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The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol8-9 | by J. Wortley Axe



Equine Locomotion. Breeding. The Stud. Horse Training. Stables. The Buildings And Fittings. Examination Of Horses As To Soundness. The Teeth Of The Horse. Number And Arrangement. Warranty. Horse-Shoeing. The Transit Of Horses. The Horse And Its Position In The Animal World. The History Of The Horse. Horses Of The Past.

TitleThe Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease Vol8-9
AuthorJ. Wortley Axe
PublisherThe Gresham Publishing Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, The Gresham Publishing Company
AmazonThe Horse. Its Treatment In Health And Disease
-Section V. - Equine Locomotion
The paces of the horse cannot well be understood without reference to the means by which locomotion is brought about. In the anatomical portion of this work frequent reference will be found to the or...
-The Horse Standing
Given a sound, well-proportioned horse standing to attention, or collectedly as masters of equitation are wont to term it, with head up and ears forward, the face will have a profile whose angle t...
-Speed
Speed is not due to the strength of the muscles, or we should find strong cart-horses with light bodies competing with the blood-horse. It is due to the rapidity with which the limbs can be straighten...
-The Walk
If we accept the word time as meaning the number of separate steps in each stride of a pace, we may describe the walk as one of four time, the limbs moving one after another consecutively. Commencing...
-The Trot
There are three forms of trotting recognized by horsemen, and described as the slow or short, the common or ordinary, and the fast or flying trot. In the first the prints of the hind-feet respectively...
-The Amble
In this pace, which may be described as one of two time, there is scarcely any suspension, unless it is pushed to that form known in America as pacing, when (from examination of the best photographs...
-The Canter
The canter is an intermediate pace between the amble and the gallop. It is a movement of three time, the entire weight resting momentarily on one or other hind-leg. The order in which the feet come t...
-The Gallop
With the eye accustomed to the results of instantaneous photography, it will be difficult indeed for the next generation to understand the reluctance of the artist and the horseman to give up, as prov...
-Leaping And Jumping
In jumping, the forehand is first raised, and the body and hind-quarters made to follow by the straightening of the hind-limbs against the ground. The period of suspension in the leap is when the hind...
-Taking-Off
A horse takes-off or commences his jump in a variety of ways, according to whether he is standing (the standing leap), ambling, cantering, or galloping. Few horses can jump properly from the trot, alt...
-Landing Over A Jump
While suspended, the good jumper will tuck his feet up as closely as possible. No sooner do his hind-legs leave the ground than he thus prepares himself for anything that may happen; he may not be abl...
-Section VI. - Breeding. The Stud
There is nothing more satisfying to a breeder of horses than to breed a good one. To win a race over a course, or a prize in a show-ring, affords a certain amount of pleasure, and maybe some profit. W...
-General Requirements Of The Breeding-Stud
Conditions conducive to health are of the first importance to success in the breeding and rearing of horses, and however well designed the plans may be in other respects, neglect of this cardinal poin...
-Site
A good site and aspect, ample and well-designed stabling in the midst of, or in close proximity to, a suitable, well-conditioned farm, constitutes the bed-rock on which the foundation should be laid. ...
-Physical Conformation
The physical conformation of a country may operate for good or for evil. Hill land is proverbially dry; it affords good lair, and is so far conducive to health, but, generally speaking, it lacks fe...
-Food Quality and Quantity
From the moment when the mare accepts service to the time when she foals, her food should be ample without being excessive, and carefully apportioned to her work. Good feeding is indispensable to the ...
-The Importance of Water
Nothing is more important to the well-being of breeding-studs than a supply of wholesome water. It is not to be expected, save under exceptional circumstances, that a public service will be available....
-Stocking And Overstocking
Stocking and overstocking are clearly relative terms. The number of animals a definite area of land will carry will of course depend upon the fertility of the soil and its power of sustaining growth t...
-Foundation Stock
No man should undertake the breeding of horses who has not first acquainted himself with the natural influences which operate in modifying descent. He will then realize how difficult it is to obtain ...
-Early Mating Of Mares
At what age mares should be put to the stud has always been a question around which much controversy has gathered among breeders of horses; but whatever differences may exist in the matter of opinion,...
-Management Of In-Foal Mares. Feeding
Not the least important branch of stud-management is that which deals with the care and protection of mares during the period of pregnancy, and it is not too much to say that a considerable percentage...
-Work
The view may not be universal, but it is generally held that nothing conduces so much to the production of strong, healthy offspring as giving the mare a reasonable amount of work, under judicious man...
-Stabling
In the stable, pregnant mares should be provided with plenty of room to permit them to lie down and extend themselves over a good bed of soft litter. The floor of the stable should not slant too much ...
-When Foals Should Fall
To regulate the mating of mares so that the foals shall be dropped at a suitable season is a matter of the greatest concern to the breeder of horses. In these days of horse shows, with their numerous ...
-The Foal At Birth
The bowels of the foal at birth contain a considerable amount of faecal matter, consisting of the solid remains of bile, and other secretions thrown out by the mucous membrane of the intestines during...
-Foals Prematurely Born
When foals come before their time, they lack the finishing touch in the work of development, although every organ may be fully represented in all its parts and relations. The prospect of rearing these...
-Hand-Rearing Of Foals
It sometimes happens that the udder of the dam is functionally destroyed, or so far damaged as to be incapable of producing a supply of wholesome milk, or the clam may die and leave the offspring to b...
-Use And Abuse Of Cow's Milk
To supplement the milk of the mare with that of the cow as a means of raising foals is in certain circumstances both desirable and necessary. Fillies with their first foal frequently fall short of an ...
-Weaning Foals
The longer a foal can have the easily assimilable milk of its dam the better horse it will make. But for various reasons mares are but seldom permitted to wean their own foals, partly because they are...
-The Mare After Foaling
To safeguard the foal it is necessary that every attention be given to the mare after parturition. Old matrons which have passed through the ordeal again and again, and are familiar with the duties o...
-Sterility
It would seem that sterility in the female must depend upon one of several causes. The ovaries may be incapable of forming eggs, or the eggs when formed are defective and incapable of fertilization. T...
-Artificial Insemination
As obstructions of one kind or another are frequently encountered, it has been found necessary to resort to artificial methods of insemination in those cases where the hindrance can be overcome and a ...
-Sires
Nothing is more important to the success of the breeding-stud than a good sire, and to prolong and maintain his fertility can only be effected by scrupulous care and rational treatment, in which the a...
-Condition In The Sire
How far failure on the part of mares to prove fruitful is due to impotence on the part of sires it would perhaps be difficult to say, but those who are in and about our breeding-studs know that in som...
-Telegony
From time to time it has been said by breeders of horses and other animals that females, having bred to certain sires, have subsequently thrown offspring to other sires which in outward form, colour, ...
-Telegony. Continued
Millais, who made numerous experiments with pure-bred dams and wild sires, and returned them afterwards to pure sires of their own breeds, never saw a case of telegony, and every single experimente...
-Generation
The one prominent function of the generative system is the perpetuation of the race, and using the term in its widest sense, generation includes all the processes which result in the multiplication of...
-Impregnation
Impregnation is effected by the contact of the sperm-cell of the male with the germ-cell of the female. The precise manner of the contact, and the means employed to ensure it, are of no consequence to...
-Ovum
Changes which occur in the mammalian ovum during its progress to maturity are always going on, from the time of puberty to the end of the productive life of the animal. Its mature state is reached wit...
-Changes In The Ovum After Impregnation
At what stage of its progress from the ovarium through the Fallopian tubes to the cavity of the uterus the ovum meets the sperm-cell from the seminal fluid is not known. Most probably the point of con...
-The Development Of The Embryo. First Signs
At the outset, the attempt to describe the formation of the various parts of the young animal is met by an insuperable difficulty, because by no form of verbal gymnastics is it possible to describe a ...
-Foetal Membranes
While the changes above described have been going on, the formation of the foetal membranes, the allantois and amnion, is proceeding. Folds of the external layer of the blastodermic membrane are raise...
-Changes Which Occur In The Uterus In Gestation
Further consideration of embryonic growth and development may be deferred for a space, in order to explain the adaptive alterations which have up to this time taken place in the uterus. At an early p...
-Development Of The Organs
Up to this point the object of the writer has been to convey to the reader some idea of the very interesting subject of embryonic development from the mature ovum, which is a mere speck about the 1/10...
-Development Of The Nervous System
In the early embryo the formation of the line of cells below the primitive trace was described as the chorda dorsalis, the basis of the future backbone or vertebral column. Conversion of the gelatinou...
-Development Of The Heart And Vessels
In its primitive condition the heart is a mass of cells to which, as already described in the embryo, the vessels of the vascular area tend and ultimately reach, forming the rudiments of the circulato...
-Development Of The Organs Of Special Sense
As soon as the structures forming the bony boundaries of the spinal column and cranium are ready for their reception, the spinal cord and the brain are formed, constituting the cerebro-spinal system: ...
-The Foal
For some time, however, the foal has to depend on its mother for its subsistence, and as soon as it can rise to the erect position, instinctively it seeks for the teats of the dam, from which for some...
-Evolution And Generation
The story which has just been told of the function which is expressed in the term generation may be considered from more than one point of view. In the record of the successive changes which end in...
-Alternate Generation
Among the variations, some of which have been described in the function of generation, that of alternate generation is the most remarkable. It has been aptly defined as the production, by an animal, o...
-Physiology Of Gestation And Parturition. Impregnation
Successful horse-breeding demands a special knowledge of horses, so far as concerns their external conformation, aptitudes for different services, and peculiarities and defects; and in its practical a...
-Care Of The Mare During Pregnancy
During the early months of pregnancy the mare demands no special care beyond that included in the term good stable management, and usual labour can be exacted with impunity. But towards the sixth mo...
-Accidents Incidental To Pregnancy
As will be seen, much of the success that should attend horse-breeding depends upon the care and attention bestowed upon the mare towards and at foaling time, as then not only are her own health and s...
-Abortion
Abortion and premature birth are the most serious accidents that can happen to pregnant mares. Though both terms are often applied indiscriminately, slipping the foal is the term generally employed ...
-Parturition
The duration of pregnancy in the mare is usually about eleven months, though it may vary between ten and twelve months, or even more. The normal duration is, however, between 330 and 350 days. Some fo...
-Difficult Parturition
Though parturition is generally and apparently an easy and prompt act in the mare, yet it is not always so; on the contrary, in some instances it is extremely complicated and difficult, and many of th...
-Malpresentations. Head Presented, Knees Doubled Back
To effect delivery while the foal is in this abnormal condition (fig. 548) is practically impossible. Fig. 548. - Head presented, Knees doubled back. What is required is to bring the legs into th...
-Posterior Or Breech Presentation
The breech of the foetus may be presented either with the hind-legs in the passage (fig. 551) or projected forward under the abdomen (fig. 552). In the former position delivery may be effected without...
-Malposition Of The Head. Neck Presented, Two Fore-Limbs In The Passage
The difficulty in bringing about a natural presentation in this case will be in proportion to the backward displacement of the head. Should this be slight, it may only require that the hand be passed...
-Breast Presented, Legs In The Passage
The head may also be displaced laterally, i.e. thrown back on to the right or left side of the neck or body. Here again the degree of displacement will vary in different cases. Sometimes the head is m...
-Mechanical Aids To Delivery
Mechanical aids in difficult operations become indispensable to success, and it is of the first importance that whoever undertakes their use should clearly understand the particular purpose for which ...
-Application Of Force In Delivery
When force is employed in the removal of the fetus it should be steady, regular, and continuous. Jerky and spasmodic traction avails but little, and may be actually injurious both to the dam and offsp...
-Care Of Mare And Foal After Parturition
After parturition, and if mare and foal are getting on well, warmth, comfort, cleanliness, and a plentiful supply of good food are all that are necessary while they are under cover. The most favourabl...
-The Rate Of Growth In The Horse 1
Some years ago certain naturalists were wont to maintain that plants and animals had reached their present stage of development through the operation of internal (innate) forces. Now, however, the bel...
-The Rate Of Growth In The Horse 1. Part 2
The height of a horse, it is hardly necessary to state, depends mainly on (l) the length from the elbow to the ground; (2) the length and obliquity of the arm-bone (humerus); and (3) the length of cer...
-The Rate Of Growth In The Horse 1. Part 3
Fig. 561. - Mare and New-born Foal. Fig. 562. - Hind Limbs and Tail (four weeks). Fig. 563. - Hind Limbs and Tail (six weeks). Fig. 564. - Hind Limbs and Tail (eight weeks). In figs. 5...
-The Rate Of Growth In The Horse 1. Part 4
Of the 22 cm. of increase in height from the thirty-fourth to the beginning of the fortieth week, 19 cm. is due to the lengthening of the leg from the elbow downwards; but during the last eight weeks ...
-The Rate Of Growth In The Horse 1. Part 5
To this question an affirmative answer may very safely be given. In England it is often taken for granted that the sire counts for infinitely more than the dam. If the sire happens to be more impressi...
-Section VII. - Horse Training
The General Training And Preparing Of Horses Until a person has by practical experience become acquainted with the evil results of bad breaking, it is impossible for him to estimate the importance wh...
-Training The Thorough-Bred
As may naturally be supposed, a great deal of difference exists between the methods of trainers of thorough-breds, not merely as regards their treatment of individual animals, but in connection with t...
-Trials
No race-horse, or at most extremely few, is sent upon the course without having been previously subjected to the ordeal of a trial at home, but it is very questionable whether these tests are of anyth...
-Schooling The Hunter
The earlier days of the hunter that is to be are beyond all question far happier than those of any other breed of horse, and, in fact, until old age or accident has rendered him unfit for work, a hors...
-First Mount
At three years old the embryo hunter is usually backed for the first time, but before any attempt is made to ride him he should be thoroughly accustomed to the sit of the saddle and the grip of the gi...
-Jumping
When the time arrives for the first jumping lesson he should be accompanied by a steady old horse which can be relied upon not to refuse, but after the pupil has gained confidence, and displays a will...
-Treatment In Summer
It is still common practice to turn hunters out to grass for the summer, but many sensible men are averse from exposing their animals to the heat of the sun and the torments of attack from flies, and ...
-Preparing The Show Horse And Harness Horse
All the varieties of show horse, be they hunter, hack, or harness animals, require a similarity of treatment in order to prepare them for competition in the show-ring. It is, of course, evident that e...
-The Show Hunter
The preparation of the show hunter after the animal has been broke is very similar during its early stages to that adopted towards other varieties of horse; but when he comes to be ridden and got r...
-Training The Trotter
The sport of trotting is not one which has ever taken very deep root in this country, nor is it in the remotest degree probable that it will ever rival horse-racing, as the term is accepted by English...
-The Yearling
In America yearlings are raced (of course trotting is referred to), and as the foals are usually dropped about May, it is necessary to commence their education at a very early age. They are, therefore...
-Section VIII. Stables. The Buildings And Fittings
In no country so much as in Britain is the horse at once the friend and the companion of man, and in no country is he so well housed. The arrangement and the construction of a gentleman's stable are o...
-Decoration
Considering the importance of the stable department, it would seem proper to give it a fair amount of architectural embellishment, always bearing in mind, however, the sound maxim that utility is the ...
-Smaller Stables
The quadrangular arrangement shown in fig. 570 cannot be adopted for small stables. As a rule the building takes the form of a simple oblong, the stable itself being at one end, the corn-store and har...
-The Fittings
The Stall-divisions are usually fitted with cast-iron posts, which may be bolted to a stone block or provided with a hollow base which can be filled with and bedded in concrete, as shown in fig. 572. ...
-Drainage
Channels should be laid down the centre of each stall and along the passage behind. The channel may be semicircular, of cast-iron, with a perforated flat top, in sections made to slide, so that by rem...
-Stable Ventilation
The ventilation of the stable is of supreme importance, as probably one-half of the diseases from which horses suffer may be traced directly or indirectly to defective ventilation. The method found mo...
-Harness-Room
A good harness-room is an indispensable adjunct to every stable, and, where a number of hunters are kept, a saddle-room also is necessary. These should be placed as centrally as possible to the whole ...
-Spare-Harness Room
In large establishments it may be found convenient to have a spare-harness room for the reception of articles not in daily use, as in the case of town- or country-houses occupied by the family in turn...
-The Coach-House
The coach-house need not be closely adjoining the harness-room, though in small establishments it may be convenient to place it so. In depth it should be about the same as the stable, i.e. 18 feet in ...
-Tool-House
The apartment for the hot-water boiler may be utilized as a coal-house, and for the barrows, forks, shovels, buckets, and other tools which form the necessary outfit of a stable-yard. Slow-combustion ...
-The Yard
The gates for the yard are also, like the coach-house doors, more conveniently arranged to slide. They should be at the least 10 feet in width, and may even be more where dignity of appearance is soug...
-Water-Supply
In arranging for the water-supply to a stable much will depend upon the site. Town and suburban stables will generally avail themselves of the local supply, for which much storage will scarcely be nee...
-Stables For Cart-Horses
The accommodation required for cart-horses is of course of a much simpler nature than that for the carriage- or riding-horse. Not only is the horse generally of a heavier make, and of a less sensitive...
-Tramway Stables
With practically no more harness than a trace and collar, in the case of tramway or bus stables, each horse's harness can be hung upon his own stall-post. A special harness-room, except as a store, is...
-Racing Stables
Racing stables are generally situated within convenient distance of training-grounds, as Newmarket Heath, the South Downs, etc, and are managed by trainers to whom are committed the horses of numerous...
-Stable Management. The Importance Of Complete Supervision
In keeping horses, competent supervision is a matter of primary importance, and no real success can be relied upon without it. Where the owner has the knowledge and time, this duty will devolve upon h...
-Grooms
Anyone aspiring to be a groom should possess a natural love of horses, a good equable temper, and self-control, firmness, patience, and kindness. Then he should be well trained so as to understand the...
-Stable Vices
Habit Of Eating The Bedding Many gross-feeding and voracious horses acquire the pernicious habit of eating their litter, but the vice is not confined to these, for horses with normal appetites in ord...
-Food
The various food-stuffs used for horse provender in these days of cheap and rapid transport are drawn from a great portion of the habitable world. This wide extension of the sources of supply has natu...
-Preparation Of Food - Cooked Food
It is generally conceded that horses fed on cooked food are in no respect superior, and it is even questioned whether they maintain a condition equal to that of horses fed on similar food but uncooked...
-Feeding With Oats And Long Hay
This plan has been in use for a long time, and on the whole has been very successful. Like other plans it has its advantages and disadvantages. Its chief disadvantage is its greater cost compared with...
-Mixed Food
Under this regime the hay is cut into chaff, all dust being removed during the process by appropriate machinery, and the grain, after all extraneous matters are removed, is cracked but not crushed. Th...
-System Of Feeding
All horses should be fed at least four times a day. Both on physiological and anatomical considerations, small, frequent, and regular feeding is desirable, and is certainly a more beneficial plan than...
-Total Amount Of Food
Heavy dray-horses require from 28 lbs. mixed food to 33 lbs. or 34 lbs., according to their size and the severity of their work, and whenever more is required it is the result of some attendant waste....
-Oats
Oats are generally looked upon as the best horse-corn, and in the light of long practical experience there is, on the whole, just grounds for that belief. No other kind of grain alone is found so well...
-Barley
In recent years, owing to the relatively low price of much of the imported barley, and of home - grown barley unsuitable for malting purposes, barley has been used to a considerable extent as a horse ...
-Maize / Corn
Maize has been extensively used for many years as an article of horse food, and there are now few large studs for which it does not form a portion of the provender. Along with hay, it will maintain ca...
-Wheat
Owing to the low market price of wheat during the last few years, many farmers have used it largely among the horse-corn. It is undoubtedly a valuable food, but great care must be taken in using it. T...
-Beans
The beans in common use are mostly English, Egyptian,, and Konigsberg. English are generally preferred, and usually command a higher price, but both Konigsberg and Egyptians are very extensively used,...
-Mangolds And Turnips
These roots are given to horses during the winter and spring months. In the early spring, when horses are working hard, they relish either of these roots, and many fickle feeders are benefited by thei...
-Carrots
No roots are so much esteemed for horses as carrots. They are too expensive to form part of the general rations for large studs, but for individual horses, with deficient appetites, and for hunters an...
-Green Food
Many consider it advantageous to give a quantity of green food to stall - fed horses during the summer months, and when used with judicious care it is a most agreeable and beneficial, as well as an ec...
-Litter and Bedding
The substances used for litter or bedding purposes are of considerable variety, their selection depending primarily upon the views of the horse-owner, the class of horse, the purpose for which the hor...
-Saw-Dust
The writer has employed saw-dust as bedding for the last eighteen years without having experienced any deleterious effects that could be ascribed to its use. It has been used solely on the grounds of ...
-Peat-Moss
Moss litter has been used largely as bedding. It is less costly than straw; but although its price has undergone a material reduction it is still more expensive than saw-dust. Opinions differ very ma...
-Mill-Dust
In some districts mill-dust is used for bedding purposes, but it has little besides its low price to recommend it. According to some authorities, horses bedded with it become infested with lice; but t...
-Sand
At sea-side places another material sometimes used is sand. It seems to answer fairly well, and it has certainly the merit of being cheap. ...
-Harness
Everyone who has charge of a horse should be thoroughly conversant with the use of every part of the harness and know how to adjust it, and every driver or rider should make it a rule before starting ...
-Bits
The bit is a most important part of the harness, and upon its appropriate selection and accurate adjustment much depends. Every horse should be carefully fitted with the bit most suitable for him if h...
-Bearing-Reins
The question of bearing-reins is a somewhat thorny one. As frequently used the bearing-rein is undoubtedly an instrument of punishment. Recognizing this, many humane people have in unsparing language ...
-Clipping And Singeing
The relief which horses, especially those doing fast work, experience by the removal of their coats in winter is so manifest to every horseman that any argument in favour of the procedure, or in defen...
-Ventilation Of Stables
Adequate stable ventilation is nowadays recognized as essential for the maintenance of good health in the stud. No horse can be thoroughly well or fit, or in condition to do hard work or to resist dis...
-Temperature Of Stables
The temperature of the stable is another matter of primary importance. Its influence in modifying the horse's coat is thoroughly appreciated and taken advantage of by horse-dealers and grooms. They sy...
-Section IX. Examination Of Horses As To Soundness. Introductory
The examination of horses as to soundness is a difficult and in many instances an unthankful task, even to the expert veterinarian. Yet many horsemen outside the professional element undertake it, and...
-Preliminary Observations
In proceeding to examine a horse as to soundness, there are certain observations which require to be made before the animal is removed from his stall or box, or in any way interfered with, and it is a...
-Examination Of The Eyes, Nose, And Mouth
Having proceeded so far, a snaffle-bridle may now be put on and the horse's head brought round to the door, where a careful examination of his eyes and their appendages should be made. Before, however...
-Examination Of The Head
Carrying the eye down the face, the examiner should look for enlargements in the region of the jaws from disordered teeth and other causes. The nostrils should then be dilated with the finger and thu...
-General Examination
The horse may now be led out, and, while standing perfectly quiet, subjected to a careful inspection as to any alteration of form from accident or disease. In this connection he will require to stand ...
-Eruptive Diseases
While this course is being gone through, any eruption on the skin, or warts, tumours, or scars resulting from their removal, will come under notice. Pimples and nodules on the skin of grey horses, esp...
-Action
We may now direct our attention to the horse's action, for which purpose he should first be made to walk about 50 yards backwards and forwards, with his head as free and unrestrained as it can possibl...
-Defects Of Conformation And Deformities
There are certain defects of conformation which, if they are not themselves unsoundness, sooner or later lead to it when existing in a pronounced form, and the examiner must be on his guard in respect...
-Examination Of The Legs And Feet
We have now reached a stage where it becomes necessary to subject the legs to careful manipulation in search of defects which may not hitherto have been patent. Capped elbow (Vol. II, p. 359) will, o...
-The Knee
Passing on to the knee, we first survey the front and feel for any enlargement of the surface, or for a nodule beneath the skin not uncommon in hunters from an embedded thorn; the hair should be raise...
-The Canon
Carrying the hand down the front of the canon, one not unfrequently finds here in young thoroughbreds soreness, with bony deposit (sore shins), which is distinctly an unsoundness. As the hand travels...
-The Fetlock
Approaching the fetlock-joint, the examiner will note whether or not the animal has been unnerved. Evidence of the operation should be sought on either side of the limb a little in front of the back...
-The Foot
From this region we descend to the feet, and, comparing the one with the other, remark any difference of size or form, or in the general character of the hoof-horn. It sometimes happens that one foot...
-Knee (Posterior Aspect)
Turning round, we now direct attention to the posterior aspect of the limb, and the first part requiring notice is the knee. Here we are sometimes confronted with a soft fluctuating swelling on either...
-The Fetlock-Joint
We now come to the fetlock-joint, where one or more of a variety of diseases incidental to it may be found. One or both of the sesamoid bones are sometimes enlarged, and here again they should be comp...
-The Heels
As we descend, the heels may afford evidence of the present or past existence of grease. If the former, an offensive discharge will cover the skin; if the latter, the integument will be more or less t...
-The Coronet
Coming to the coronet, the examiner now tests the lateral cartilages with the object of determining if they possess their normal elasticity, or if they have become converted into side-bones. Pressur...
-The Sole And Frog
It becomes necessary now to examine further the foot, more especially as to its ground surface. Having observed the width of the heels, the examiner lifts it up, and so brings the sole and frog under ...
-The Stifle
From the fore-limbs we pass to the hind ones, and here, in addition to many of the diseases already noticed, there are others peculiar to them requiring special consideration. The stifle should be fr...
-The Hock
Passing from the stifle to the hock, we have here to notice in the first place the point, which should be free from every form of swelling. Sometimes, as a result of injury, enlargement of this par...
-Examination Of The Wind
Having so far disposed of the organs of locomotion, the examiner must now direct his attention to the state of the breathing apparatus, for which purpose the horse must be subjected to exertion. In c...
-Removal Of The Shoes
The examination will be concluded by having the shoes removed, when the ground-surface of the crust will be exposed, and with it any shelliness or seedy state of the hoof. The latter consists of a cav...
-Section X. The Teeth Of The Horse. Number And Arrangement
In reference to their structure and arrangement, also as a means of ascertaining the animal's age, more accurately at least than by any other method, the teeth of the horse are peculiarly interesting....
-Number Of Teeth
When the dentition is completed at the age of five years, the horse has six incisors or nippers in the front of the mouth, in the top and bottom jaws, and six molars on each side, top and bottom jaws....
-Dentition Of The Horse At Various Ages - I
A. Thoroughbred at birth (male). 1, 2, 3. Temporary molars. 4. Permanent molars (uncut). 5, (, 7. Crowns of temporary molars. 8, 9, 10. Central, lateral, and corner temporary incisors. B. Fou...
-Tricks
Horses at the middle period of life are more valuable than when very young or very old. It is not remarkable, therefore, that certain devices are adopted for the purpose of, in the first place, facili...
-Birthdays
It is usual to preface a description of the means of judging the age of the horse with the statement of dates, which are somewhat arbitrarily fixed as birthdays, and also to interpret certain qualifyi...
-Temporary Dentition
It is not a matter of much importance to be able to judge the age of a foal during the first few months, nor of a colt during the first year or two of its life, but in order to make the history of the...
-Dentition Of The Horse At Various Ages - II
A. ElGHT-MOXTH-OLD THOROUGHBRED (female). 1, 2, 3. Temporary molars. 4. Permanent molars. 5. Permanent molars (uncut). 6, 7, 8. Crowns of temporary molars. 9, Crown of permanent 4th molar. 10, 1...
-Eruption Of The Permanent Teeth
When it is stated that between two and five years the change from temporary to permanent teeth is effected in regard to twenty-four temporary teeth, it will be apparent that the process is conducted w...
-Dentition Of The Horse At Various Ages - III
A. Two-year-old Hackney (female). 1, 2, 3. Temporary molars. 4, 5. Permanent molars. 6. Permanent molar (uncut). 7, 8, 9. Crowns of temporary molars. 10, 11. Crowns of 4th and 5th permanent molars...
-Changes In The Form Of The Teeth From Wear
It is customary in examining the mouth of the horse, after the animal has reached the age of five years, to devote special and sometimes exclusive attention to the state of the corner incisors. In cas...
-Dentition Of The Horse At Various Ages - IV
A. Four-year-old Pony (female). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Permanent molars. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Crowns of permanent molars. 13, 14. Central and lateral permanent incisor. 15. Corner temporary incisor. B. F...
-Evidence Of Age After Ten Years
Some years ago Mr. Sidney Galvayne made public a new method of judging the age of the horse up to the latest period of the animal's life, and as his system has proved to be extremely useful when it ha...
-Section XI. Warranty
A warranty is a guarantee given by the seller to the buyer that a horse answers the description given of it at the time of sale. Such a warranty forms no essential part in the sale of a horse, but so...
-General Warranty
There are several kinds of warranty. It may be general, as where the seller says: I warrant the horse, or the horse is sound . In such a case all the buyer has to do, if the horse is unsound, is ...
-Qualified Warranty
Or there may be a qualified warranty, as where the seller says: 'The horse is sound to the best of my belief. In this case, if the horse is not sound, the buyer must be prepared to prove, not only t...
-Special Warranty
There is a further warranty known as special warranty. Such a warranty arises when both parties are cognisant of defect, and when the buyer in the one case wishes to render the seller answerable for a...
-Representations That Do Not Amount To Warranty
Whether representations made by a seller constitute a warranty is frequently a matter of extreme difficulty to decide. Mere loose words of commendation, even though they may induce a purchaser to buy,...
-Fraud
Fraud has already been incidentally adverted to as vitiating a contract of sale. As, however, fraud, or deceit, as it is alternatively called, is a word of somewhat vague import, and actionable fraud...
-Patent Defects
Warranty generally does not extend to cover patent or obvious defects. This was laid down long ago in Bailey v. Merrell (3 Bulstrode, 95). Yet, in the purchase of horses, so strongly has the principle...
-Dealers And Private Persons And Others
We have already had occasion to notice the position of dealers as compared with private persons in treating of patent defects. In this relation the law makes no distinction between dealers and non-de...
-Dealers And Private Persons And Others. Continued
Where a horse is sold at a repository on the condition that, if it does not answer the warranty given with it, it may be returned within a certain time, the auctioneer is statute-holder between the se...
-Disease Soundness
What is meant by soundness has been variously stated in works upon the horse and also in decided cases. According to Baron Parke in Kid-dell v. Burnard, the word 'sound' means what it expresses, name...
-Unsoundness
We now come to consider those diseases or forms, or stages of disease, which do constitute unsoundness. Blindness All forms or degrees of blindness which impair a horse's usefulness amount to unsoun...
-Vices
Besides diseases and defects which amount to unsoundness, there are certain faults which will entitle a buyer to return a horse when warranted free from vice . Of course, it must be clear that such...
-Unsoundness And Returnable Vices Summary
We may conveniently sum up this brief enumeration of ailments amounting to unsoundness and returnable vices with the definition laid down in Elton v. Brogden (4 Camp. 281): If at the time of sale the...
-Section XII. Horse-Shoeing. History Of Horse-Shoeing
The adoption of horse-shoeing marks an advanced stage of civilization in a country. Good roads are essential to social and commercial development, and good roads necessitate horse - shoeing. Until art...
-Anatomy And Physiology Of The Foot
Some knowledge of the structure of the foot and of its functions is necessary to an understanding of the principles of horse-shoeing. The hoof is only a layer of horn covering very sensitive parts and...
-Internal Structure Of Hoof
Although the hoof is a firm, strong, protecting covering to the sensitive foot within it, very serious injury to the horse results from defects in its structure which are often overlooked. These will ...
-Growth Of Hoof
The wall grows downward from the coronet at the rate of about an inch in three months. It is constantly growing, and when protected from wear by a shoe, soon causes a disproportionate hoof. If allowed...
-Cartilage
It is unnecessary to enter more into detail as to the anatomy of the foot. Within the sensitive layer just noticed are the bones, and attached to them the tendons which move the limb in progression. T...
-The Frog
If we examine the under surface of the foot, we find another provision against jar, for whilst the sole rests upon a bony basis, the frog does not (fig. 629). The body of the coffin-bone only extends ...
-Preparation Of Feet For Shoeing
The first step in the operation of shoeing a horse is to prepare the hoof for the shoe. As a rule the hoof is overgrown, and the farrier has to reduce it to proper proportions. He has also to produce ...
-To Repeat Shortly The Rules For Preparing A Foot
With a rasp form a level bearing surface for the shoe from heel to toe; keep both sides of the hoof of the same height; see that the length of the toe and the height of the heels are proportionate; le...
-Nails And Nail-Holes
As soon as the head of a nail is worn off, the shoe becomes loose, therefore a flat-headed nail such as a carpenter drives into wood is of no use to a farrier. The horse-shoe nail head must be counter...
-Prepared Bar-Iron
Formerly only plain four-sided bars were supplied for farriers. Now manufacturers roll bars with flat or seated foot surfaces, and with various forms of ground surface. These prepared bars only requir...
-Fitting Shoes. Care In Fitting
Very few horse-owners appreciate the importance of care and exactness in fitting shoes to horses' feet, and yet this part of the operation of shoeing may render a perfectly-formed shoe an instrument o...
-Hot And Cold Fitting
Shoes may be fitted either hot or cold. If fitted cold, exactness can only be attained by the same long process that is adopted by an engineer who has to fit together two pieces of metal. All shoes ha...
-Nailing On The Shoe
Nearly all horse-shoe nails are now made by machinery. They are well made, sound in structure, properly pointed, and with heads of a uniform size and shape. The machine - made nails are certainly bett...
-Roughing
In winter some addition to the ordinary shoe is necessary to prevent horses from slipping on ice and snow. In Great Britain the weather is so changeable that a regular provision for frost is seldom ma...
-Injuries From Shoeing
When a horse has a good foot and shoeing is properly done, no harm to the horse results from the repetition of the operation every month for his whole lifetime. Accidents may happen, but to speak of s...
-Nails
Lameness may be caused by a nail being driven too near the sensitive foot without absolute penetration of the quick. This cause of lameness is called a bind, and may not be evident for a day or tw...
-Section XIII. The Transit Of Horses. Sea Carriage
There is every reason to suppose that the horse was very early in the world's history compelled to carry man, but when the latter first devised means for the conveyance of horses is not known. Potent...
-Diet
Diet on ship-board requires to be carefully adjusted. Bran and sweet hay should form the staple food; a little corn may be added, but the less the better. A daily allowance of 4 or 5 lbs. of carrots w...
-Medicines
When long sea journeys have to be taken by valuable horses every provision should be made for dealing with diseases and accidents which may occur on the voyage, and full instructions should be given t...
-Horse Boats
On short voyages, like that from the mainland to the Isle of Wight, horses are conveyed in barge-like boats with a floating platform at the stern, corresponding to the tail-board of a cart. However ca...
-Land Carriage
Horses are carried on land in floats, railway boxes, and trucks. The first vary in different districts, but the main principle is that of a box on low wheels, in which sick or injured horses may be ...
-Section XIV. The Horse And Its Position In The Animal World. The Horse Of The Present And The Past
From the investigations of geologists we have learned the fact that the horse is descended from ancestors which existed in long-past ages of the world's history, and which were very different in many ...
-The Horse Of The Present And The Past. Part 2
One day walking near a wood, so the story is told, he saw hastening that way one of the queen's chief eunuchs, followed by a troop of officials, who appeared to be in the greatest anxiety, running...
-The Horse Of The Present And The Past. Part 3
Before noticing the particular features of the equine group, it will be necessary to define the position which its members occupy in nature. The whole of the Equidae or horse family belong to the Ver...
-The Horse Of The Present And The Past. Part 4
Applying this scheme to the horse, it will be evident that as there is one big digit , consisting of four phalanges extending from the knee or hock to the toe, on the hoof-covered tip of which the ...
-The Horse Of The Present And The Past. Part 5
To the naturalist many instances will readily occur of remarkable changes of form during the evolution of an animal from the ovum to the mature stage. Steenstrupp, the Danish naturalist, in 1845 summa...
-The Horse Of The Present And The Past. Part 6
Thus, supposing the two hypotheses - special creation and evolution by natural selection - are to be tested by the directly-observed facts assigned in their support, then, if the hypothesis of evoluti...
-Special Features In Structure
The horse is generally described as a remarkable animal, at once exhibiting perfection of mechanism, complete balance of form, as well as beauty of outline. Professor Sir W. Flower lays great stress o...
-Bony Framework
The accompanying illustration (fig. 655) will show that in many respects it is possible to compare the bony framework of the horse with that of man, in whose structure the highest type of anatomical m...
-Muscular System
The bones of the skeleton form the framework of the body. Joints are obviously arranged to admit of motion, they do not originate it. That function is relegated to the muscles, which form the masses o...
-The Head
Proceeding from the consideration of the bones of the limbs we will next give particular attention to the head, mainly on account of the teeth. These, although in the popular view they are looked upon...
-Size
One horse differs from another not only in the characteristics described, but even to a much greater extent in size. Comparing the smallest pit pony of thirty-six inches with the carriage or the cart ...
-The Ass
Next to the horse (Equus cabattus) comes the ass (Equus asinus) with its varieties, which include the zebras. Naturalists affirm that really wild horses are rare, i.e. horses which have descended dir...
-Skin Markings And Callosities Of The Horse. Skin Markings
Dr. E. Bonavia, in a recent work entitled Studies in Evolution of Animals, takes a decidedly original view of the nature of the skin markings, such as spots, rosettes, and stripes on the bodies of var...
-Callosities (Chestnuts And Ergots)
Of all the peculiar markings which have been referred to, the most remarkable and least explicable are the horny growths or callosities on the inner sides of the legs and the backs of the fetlock-join...
-Callosities (Chestnuts And Ergots). Part 2
In the horse's nearest relatives, the tapir and rhinoceros, the same arrangement holds good. There is a large pad under the fore part of the middle of the foot, which in these animals rests on the g...
-Callosities (Chestnuts And Ergots). Part 3
Among asses, chestnuts are usually found in the distinctly modified form described - i.e. bare patches of skin, often rather larger and more circular in form than the chestnuts of the horse, - and to ...
-False Nostrils And Guttural Pouches
Two peculiarities in the anatomy of the horse yet remain to be considered. The False Nostrils, as they are called, and the Guttural Pouches. It is generally known to horsemen that the horse breathes ...
-Microscopic Structure Of Plantar Pads, Chestnuts, And Ergot
1. Section of Plantar Pad of Man (20 diameters). 2. Section of Plantar Pad of Dog (25 diameters). 3. Chestnut of Foetus of Mare, early stage (180 diameters). 4. Chestnut of Foetus of Mare, approach...
-Fossil Ancestors Of The Horse
The preceding remarks on the special characters of some portions of the horse's structure, and on the presence of organs and parts which have now no obvious use or function, have cleared the way for a...
-Fossil Ancestors Of The Horse. Continued
Fig. 667. - Upper Molars of Fossil Ancestors of the Horse. a, Hyracotherium; b, Mesohippus; c, Anchitherium; d, Protohippus; e, Hipparion; f, Horse - 1, dentine; '_', enamel; 3, crusta petrosa. ...
-Skulls Of Some Ancestors Of The Horse
1. Protorohippus venticolus. 2. Mesohippus Bairdi. 3. Hipparion gracilis. 4. Onohippidium Munizi (an extinct South American horse). 5. Arab Horse. A is a cavity for a face gland, and is very mark...
-Section XV. - The History Of The Horse. Horses Of The Past
Mention of the horse's existence is to be found in Chinese tradition, which records that during the reign of Hwang-te, who lived before the flood, Chariots, horses, and bullocks began to be used, an...
-The Grecian Horse
The Greeks, like the Jews, no doubt derived their knowledge of the horse from the Egyptians, but neither Egyptians nor Jews have handed down to us any authentic information relative to the cultivation...
-The Grecian Horse. Continued
At the battle of Marathon (b.c. 490) the Greeks used no cavalry, while the Persian army comprised 100,000 foot and 10,000 cavalry. It seems difficult to understand why the Greeks did not employ cavalr...
-The Horses Of Rome
The Romans appear not to have been an equestrian nation, though they are said to have possessed a body of cavalry soon after the founding of the city by Romulus (752 B.C.). It is well known that they ...
-The Horses Of Rome. Continued
The horses bred on Roman soil for performing at the circus were of foreign extraction. The native horse had proved himself inferior to the horses of Persia and Greece on the battle-field, and in the a...
-The Horses Of Asia And Africa. The Arab And The Barb
Both Africa and Arabia claim to have been the birthplace of the great Eastern race of horses. Some say that Africa gave the horse to Arabia, and others that the Arabians migrated to Africa. Such migra...
-The Horses Of Asia And Africa. The Arab And The Barb. Continued
The Mohammedan conquests extended from the centre of Asia to the western verge of Africa, and a great part of Spain was long held by the Moors or the Arabs. In all the territories they acquired by the...
-The Horse In Britain
Before the commencement of the Christian era Rome, which had become mistress of the world, extended her conquests in Asia and in Africa, and ultimately reached the shores of Great Britain. The landi...
-The Horse In Britain. Part 2
PLATE LXXVI. ECLIPSE. From the painting by G. Stubbs, R.A. PLATE LXXVI. FLYING CHILDERS. From the Painting by Sartorius after Seymour. The tournament on the Continent had been for many years...
-The Horse In Britain. Part 3
Other enactments were passed during this reign with a view to obtain more powerful horses. It was enjoined that every bishop and duke was to keep seven entire horses, each above three years old and no...
-The Horse In Britain. Part 4
During Elizabeth's reign horse-racing was in vogue, but it was only of a private nature. Matches against time and trials of speed between two horses represented the racing of this period. It was left ...
-The Horse In Britain. Part 5
William III was an enthusiastic horseman and lover of the menage horse. He built a riding-school, in which it pleased him to be an inspector of equestrian exercises. He also was a great supporter of t...
-The Horse In Britain. Part 6
Writers in the past bear testimony to this fact, and cite instances and describe the processes that have been adopted in their attempts to improve present or establish new breeds. Clive, On the good...
-Horse Glossary
A Abrus (Gr. abros, pretty), Indian liquorice, the seeds of Abrus precatorius or wild liquorice. Abscess (Lat. abscessus, a separation of matter), a collection of pus in some of the organs or parts ...
-Horse Glossary. Part 2
Blepharitis (Gr. blepharon, the eyelid, and itis, inflammation), inflammation of the eyelid. Blepharophimosis (Gr. blepharon, the eyelid, and phimosis, a shutting up), constriction or narrowing of th...
-Horse Glossary. Part 3
Corpora nigra (Lat. pl. of corpus, a body; niger, black), the masses of black pigment attached to the inner border of the iris. Corpuscle (Lat. corpusculum, dim. of corpus, a body), any small round o...
-Horse Glossary. Part 4
Endocarditis (Gr. endon, within, kardia, the heart, and itis, inflammation), inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart. Endometritis (Gr. endon, within, metra, the womb, and itis, inflammation...
-Horse Glossary. Part 5
Gracilis (Lat., slender), a muscle placed superficially on the inner part of the thigh. Granulation (Lat. granulum, dim. of granum, a grain), fleshy outgrowths by which wounds are repaired. Gregarin...
-Horse Glossary. Part 6
Intralobular (Lat. intra, within; lobulus, a lobule), applied to vessels passing into the lobules of the liver. Intrinsic (Lat. intrinseeus, on the inside), inherent, inward. Intussusception (Lat. i...
-Horse Glossary. Part 7
Mesorchium (Gr. mesos, middle; orchis, testicle) a. fold of peritoneum containing the foetal testicle before its descent. Metacarpal (Gr. metakarpion, wrist), pertaining to the two bones between the ...
-Horse Glossary. Part 8
Paraplegia (Gr. para, beside, and plege, stroke), paralysis of the posterior half of the body. Parasitism (Gr.para, beside, and sitos, food), mode of life of a parasite; infestation by parasites. Pa...
-Horse Glossary. Part 9
Prophylaxis (Gr. propkylassein, to keep guard before), prevention or warding off of disease. Prostate (Gr. prostates, prostate), the name of a gland situated in front of the mouth of the bladder. Pr...
-Horse Glossary. Part 10
Sinus (Lat. sinus, a curve, fold, or hollow), a hollow excavation, recess, or pocket in any structure. Smegma (Gr. smegma, a cleansing substance), the fatty substance secreted by the sebaceous glands...
-Horse Glossary. Part 11
Tarsus (Gr. torsos, tarsus), the instep of man. the hock of the horse. Taxis (Gr. taxis, order; tassein. to arrange ), the returning of a prolapsed structure, as a hernia or the uterus, by the hand. ...
-Books
The Greshan Publishing Cohpany 34 Southampton Street, Strand, London, W.C. A List Of The Novels The following is a list of the volumes in the Imperial Edition: - The Pickwick Papers. Oliver Twist...
-Books. Continued
Charles Dickens' Novels The Imperial Edition of the Novels of Charles Dickens, in 16 volumes, large square octavo, cloth extra, gilt top. The following is a list of the volumes in the Imperial Editio...
-The Horse - Its Treatment In Health And Disease
With a Complete Guide to Breeding, Training, and Management. Edited by Professor J. Wortley Axe, M.r.C.V.S., ex-President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; late Lecturer at the Royal Veteri...
-The New Popular Encyclopedia. A Library In Itself
A General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, Biography, History, The Practical Arts and Handicrafts, Law, Medicine, Household Matters, Education, Music, Games, and Sports. Edited by Charles Ann...
-Practical Coal-Mining
By Leading Experts in Mining and Engineering under the Editorship of W. S. Boulton, B.Sc, F.G.S., Associate of the Royal College of Science, Member of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, Professor...
-The Gardener's Assistant
A Practical and Scientific Exposition of the Art of Gardening in all its Branches. By Robert Thompson, of the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, Chiswick, etc. New Edition, revised and entirely re...
-The World Of To-Day
A Survey of the Lands and Peoples of the Globe as seen in Travel and Commerce. By A. R. Hope Moncrieff. Complete in 6 imperial octavo volumes. This is a new work which, within comparatively narrow co...
-The British Empire
An Account of its Origin, Progress, and Present Position. With full descriptions of Canada, Australia, South Africa, India, and other Colonies and Dependencies. By Edgar SANDERSON, M.A. (Cantab.), Aut...
-The New Popular Encyclopedia
A LIBRARY IN ITSELF. A General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, Biography, and History. Edited by CHARLES Annandale, M.A., LL.D., Editor of Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary of the English Langu...
-The Household Physician
A Family Guide to the Preservation of Health and to the Domestic Treatment of Ailments and Disease. By J. M'GREGOR-ROBERTSON, M.B. CM. (Hon.). With an Introduction by Professor M'KENDRICK, m.d., LL.D....
-A History Of The Scottish People
From the Earliest to the Latest Times. IS) Rev. Thomas Thomson and Charles Annan-dale, m.a., ll.d. With 40 Original Designs by W. H. Margetson, Alfred Pearse, Walter PAGET, GORDON BROWNE, and other em...
-Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary Of The English Language
A complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Etymological, Scientific, Technological, and Pronouncing. Edited by Charles Annan-dale, M.A., LL.D. Illustrated by abovp three thousand engravings on wood, b...
-The Cabinet Of Irish Literature
Selections from the Works of the Chief Poets, Orators, and Prose Writers of Ireland. Edited by Charles A. Read, f.r.h.s., and Katharine Tynan Hinkson. In 4 volumes, super-royal Svo, cloth extra, gilt ...
-The Book Of The Home
An Encyclopedia of all Matters relating to the House and Household Management. Produced under the general editorship of H. C. Davidson, assisted by over one hundred specialists. Copiously illustrated ...
-The Natural History Of Animals
The Animal Life of the World in its various Aspects and Relations. By J. R. AlNSWORTH Davis, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of University College, Aberystwyth. Profusely illustrated with ful...
-The Modern Carpenter, Joiner, And Cabinet-Maker
A Complete Guide to Current Practice. Prepared under the editorship of G. LISTER SUTCLIFFE, Architect, Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Member of the Sanitary Institute, editor ...
-Charles Dickens' Novels
The Imperial Edition of the Novels of CHARLES Dickens, in 16 volumes, large square 8vo, cloth extra, gilt top. An Ideal Issue. One Novel, One Volume. Despite varying lengths, the paper, etc, is so ad...









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