former case it may be of little moment, but in the latter it is always more or less serious, for in additio...
-Cracked Heels
By cracked heel is understood a crack or breach in the skin of the heel. It is to all intents and purposes a wound, but owing to its peculiar position it requires to be specially considered. Wounds of...
-Ulcers
There are two varieties of ulcers as properly understood, viz. the simple or common ulcer and the specific or infective. The former is due to some local derangement of nutrition, the consequence of im...
-The Indolent Or Callous Ulcer
The callous ulcer is most frequently found on the shoulders and backs of old horses as the result of ill-fitting collars and saddles, or on the withers, or in the heels. It is usually preceded by a su...
-Weak Ulcers
The simple ulcer or the healing sore is very apt to become a weak ulcer as the result of defective blood-supply, either from too small a quantity of blood being sent to the part, as in cases where th...
-Sinus And Fistula
These are narrow, more or less elongated wounds, opening on to the surface by a small orifice. Sinuses usually communicate with an abscess, and are the channels by which pus makes its escape. Where ...
-Fistulous Wounds. Poll Evil
This term signifies a wound on the poll, or that part of the neck immediately behind the ears. It usually consists of one or more sore places in the skin communicating by pipes (sinuses) with a cavity...
-Fistulous Withers
This may be defined as a sinuous wound on the wither, or that part between the neck and back at the top of the shoulder-blade. Causes These are similar to those of poll evil, viz. injuries, and are ...
-Fistulous Coronet
This is treated of under the heading of Quittor on p. 378. ...
-Sore Shoulders And Shoulder Abscesses
Sore shoulders is an expression which is applied to a variety of pathological conditions, from the most superficial abrasion to inflammation and abscess deeply seated in the structure of the part. I...
-22. First Aid To The Sick And Injured
It is important that horse owners and those in charge of animals should be able to render temporary assistance in the case of accident or sudden illness, as by timely aid valuable lives are saved, whi...
-22. First Aid To The Sick And Injured. Continued
Joints injured by sprain or collision should be supported by whatever in the way of a bandage the horseman can contrive. A stocking is the most serviceable garment, which with the aid of a penknife ma...
-23. Medicines
Introductory The medical treatment of man and beast has for so many centuries been associated in the mind of the public with the administration of drugs, that any attempt to combat disorders without ...
-Medicines And Their Preparations
The following useful formulae may be taken to represent those stock medicines which are kept in readiness in large studs for ordinary and uncomplicated cases which may be anticipated where any consi...
-Preparing For Physic
Bran mashes only should be allowed for twelve to twenty hours before giving the ball; all dry food removed,, and abundance of drinking water, not quite cold, should be administered. Thus prepared for,...
-Condition Balls
Fig. 426. - Water Bath. 1, Earthenware lining. 2, Inlet for water. 3, Tap for drawing off water. The term condition as applied to horses may imply two quite different states. As used by the hun...
-Medicines Which Act Upon The Blood, Affecting The Nutrition Of The Entire Body
The character and composition of the blood, and the part it plays in the animal economy, has been dealt with in that part of this work devoted to physiology. It has been shown that every part of the b...
-Blood Tonics
These are remedies which supply materials in which the blood is deficient, and thereby improve its quality; as the greater number of them also increase the red colouring matter of the corpuscles, they...
-Iron
At the head of the list stands iron. The preparations most in use for horses are the sulphate in crystal or exsiccated, then come reduced iron, saccharated carbonate and phosphate, tincture (steel dro...
-Action And Use Of Iron
Iron in its various forms, but more particularly in certain solutions, has a direct effect upon the tissues with which it comes in contact and before it enters the circulation. It is more or less str...
-Drugs For Reducing The Alkalinity Of The Blood
The chief of these are the salts of soda, potash, lime, and magnesia. The potash salts in veterinary use are the carbonate, bicarbonate, nitrate, acetate, chlorate, tartrate, iodide, and bromide. The...
-Soda
The preparations used in veterinary treatment are the carbonate and bicarbonate, sulphate, hyposulphite, biborate (borax), and chloride (common salt). In the last form it is a constant constituent of ...
-Lime
Preparations of lime are seldom used in the treatment of horses, but the carbonate, in the form of chalk, is sometimes employed as an antidote to poisoning by corrosive acids, and as an astringent in ...
-Cooling Medicines, Antipyretics
The class of medicines known as cooling are those which, like quinine, retard the discharge of oxygen from the red corpuscles of the blood instead of facilitating the process, as do iron and potash ...
-Antipyretics (Greek Anti, Against, And Puretos, Fever)
Besides quinine, which stands at the head of the list, and the action of which has been already explained, there is salicine, whose action in reducing temperature is very marked, though the modus oper...
-Quinine And Salicine. Uses Of Quinine
As a stomachic or bitter tonic quinine is one of the most valuable remedies known to medicine, promoting appetite, digestion, and assimilation, and raising the general tone of the system after attacks...
-Salicine
Salicine, when obtained from willow bark, is an expensive agent in the large doses required for horses. The bark of the poplar-tree and the flower-buds of the meadow-sweet also contain it, but not in ...
-Medicines Which Act On Tissue Change. Alteratives
Alteratives comprise a number of drugs of importance to the horse owner. It has been previously stated that they alter the nutrition of the body and bring about certain desired results, not only in re...
-Arsenic
The preparations used in veterinary medicine are white arsenic (arsenious acid), solution of arsenic, and the arseniates of iron and copper. This drug is a deadly poison, and should not be administere...
-Astringents
Astringents are agents which cause constriction or contraction of the tissues to which they are applied, and diminish the amount of secretion from mucous membranes. The action of astringents may be l...
-Drugs Which Act On The Heart And Blood-Vessels
Drugs in this section are conveniently divided into four classes, namely: heart stimulants, heart tonics, heart sedatives, and those which act on the blood-vessels (a) by contracting them, and (b) by ...
-Heart Stimulants
It has been elsewhere explained that the heart is a muscular organ which, by its contractions, propels the blood over the body. If it contracts with inadequate force the cavities are not properly empt...
-Ether
This drug has long been a constituent of colic draughts, and is one of the most rapidly diffusible stimulants, Its action upon the heart is very marked, and it is employed in a variety of ways, subcut...
-Camphor
Camphor is a concrete volatile oil obtained by sublimation from the twigs of the camphor tree, which grows in the Dutch Indies, China, and Japan. It is a valuable drug in veterinary practice, and is g...
-Alcohol
Alcohol in the form of brandy, whisky, or other spirit, if not very much diluted, acts as a stimulant both when externally applied and internally administered. The immediate effect of alcohol on enter...
-Heart Tonics
The heart tonics of known value in equine medicine are digitalis and strophanthus. ...
-Digitalis
The leaves of the purple foxglove are the part of the plant chosen for medicinal uses. Dried and finely powdered, they are employed in veterinary practice. An infusion and a tincture are likewise made...
-Heart Sedatives
Remedies which diminish both the force and frequency of the heartbeats, thereby producing a soothing effect, are called heart sedatives. By their depressing effect upon the heart they may be said in a...
-Aconite
The monk's-hood (Aconitum Napellus) is the plant from which the Pharmacopoeia preparations of this drug are made. They are aconitine - the active principle, - extract, tincture, liniment, and ointment...
-Drugs Which Act Upon The Blood-Vessels
These are practically divided into two classes - namely, those which cause the vessels to contract and consequently permit a smaller amount of blood to pass through them, and those which dilate them a...
-Witch-Hazel (Hamamelis Vir-Ginica)
This is a shrub (fig. 430) growing freely in many parts of North America. From the flowers and dried bark are made the medicinal preparations in use. These are extract, powder, distilled extract, and ...
-Lead
As an external cooling and astringent lotion, lead, in the form of diacetate, or Goulard's extract, has long been recognized as a useful remedy by veterinarians. It is applied to ulcers, cracked heels...
-Drugs Which Act On The Stomach And Digestive System
All those organs concerned in digestion have need of consideration in this chapter, the stomach, the intestines, the liver, pancreas, and glands which are found in the intestinal walls. The effects of...
-Drugs Which Act On The Stomach. Bitter Tonics
Gentian, Calumba, Cascarilla, Angostura, Cardamoms, Chamomile Flowers, Quassia, Serpentary, Peruvian Bark and preparations therefrom. ...
-Artificial Digestive Agents
Pepsin, Inglovin, Hydrochloric Acid. ...
-I Carminatives
Camphor, Cayenne, Ginger, Peppermint, Aniseed, Asafcetida, Carraways, Fenugreek. ...
-Drugs Which Soothe The Stomach
Hydrocyanic Acid, Bismuth, Soda, Belladonna, Cocaine, Chloroform. ...
-Remedies Which Act On The Bowels And Liver. Remedies For Constipation
Bran and Linseed Mashes, Linseed Oil, Castor Oil, Olive Oil, Glycerine, Sulphur. ...
-Simple Purgatives
Epsom Salts, Glauber's Salts, Cream of Tartar. ...
-Drastic Purqatives
Aloes, Croton Oil, Gamboge, Jalap. ...
-Purgatives Which Increase The Flow Of Bile
Calomel, Podophyllin, Euonymin, Aloes. ...
-Remedies For Diarrhoea
Opium, Catechu, Kino, Rhatany, Bael Fruit, Oak Bark, Iron. Alum, Bismuth, Soda, ...
-Remedies For Flatulence
The Alkaline Bicarbonates, as, Potash, Soda, Magnesia. Essential Oils, as, Mint, Peppermint, Cloves, Aniseed, Cassia, Carraway. The Ethers and Spirituous Liquors, Ammonia, etc. ...
-Remedies For Ditestinal Worms
A nthclmintics, Areca Nut, Male Fern, Powdered Glass, Kousso, Santonin, Antimony, Iron, Nut-galls, Kamala, Salt, Carbolic Acid, Quassia. A consideration of the structure of the stomach and the...
-Quassia
Chips of quassia wood are infused and employed as a bitter tonic, more especially when intestinal worms are supposed to be the cause of digestive troubles. The infusion is also injected into the bowel...
-Medicinal Plants -I
1. Hop (Humulm Lupulus): a. Male flower. b. Female flower. c. Strobile. d. Female flower enlarged. e. Male flower enlarged. f. Fruit enlarged. j. Section of fruit enlarged. 2. Cardamom (Elettar...
-Hops
As a veterinary drug, this valuable remedy has received inadequate attention at the hands of practitioners. As a stimulant to appetite it is not surpassed by gentian or any of the other drugs previous...
-Acid Tonics
Acid Tonics and the mineral acids are frequently referred to in other parts of this work treating of disease. They are an important class of remedies, and the chief of them in use for horse ailmen...
-Uses Of Acids
It will be inferred from previous references to digestion and digestive troubles that acids similar to those normally secreted will prove valuable when Nature's laboratory fails to produce them in suf...
-Drugs Which Act On The Lungs And Air-Passages
The respiratory apparatus may be influenced in two principal directions by the administration of drugs, which may be divided into stimulants and depressants. The reader who would properly understand t...
-Remedies Which Stimulate The Lungs And Air-Passages
Enough has already been said to show that all remedies which act as stimulants or tonics to the heart will strengthen the circulation of blood through the lungs. The symptom which most clearly points ...
-Medicinal Plants - II
1. Copaiba (Copaifera Langsdorffii): a. Plant reduced. b. Flower enlarged. c. Fruit reduced. 2 Balsam of Tolu (Myroxylon toluifera): a. Plant reduced. b. Flower, natural size. 3. Balsam of Peru (...
-Remedies Which Soothe The Lungs And Air-Passages
Reduction of the volume of blood circulating in the lungs is the most certain means of reducing their irritability, and a determination of blood to a particular part is combated by remedies which crea...
-Remedies Which Reduce Expectoration
Removal of the cause of, or allaying, the irritability of the air-passages is to be desired, and the treatment for respiratory troubles is more generally dealt with under the heading of pulmonary dise...
-Remedies Which Relieve Spasm Of The Air-Passages And Cough
These, with our equine patients, are rather of a dietetic than medicinal order, although what may be called artificial aid is given by drugs in the alleviation of the spasmodic cough of chronic asthma...
-Drugs Which Act Upon The Skin
To enumerate all the drugs which act directly or indirectly upon the skin, when applied externally or administered internally, would be to name many of the agents in the Pharmacopoeia. It will be unde...
-Remedies For Excessive Sweating
These are usually to be sought in hygienic conditions rather than in the administration of drugs. When horses sweat unduly with only moderate exertion, it is usually a sign of weakness or want of cond...
-Drugs Which Improve The Condition Of The Skin
These have been dealt with at some length in the pages devoted to alteratives and tonics, more particularly in reference to those combinations of vegetable and mineral drugs which have so long enjoyed...
-Drugs Which Act Upon The Kidneys, Bladder, And Generative Organs
In horse medicine this class is at once the most important and the most abused. Drugs which increase the amount of urine passed are called diuretics, and in the hands of the groom and carter have been...
-Remedies Which Soothe The Kidneys
Of an opposite class to diuretics are the remedies which suppress excess of function, and relieve the kidneys of pain and pressure by withdrawing blood from them and lessening the volume and rapidity ...
-Drugs Which Act On The Bladder
These for the most part are such as act also upon the kidneys; but some few, as copaiba, and the balsams of sulphur, cubebs, buchu, and bearberry, appear, like nux vomica and its chief alkaloid (stryc...
-Remedies Which Allay Irritability Of The Bladder
The situation of the bladder renders it rather improbable that remedies applied externally directly affect it. It is nevertheless common practice to endeavour to influence it by application to the loi...
-Remedies Which Act Upon The Generative Organs
In this connection there is little to be said. Cantharides has often been known to excite both male and female animals sexually, and its abuse has induced many cases of bloody urine and strangury, inf...
-Drugs Which Act Upon The Nervous System
If the reader has studied the part of this work dealing with the distribution and function of the nerves, he will understand that the whole animal machine depends upon them to keep its various organs ...
-Hypnotics Or Soporifics
Drugs which conduce to sleep are called by the above names, and their action upon man is fairly uniform except where some special idiosyncrasy exists; but with regard to horses we are not so well info...
-Dose
From three to six drams, but larger ones can be given with safety. Excessive doses produce profound slumber, complete insensibility, and shallow breathing. The pulse, though at first quickened, become...
-Bromides Of Potassium, Sodium, And Ammonium
These salts of bromine, with a base of either of the above, are used where a soporific or mildly-sedative action is desired. The large dose required, an ounce or more, to produce any marked effect, an...
-Nerve Tonics And Stimulants
These terms are applied to drugs whose action improves the nutrition of nerve-substance, and thus strengthen and brace up the nervous system generally. In our patient, the horse, we have not those hy...
-Nux Vomica
This drug, or its alkaloid, strychnia, has been long in repute among veterinarians. It is employed in the form of powdered seeds, or nuts as they are called, extract, and strychnia in solution. The ...
-Anaesthetics And Anodynes
These are certain drugs which so blunt the senses that little or no pain results from causes which in their absence induce it. They have a local or general effect according to the mode of application....
-Opium And Its Alkaloids
At the head of the list stands opium, where Percival, the father of veterinary medicine, placed it, and described it as the sheet anchor of the veterinarian. Its method of production need not be des...
-Tobacco
This powerful narcotic is more in favour with amateur horse doctors than with veterinary surgeons. The manufactured tobaccos are very variable in medicinal power, and when required as a drug Virginian...
-Indian Hemp (Cannabis Indica.)
In veterinary practice this potent drug was first used by veterinary surgeons serving in India, and would long since have been brought into general use but for the variable strength in which it is pro...
-Calabar Bean
This product of the Niger and Old Calabar river was known to the natives as a poison long before Europeans thought to apply it to medicinal uses. Its action is that of a powerful sedative to the spin...
-Hemlock (Conium Maculdtum)
The hemlock rank, which the cow is recommended in our nursery rhymes not to eat when growing on the weedy bank, was a favourite poison with the ancients, and the one by which Socrates cut short hi...
-Cocaine
Cocaine, the active principle of Coca or Cuca, has proved a great boon to the veterinary practitioner, and especially in connection with surgical operations, which have not only been rendered easy of ...
-Antiseptics
Antiseptics are agents which either arrest or prevent putrefaction or decomposition. The word is derived from two Greek words - anti, against, and sejyene, to rot. Decomposition, in the sense here und...
-Carbolic Acid
This is a product of the distillation of coal-tar, and is chemically known under the several names of phenic acid, phenol, and phenylic alcohol. The colourless, needle-shaped crystals of pure carbolic...
-Boric Or Boracic Acid
Boric or Boracic Acid is a mild antiseptic, and frequently employed as a mouth-wash where the stronger agents above mentioned might prove too irritating or productive of nausea. As a lotion it is used...
-Sulphurous Acid
Sulphurous Acid is the gas that is set free by burning sulphur. It is an old-fashioned disinfectant of great potency, and occasionally prescribed as an inhalant in place of those referred to above. Di...
-Permanganate Of Potash
With the exception perhaps of carbolic acid, this very beautiful product of the chemist's art is in more universal demand than any other remedy of its class. Its purple crystals are readily soluble in...
-Iodoform
A yellow crystalline powder, in which iodine, carbon, and hydrogen combine to form a valuable compound, with a somewhat offensive odour and powerful antiseptic properties. In horse practice it is used...
-Perchloride Of Mercury
A solution of this substance, which is commonly called corrosive sublimate, is the most powerful antiseptic known to science, and, freely diluted (see the table above), is employed as an antiseptic ag...
-Eucalyptus
An essential oil from the blue gum-tree, is regarded as an antiseptic, and is in favour where insanitary conditions predispose horses to fever and impart an unhealthy condition to wounds. Septicaemia,...
-Chlorine Gas
Chlorine Gas is one of the oldest and most efficient of disinfectants, which has been displaced by changing fashion rather than from any failure to serve its purpose. In the convenient form of supersa...
-Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid
Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid is a strong solution of chloride of zinc. Antiseptic and disinfectant, correcting the foetor of ulcers and unhealthy wounds, but retarding the formation of new material to...
-Miscellaneous Drugs. Mercury (Quicksilver)
Mercury is a liquid metal, and in various forms of chemical combination is largely employed in veterinary medicine in both internal and external disorders. The preparations used in the treatment of ho...
-Iodine
In this product of sea-weed we have a most valuable remedy for the treatment of a variety of equine troubles. For veterinary purposes the chief preparations employed are the tincture, the liniment, an...
-Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a non-metallic element obtained from bones, and by itself is seldom administered to equine patients. It effects changes in certain tissues, especially bone, and in small and long-conti...
-Sulphur
Sulphur is a drug of much general utility in veterinary practice, and is one of the few specifics referred to in our opening remarks. The chief preparations used are sublimated sulphur, commonly ca...
-Explanations For The Model 'The Hoof Of The Horse"
Ia. Side view of the hoof and the lower part of the limb (left fore-foot): 1. Lower part of shin-bone. 2. Fetlock-joint. 3. Long pastern. 4. Coronet-joint. 5. 5. Coronet. 6. Heel. 7. Hoof. 8. ...
-Drugs And Their Uses
Acetate Of Lead A powerful astringent, given with benefit in dysentery, and to arrest bleeding from the lungs. In solution it is applied to wrung shoulders, and as a dressing in skin eruptions, suc...
-Drugs And Their Uses. Continued
Chlorate Of Potassium Used mostly as a gargle or wash in aphtha and superficial ulceration of the mouth, and as an electuary in catarrhal sore-throat. It is sometimes given in strangles, purpura heam...
-Medicinal Plants - 111
1. Aniseed (Pimpinella Anisum); a. Flower enlarged. b. Fruit enlarged. c. Section across fruit. d. Star Aniseed (Illicium verum) partly open. e. Carpel. 2. Ipecacuanha (Cephaelis Ipecacuanha) a. ...
-Medicinal Plants - 111. Continued
Grains in an Ounce and a Pound 1 ounce 437 grains. 16 ounces 7000 grains or 1 lb. Spoons as Fluid Measure A tea-spoon holds ... one fluid ...
-Administration Of Medicines
The action of medicines will be found in another part of this work (pp. 1 and 12 of this volume), and it is proposed in this chapter to deal with the various methods of administering them which custom...
-Balls
The practice of giving medicines in a ball or elongated pill is a very old one, and has much to recommend it. Many nauseous agents, as for example aloes, are thus conveyed to the stomach without causi...
-The Drench Or Draught
Liquid medicines are commonly given in the form of drenches or draughts, so diluted with water, oil, or gruel as to exercise no baneful influence upon the structures over which they pass to reach the ...
-Electuaries
In cases of sore-throat, where there is difficulty in swallowing, or of injuries to the mouth, where it is not desirable to open it forcibly, medicines may be made up to the consistence of ordinary ja...
-Intra-Tracheal Injections
Remedies intended to have immediate contact with the lining membrane of the bronchial tubes are administered by the hypodermic syringe (fig. 440), by puncturing the windpipe at a convenient spot about...
-Subcutaneous Injection
The instrument alluded to in the foregoing paragraph is also employed to introduce medicines into the circulation by injecting suitable solutions of active agents into the loose tissues beneath the sk...
-24. Nursing. The Nurse
The medical attendant anxious to enlist the good-will of the unpaid nurse may often be heard to say that the welfare of the patient depends largely upon her good offices. If this is so with the patien...
-The Sick-Box
With few exceptions a loose box is recommended for a horse that is ill, and for several reasons. To begin with, it should be light and cheerful, and a temperature of about 55 Fahr. will in most c...
-Clothing
Where practicable it is desirable to keep up the temperature of the stable by artificial means rather than overload the patient with clothing, which may become a burden and annoyance if he is not accu...
-Invalid Food
One of the most important duties, and probably the least understood by the average groom, is the preparation of food out of the usual routine. As with human patients, so with horses, recovery may be o...
-Bran Mash
No one connected with horses could be found who would admit his incapacity to make bran mash, yet how often do we find it given scalding hot on the top, and dry and cold at the bottom, sometimes causi...
-Linseed Tea
Here the seed should be simmered for a long time, in order to extract the full value from it. In some well-ordered establishments the tea intended for evening consumption stands in readiness on the ...
-Hay Tea
A perfectly clean bucket being chosen and warmed by pouring in boiling water and throwing it away, we choose the best old hay and pack it quickly and tightly into the vessel, fill the latter with boil...
-Gruel
This food is often recommended without any specific instructions as to what gruel, and unless linseed or other descriptive name is used, oatmeal is understood. It is best prepared by adding the meal t...
-Boiled Barley
When barley or other grain is boiled, the bulk of water should be twice that of the grain, unless it has been previously swelled up by soaking for many hours. Cooked in this way it absorbs nearly all ...
-Pearl Barley
This is employed to make a cooling drink, the grain itself being usually rejected. A pound may be allowed to each gallon of cold water, and it should be permitted to remain at a gentle heat for severa...
-Poultices And Poulticing
Although not a fine art, there is a right way and a wrong one in the apparently simple operations of making and applying poultices in the treatment of disease. Poultices are made of a variety of mate...
-To Make A Bran Poultice
A clean bowl or basin is always to be preferred to a stable-bucket, unless a very large quantity has to be dealt with. The amount of bran required is put into the bowl, and boiling water added by slow...
-The Application Of Poultices Or Cataplasms
Since these may be required on any part of the animal, from the sole of his foot to the top of his withers, and from his face to the end of his tail, it follows that many and diverse methods must be a...
-Back-Raking
Among the many services the attendant on the sick is called upon to perform may be mentioned such minor operations as the administration of clysters and enemata. These are often preceded by the operat...
-Washing
When washing is undertaken as a curative measure in skin diseases, or as a sanitary process, there are certain precautions to be observed to make it effectual, and others to prevent the animal from ta...
-Bandages And Bandaging
Bandages are used for a variety of purposes: to give support to or restrain a limb, to maintain splints and dressings in position, to restrain bleeding, exert pressure, promote healing, and remove swe...
-Starch Bandages
To give support in cases of fracture, starch or glue bandages are sometimes employed. The former are either dipped in a basin of freshly-made warm starch and then loosely rolled before being applied, ...
-Plaster Of Paris Bandage
This form of bandage affords a greater degree of support than any other, but its rigidity necessitates more precautions against the production of sores when it has to be retained for a long period on ...
-Blistering
Blistering is an operation frequently resorted to in the treatment of horses, and many permanent blemishes result from the use of improper materials and the neglect of simple after-precautions. As a p...
-Slings And Slinging
Horse life is frequently saved by the timely use of slings. These differ in construction, and are often extemporized out of very crude appliances. Country veterinary surgeons, accustomed to all sorts ...
-Gargles And Mouth-Washes
Liquid preparations intended to act upon the mucous membrane of the throat by contact are commonly spoken of as gargles, although it is not supposed by anyone that horses can perforin the act known to...
-Suppositories
These are substances introduced into the rectum for medicinal purposes. They usually take the form of a cone-shaped mass, and are compounded with such agents as cocoa-butter. This substance is solid a...
-Liniments And Embrocations
These are prescribed for application to certain parts with different degrees of friction - according to their strength, and the purpose for which they are employed. There are few medicaments more ofte...
-Lotions
Under this term is included almost any outward application that is not used with friction. The methods of application differ according to the purpose to be served. An eye lotion may have to be simply ...
-Ointments
There are many agents of value in medical treatment which by their nature are unsuitable for application except in the form of unguents. These, however, are much less in vogue now than was formerly th...
-Plasters Or Charges
Mustard plasters or poultices have been already spoken of under the heading of poultices. Plasters or charges are either simple or medicated. The former are used to afford support to an injured or wea...
-25. Poisoning
Introduction A poison is a substance which in small quantities is capable of impairing health and destroying life. Animals in the feral state would appear to be largely endowed with an instinct which...
-What To Do In Cases Of Poisoning
A comparison is again forced upon us, and we have to lament that as horse doctors our opportunities of combating fatal doses of drugs are very much fewer than those of a medical man. Our patients do n...
-Corrosive Or Irritant Poisons
To this group belong many symptoms in common, and it is therefore convenient to consider them together. The following list comprises all of the class of substances whose compounds are likely to be the...
-Arsenic Poisoning
This drug is employed in agricultural operations of various kinds, and is a frequent cause of poisoning in horses and other animals. Ignorant carters and grooms persist in using it to destroy worms an...
-Antimony Poisoning
This potent drug, which has played so great a part in ancient and modern times as a poison to human beings, is comparatively innocuous to horses. Its uses are referred to in another chapter (see Alter...
-Lead Poisoning
Lead poisoning in animals is usually the result of feeding on tainted pastures, or inhaling the fumes of chemical works, and manifests itself in impaired digestion, capricious appetite, colicky pains ...
-Oxalic Acid Poisoning
Death has been caused by the wilful administration of this acid, and by horses eating the leaves of mangel-wurzel, in which it is generated by fermentation while lying in heaps. The symptoms are simil...
-Acetic Acid Poisoning
Concentrated lotions containing a large proportion of this acid have been given in error, with poisonous results. Symptoms Unless somewhat dilute, the symptoms are those of corrosive acids (p. 46), ...
-Caustic Alkalies Poisoning
Of these ammonia, in the form of strong liquid, given in mistake for aromatic spirit or solution of acetate, is the only likely form of poisoning to occur in horses. This mistake has frequently happen...
-Nitrate Of Potash Poisoning
Although in such general use among stablemen, nitrate of potash is nevertheless an active irritant poison in excessive doses. Symptoms Trembling, more or less abdominal pain, restlessness, convulsio...
-Nitrate Of Soda Poisoning
This substance is not used in equine medicine, but has occasioned the death of several animals through being injudiciously spread over the pastures as a manurial agent, and given in mistake for salt, ...
-Iodine Poisoning
Iodine poisoning usually occurs by the accidental administration of compounds, prescribed for external application, as a medicine. Symptoms Symptoms are those of an irritant poison, with sighing, tr...
-Phosphorus Poisoning
The employment of this element for the destruction of vermin has led, in careless hands, to horses being seriously injured.. A very small quantity of phosphorus paste concealed in forage may be taken ...
-Narcotic Poisons
The next group of poisons are spoken of as narcotic, but there are toxic agents having both irritant and narcotic effects, the classification being more or less arbitrary, and followed only as conveni...
-General Symptoms
Some of these are common to the class, and such as are occasioned by Indian hemp may be taken as typical. With this drug, given in excessive quantity, there is often some nervous excitement, but not i...
-Yew Poisoning
Having regard to the number of animals killed by this evergreen, one might ask if its place in arboriculture could not well be taken by some equally beautiful and less deadly plant. No season passes ...
-Rhododendron Poisoning
The effects of this plant (Rhododendron hybridum) are much the same as those of yew (see Yew Poisoning), save that attempts at vomition are a prominent symptom, and slight colicky pains are also evinc...
-Foxglove (Digitalis Purpurea) Poisoning
This well-known drug is largely used in ecpiine practice, and toxic effects occasionally follow on the administration of excessive doses. When growing it has been cut in mistake for comfrey and given ...
-Nux Vomica And Strychnia Poisoning
When horses are poisoned by strychnia it is either the result of malicious administration, or brought about by an overdose, or by the accidental admixture of some preparation with food, which was inte...
-Indian Pea. Dog-Tooth Pea Poisoning
We have employed the popular term for this dangerous food-stuff, but it is not a pea; it is a vetch, and its botanical name is Lathyrus sativus. In India this seed has been used as a food-stuff among ...
-Cantharides Or Spanish-Fly Poisoning
This substance was formerly in more general use by veterinarians than is the case at the present day, and many horses have shown symptoms of poisoning through its agency, both by internal administrati...
-Turpentine Poisoning
Turpentine, although sometimes administered in large doses without any bad effects, may also become a poison when given in excess. Symptoms The effects of a poisonous dose of turpentine are intoxica...
-Poisoning By The Stings Of Bees And Wasps
By the accidental upsetting of, and disturbing of, nests of wasps or hives of bees, horses are occasionally attacked by the rudely-evicted tenants, and there are several instances on record where deat...
-Hay Poisoning
Cases of poisoning due to hay feeding, crop up from time to time. Now it is Dutch, and next Canadian, but mostly foreign food-stuffs that cause illness in horses in this country. The deleterious ingre...
-Aconite Poisoning
Preparations of the plant Aconitum Napellus, or Monkshood, are much used in veterinary medicine, both internally and for outward application, and mistakes occur now and again in consequence of an over...
-26. Veterinary Hygiene
Everything which relates to the maintenance of health in the animal body is included in the word Hygiene, or in the term which the late Dr. Chas. J. B. Williams preferred, Hygienics. A perfectly a...
-Ordinary Conditions Of Health
Hygiene, although especially concerned with the maintenance of health, by a liberal interpretation may be made to include the means of prevention of certain diseases. It is, however, considered to be ...
-Stables Construction
The owner of the horse has often no voice whatever in the structure and general arrangements of the stable in which his horse is to be kept. In those cases, however, where the owner of the horse build...
-Lighting
The arrangements for lighting will depend upon the aspect of the stables. and their surroundings. Stables which are built on to houses, or in proximity to them, commonly have very little choice in the...
-Ventilation And Air Space
It will not be questioned that a supply of pure air is absolutely essential to health, and accordingly the subject of ventilation has always attracted a large amount of attention from sanitary authori...
-Ventilation And Air Space. Continued
A different set of movements occurs when the opposite windows are half-open in such a way (fig. 467) that the current of air is directed upwards. By this arrangement the entering air is delayed suffic...
-Contamination Of Air
A very large number of causes of contamination of air by physical and chemical agents are given by Dr. Parkes in his work on practical hygiene. Among the mineral substances which are suspended in the...
-Organic Impurities
Contamination of the air constantly occurs, and to some extent at least is inevitable; the process of respiration, for example, has the effect of charging the atmosphere with carbonic acid (carbon dio...
-Cubic Air-Space
It has already been stated that each horse will require something over 15,000 feet of pure air per hour, but this by no means implies the necessity for large cubic space in the stable, as any quantity...
-Drainage In The Habitations Of The Domestic Animals
In applying the principles of drainage to the habitations of the domestic animals there are on the whole fewer difficulties to he overcome than in the case of the human being. The effectual removal of...
-Drainage In The Habitations Of The Domestic Animals. Continued
Fig. 470. - Wrought-iron Open Gutter (St. Pancras Ironworks Co.). Fig. 471. - Covered Surface-drain. The object of trapping is to prevent the passage of gases from the sewer back into the stab...
-Nutrition and Food
Nutrition may be defined as the process by which the waste which is constantly going on in the animal's system is compensated by the deposit of fresh material derived from food, solid and liquid. To u...
-The Functions Of Foods
The fact that food contains albuminoids, which correspond to the constituents of flesh, and hydrocarbons, which represent fats, and also mineral constituents, which have been referred to, has led phys...
-Digestibility Of Foods
Experiments to determine the digestibility of the different kinds of food, a matter of the greatest importance to stock-owners, have not been carried on to any extent, if at all, in this country, and ...
-System Of Feeding. Quantity And Quality
It is recognized as a principle in feeding animals that the quantity and quality of the food should bear a distinct relation to the purpose for which the animal is intended. With reference to the hors...
-Food And Work
While excessive work, even with a liberal dietary, produces more waste in the system than can be compensated by the food which is taken, it is equally true that rest with a liberal dietary would be mo...
-Arrangement Of The Diet
Under ordinary conditions, particularly in small establishments, the arrangement of the horse's dietary is left to the groom or coachman, and so long as the animals are performing the amount of work r...
-Methods Of Calculating The Nutritive Value Of Different Articles Of Diet
For ordinary purposes the horse-owner will be content to refer to what has already been stated for the purpose of deciding what article of diet will be most useful and economical, but the German and F...
-Methods Of Calculating The Nutritive Value Of Different Articles Of Diet. Continued
The co-efficients are: fat 100, albumen 47.4, starch 43.l; and he gives the following example in answer to the question: What is the comparative heat-forming value of the following foods? 1st...
-Food As A Cause Of Disease
Very little reflection is required to make it perfectly evident that good food of unexceptionable quality and free from any contamination with objectionable substances may, nevertheless, induce diseas...
-Excess Of Food
When more food is introduced into the stomach than can be readily digested, the ordinary action of the gastric fluids is checked, and chemical changes, including fermentation, advancing to putrefactio...
-Excess Of Food. Continued
Fig. 477. - Actinomyces Bovis. 1, The fungus on cow's tongue; 2, Cell or group of cells with actinomyces; 3, Clubbed filaments and centre filaments of the fungus; 4, Filaments from the centre enla...
-Selection And Preparation Of Food
Generally the horse-owner is content to leave the selection and preparation of the horses' food to his coachman or groom, leaving them to arrange with the dealers as to the quality of the oats, hay, a...
-Maize
When first introduced into this country it was used somewhat extensively by omnibus companies and in other large horse establishments, on account of its low price in comparison with that of oats, for ...
-Bran
Bran is constantly used in horse provender in mixture with oats and chaff. It is extremely rich in nitrogenous matter, and contains also a considerable quantity of carbohydrates and fatty matter. Form...
-Hay
Although the term hay has a general signification as being. grass which has undergone the process of drying, it really includes several varieties of fodder which have different degrees of feeding valu...
-Straw
For the purpose of feeding cattle, straw may be looked upon as a staple article of diet. It is also eaten in considerable quantities by horses which are turned into the straw.yard, and also by others ...
-Pea And Bean Straw
Pea and bean straw may be placed in the same category It is true that they contain a large quantity of nitrogenous matter, and according to the analyses they would be estimated as possessing a high fe...
-Linseed
Linseed makes a valuable addition to mashes. It may also be given in the dry, uncrushed state, mixed with the corn. It is not given as a regular article of food, but is a beneficial addition for many ...
-Roots
Mangels, swedes, turnips, and carrots, and also potatoes, which may be placed in the same group lor convenience, are extremely useful articles for admixture with other articles of food, and they affor...
-Ensilage
Some years ago the question of the preservation of green crops in pits or silos attracted an extraordinary amount of attention, and a commission was appointed, in which the present writer was concerne...
-Digestion
Selection and preparation of food will be materially assisted by the knowledge of the physiological processes connected with the digestion of different kinds of provender. Very interesting experiments...
-Water
When it is known that something like four-fifths of the animal body consists of water, no argument will be necessary to prove the importance of a constant supply of the fluid in a proper condition for...
-Water. Part 2
Grains per gallon Chloride of sodium (common salt) . 1330.0 Chloride of calcium 1110 Chloride of magnesium ... 91.2 Carbonate of sodium ...
-Water. Part 3
A great deal has been said and written about the infection of ponds, ditches, and even of small pools or puddles, as some of them may be called, with the germs of parasites which are easily swallowed ...
-Natural Processes Of Purification Of Water
Water in its most polluted form undergoes certain chemical and physical changes which have a distinct tendency to restore it to a wholesome condition. Under all circumstances water contains air, the o...
-Examination Of Water
In works on hygiene which are exclusively intended for professional readers it is usual to describe the processes, both chemical and physical, for the analysis of water for the purpose of ascertaining...
-Examination Of Air
In an absolutely pure state, such as could only be secured by the admixture of the two essential constituents, oxygen and nitrogen, in proper proportion, the air does not exist in nature. The purest a...
-Individual Hygiene
Under the above heading Dr. Parkes, in his classical work on Hygiene, refers to individual hygiene as a large subject which would require a volume to itself; it will be understood that by the use of t...
-Bedding
In stables where luxurious appliances are in vogue, a sufficient quantity of straw of good colour and quality is considered to be indispensable for the comfort of the horse, as well as for the appeara...
-Vice Correction
Certain habits which horses acquire while standing in the stable, habits which depend upon peculiarity of temper and constitution in some cases, while in others they are due to imitation, require corr...
-Hygienics Applied To Diseased Animals
In the case of horses suffering from any kind of sickness, the principles of hygiene can only be applied for the purpose of assisting the restoration of health, as it would be impossible to preserve w...
-Isolation
First, the subject of strict isolation has to be considered. At the commencement of an attack of illness it is impossible to determine, in many instances, whether or not the disease is infectious; in ...
-Temperature
The temperature of the animal's body in all forms of sickness is a matter which should be attended to with the greatest care, and the regulations to this end will vary very considerably according to t...
-Signs And Symptoms Of Disease
The two terms, sign and symptom, are constantly used to express the same idea. There is, however, in reality a well-marked difference between them. A symptom is one of the characters of a disease, jus...
-General Symptoms Of Disease
In order to arrive at a correct diagnosis, the skilled examiner has a certain method which enables him to obtain the information which he desires without any waste of time. Symptoms which to the amate...
-General Symptoms Of Disease. Continued
Slow pulse as distinguished from infrequent is due to the slow contraction of the ventricles, so that each beat is prolonged independently of the number of beats in a given time. Reference has alread...
-Special Character Of Infectious Diseases
Certain maladies which are clue to the action of virulent micro-organisms, and also those in which, up to the present time, no special microbe has been detected, are distinguished from ordinary non-in...
-Prevention And Suppression Of Infectious Diseases
Prevention Preventive measures are of the utmost importance in relation to all diseases. They have a special value when directed against infective disorders on account of the peculiarity which those ...
-Suppression
Suppression of infective diseases implies the adoption of measures more or less stringent, according to the character of the disease. First in order stands the so-called stamping-out system, which inc...
-27. Operations. Means Of Restraint
Dealing with animals like the horse, of high nervous organization, great strength and activity, and often considerable weight, it is sometimes necessary to employ means of restraint whereby operations...
-Hobbles
This term may be employed to describe the apparatus used by veterinary surgeons for casting and securing horses on the ground. It consists of stout leather straps with steel eyes and buckles, and a sp...
-Neurotomy, Neurectomy, Unnerving
The operation known by the above terms is undertaken with the object of depriving some part of an animal of sensation when affected with an incurable disease. It is resorted to in cases of navicular d...
-Sequelae
Some of the consequences of neurectomy have been incidentally alluded to: gelatinoid degeneration of tendons, sloughing of the hoof by undiscovered suppuration arising from pricks, wounds, corns, etc....
-Firing Or The Actual Cautery
Firing has been referred to, in other parts of this work, as an indispensable operation for the cure of lameness, while the actual cautery has also been advocated for the treatment of other forms of d...
-Tenotomy
For the most part this operation aims at straightening deformed limbs by division of the tendons where, as the result of sprain or other causes, they have become contracted, or where from congenital d...
-Castration
The necessity of this operation, at least so far as the British Islands are concerned, is its justification. There are not wanting extreme humanitarians who are prepared to deny the necessity of castr...
-Torsion
A favourite method on the Continent, and in vogue in some parts of Scotland and Wales, is that of twisting and drawing out the artery until its coats break and all possibility of haemorrhage is preclu...
-Ligature
With the same methods of restraint and preliminary preparation, severance of the glands may be effected by ligature. In this method the posterior or nonvascular portion of the cord is divided by the k...
-Caustic Clamps
Destruction of the cord by a corrosive agent, combined with compression in a wooden clamp, is among the older methods, probably next akin to that practised among savages of including the whole scrotum...
-Standing Operation
It has been previously remarked that an element of danger necessarily enters into the act of casting horses and retaining them in a fixed position on the ground. The risk is comparatively small in con...
-Passing The Catheter
This operation has been several times alluded to in connection with diseases of the urinary and generative systems. Its opportune performance may sometimes be the means of saving life, and of affordin...
-Ovariotomy In Troublesome Mares
The ovaries are not unfrequently the seat of structural or functional diseases which, although not seriously affecting the general health of the mare, may, and sometimes do, render her vicious and use...
-Castration Of Rigs Or Cryptorchids
It sometimes occurs that the testicles, which in the early period of life are still in the belly (Plate XXXIV), fail to appear in the scrotum. For some reason or other connected with development, they...
-Castration Of Rigs Or Cryptorchids. Continued
In 2 instances (27 and 69) one or both testicles were entirely absent, and in 2 others (68 and 75) the missing testicle was not found after a prolonged search. It may be mentioned that death occurred...









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