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Stable Management And Exercise | by M. Horace Hayes



A book for horse-owners and students.

TitleStable Management And Exercise
AuthorM. Horace Hayes
PublisherHurst And Blackett, Limited
Year1900
Copyright1900, Hurst And Blackett, Limited
AmazonStable Management And Exercise
Stable Management And Exercise 1

By M. Horace Hayes, F.R.C.V.S, Late Captain "The Buffs", Author of "Points of the Horse," "Veterinary Notes for Horse-Owners," " Illustrated Horse-Breaking," etc.

Second Edition

-Preface
A QUARTER of a century's experience in writing technical books on horses proves to me that the reading public, which becomes better educated every day, values opinions only when they are supported by ...
-Chapter I. First Principles
State of Nature - Gregariousness - Composition of the Animal Body - Composition of Plants Consumed by Horses - Circulation of Blood and Respiration - Bodily Supply and Removal - Reciprocal Action of t...
-State Of Nature
The theory of evolution teaches us that the special organisation of an animal has been produced by the gradual action which surroundings (climate, soil, food, etc.) have had on the animal's ancestors ...
-Gregariousness
Gregarionsness (love of association) is largely developed in horses, which consequently as a rule thrive best under conditions of companionship with their fellows. Among semi-wild horses, like those o...
-Composition Of The Animal Body
The chemical elements found in the body and their general compounds are shown in the two following tables : Chemical Elements Of The Body Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorus Pot...
-Composition Of Plants Consumed By Horses
Plants contain all the chemical elements found in animals, and in nearly similar combinations. Constituents Of Plants Consumed By Horses Water. Nitrogenous matter. Crude fat. Starch and sugar. Woo...
-Circulation Of Blood And Respiration
The circulation of blood is carried out by the heart, which is a hollow muscle that acts like a force pump, and by tubes (blood-vessels) which are respectively classed as arteries, capillaries, and ve...
-Bodily Supply And Removal
The living body suffers constant loss of substance in the performance of its functions, and to make up for this loss and to obtain materials for its other requirements, it receives nutrition in the fo...
-Reciprocal Action Of The Organs Of Excretion
In the lowest forms of animal life, the functions of absorption and excretion have no special organs, but are performed by the entire surface. Insects breathe through openings (stigmata) which are dis...
-Energy In Plants And Animals
The scientific meaning of energy is the capacity of doing work; and work may be defined as the movement of weight. Thus, a unit of work is reckoned as a weight of one pound raised through a space of o...
-The Animal Body As A Machine
The movements of the body do not appear to be produced in a manner similar to those of a mechanical machine, as for example, a steam engine, in which the chemical affinity of the fuel for oxygen is co...
-Duties Of The Skin
The following are the chief duties of the skin : 1. To act as an organ of feeling (or touch). 2. To assist in removing carbonic acid and other noxious products from the body. 3. To give off perspi...
-Causes Which Affect Epidermal Growth
Comparison between the winter and summer coats of horses and other animals, proves that cold, which reduces the supply of blood in the surface of the body, has a stimulating effect on the growth of th...
-Bodily Temperature
The chemical changes which take place throughout the system during the process of waste and repair, are accompanied by the production of heat, and consequently render the temperature of the body highe...
-Reaction And Chill
The term reaction, when applied to conditions of health, signifies the more or less rapid readjustment of a functional balance which has been recently disturbed, as for instance, by going out for a fe...
-Absorption Of Fluids By Solids
Books on physics tell us that if a solid body is placed in contact with a fluid which is capable of moistening it, the fluid will mount up to a certain height on the surface of the solid body. If we i...
-Radiation Of Heat
Radiation, in the sense used here, is the transmission of rays of heat, or rays of heat and light, by a body without raising the temperature of the surrounding air. All bodies, no matter what their te...
-Protection Against Heat By Colour
We learn from the study of physics that the radiating power of the body is equal to its heat absorbing power, and that its heat absorbing power is in inverse proportion to its heat reflecting power. H...
-Conduction Of Heat
If a piece of charcoal or stick of sulphur is burning only at one end, we shall find that we can painlessly lift it up by the other end with our fingers; because charcoal and sulphur are bad conductor...
-Protection By The Coat Against Cold And Chill
The coat of the horse being composed of a material (hair) which is a bad conductor of heat, and being capable of holding between the hairs a large amount of air, which is a still worse conductor of he...
-Ability Of Horses To Bear Extremes Of Temperature
Experience teaches us that horses in the open keep their health better, especially as regards their organs of breathing, and possess greater immunity from infective diseases, than stabled horses, othe...
-Influence Of Damp On Horses
Damp is peculiarly unfavourable to the well-being of horses, especially when it is combined with heat. In damp hot climates - such as those of Lower Bengal, Lower Burma, the Malabar and Coromandel coa...
-Influence Of Sunlight On Horses
Sunlight, to the extent which we experience it in England, has a direct and an indirect influence for good on the health of horses. In human beings it apparently improves the quality of the blood, see...
-Influence Of Altitude On Horses
The chief effects of altitude on the atmosphere are to make it lighter, drier, and colder, and to decrease the percentages of carbonic acid gas and dust in it. Dryness and diminution of carbonic acid ...
-Acclimatisation
The effects of acclimatisation (the process of inuring an animal to a foreign climate) may be divided into (1) those produced on the emigrant, and (2) those made manifest in its descendants; the latte...
-Stable Impurities
I am indebted chiefly to Dr. W. H. Willcox, B.Sc, A.I.C., for the details connected with chemistry in this section, which has been written for readers who are acquainted with that science. Stable imp...
-Soap
Ordinary soap is formed by the chemical union of certain fatty substances with soda or potash. In tallow, which is used to make common hard soap, the fatty substances consist of stearin (a solid) and ...
-Chapter II. Theory Of Exercise. Exercise In Relation To Health And Development
Definition - Exercise in Relation to Health and Development - Rest - Fatigue - Nature and Duration of Healthy Exercise. Definition EXERCISE may be defined as exertion or labour of the body for purp...
-Fatigue
We may define fatigue as exhaustion from too much exercise or from too much work. Bunge aptly states that the sensation of fatigue is one of the safety valves of our nature, which is a remark we may...
-Nature And Duration Of Healthy Exercise
A stabled horse keeps his health and strength best when the duration of his exercise is about equal to that which his ancestors experienced in the open, and when the degree of the exercise is proporti...
-Chapter III. Sketch Of The Theory Of Feeding
Objects of Food - Chemical Analyses of Foods - Reliability of Chemical Analysis as a Guide to the Feeding Value of Food - Ferments in Grain - Organs of Digestion - General View of Digestion, Absorptio...
-Chemical Analyses Of Foods
In the following tables, the analyses marked by Wa are taken from Warington (Chemistry of the Farm); by Wo from Wolff (Farm Foods, translated by Cousins); by H, from Henry (Feeds and Feeding); a...
-Ferments In Grain
We learn from the researches of Horace T. Brown (Chemical Society's Transactions, 1890, pp. 458-528; and 1892, pp. 352-364) that certain grains contain a greater or less amount of an unorganised ferme...
-Organs Of Digestion
The irregularly shaped tube (the alimentary canal) through which the food passes on its way into and out of the horse's body, is formed by the mouth, gullet, stomach, and intestines (small and large i...
-General View Of Digestion, Absorption, And Assimilation
The office of digestion is to dissolve the food, so that it can be absorbed through the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, and to effect certain chemical changes in its constituents, in order th...
-Digestibility And Wholesomeness Of Food
The digestibility of a food is its capability of being absorbed in the system. According to Muntz and Grandeau, the respective percentages of digestible material contained in the undermentioned foods...
-Taking Food Into The Mouth
The first act in the digestion of food is its prehension (seizure), which is accomplished by the lips and afterwards by the front teeth (incisors = cutters). If the grass, hay, or other food offers re...
-Drinking
In drinking, the action of the mouth is that of a suction pump, in which the tension of the air in the mouth is reduced by the tongue being drawn back while the lips are kept closed. If this is done w...
-Mastication
A horse with a full mouth has forty teeth, namely, six front teeth in each jaw, and one tush and six back teeth on each side of each jaw (Fig. 1). Each tooth is covered with a very hard, white, and ...
-Digestion In The Stomach
It is probable that the presence of saliva, which is an alkaline fluid, is beneficial in checking undue acidity in the stomach. Respecting the action of a cell-membrane dissolving ferment, see page 68...
-Digestion In The Intestines
The process of digestion is performed much more fully in the intestines than in the stomach. When food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine, it becomes mixed with bile and pancreatic juic...
-Water For The Digestive Juices
We have seen that for every 2 1/2 lb. of hay which a horse eats, his salivary glands have to pour into his mouth a gallon of saliva (10 lb.); and for the same weight of oats, more than a quart of sali...
-Nutritive And Digestive Functions Of The Constituents Of Food
Water, whether drunk by the horse or whether it forms a constituent of his food, is evidently necessary for the repair of broken-down tissue, and for maintaining the blood and other fluids of the body...
-Nutritive And Digestive Functions Of The Constituents Of Food. Part 2
Bunge states that the food must be more abundant in carbo-hydrates in proportion to the work performed by the muscles, and more abundant in fat according to the lowering of the surrounding temperatur...
-Nutritive And Digestive Functions Of The Constituents Of Food. Part 3
From the foregoing observations we come to the important law, that the percentage of fibre in a horse's hay should be proportionate to that of the easily digestible nutritious matter of the corn. High...
-Nutritive And Digestive Functions Of The Constituents Of Food. Part 4
The amount of soda in soil varies greatly, and consequently the percentage of soda in plants and also in the animal body is of too variable a nature to permit of our making exact calculations for dete...
-Nutritive Ratio Of Food
The nutritive ratio of a food is the term used to express the proportion which exists between the nitrogenous matter of the food and the other energy-producing constituents, namely, the starch, suga...
-Appetite And Digestive Power
Appetite (hunger or craving for food) is the instinct which prompts an animal to eat. As it has become developed in the species under the natural condition of the animal having to find his own food wi...
-Variety In Food
The craving for change of food depends, as a rule, on the fact that the fodder habitually consumed is not sufficient for the requirements of the system. In this case, the condition of the food - its b...
-Comparative Nutritive Values Of Different Foods
Supposing that a horse has a full supply of water and oxygen, we may regard the nitrogenous matter, carbohydrates, fat, and mineral matter of his food as its nutritive constituents. If when comparing ...
-Causes Affecting The Nutritive Value Of Vegetable Food
1. Age With age, the percentage of nitrogenous matter in plants decreases, and that of woody fibre increases. We cannot, however, assume that the nitrogenous matter in young plants is always as valua...
-Stowage Of Forage
As damp is the great thing to be avoided in the keeping of hay and corn, they are best stowed in a loft and not on the ground floor. The loft should of course be dry and well ventilated, and if over a...
-Cleaning Of Food
The cleaning of corn is a point of stable management to which special attention should be paid; because foreign substances in the food are apt to give rise not only to ordinary digestive disturbances,...
-Preparation Of Food
Although boiling and steaming vegetable food tend, like the action of the digestive juices, to render it soluble; they bring about its more or less complete saturation with water, which is such a seri...
-Food In Relation To Work
In order to obtain an adequate supply of material for furnishing energy and for repairing bodily waste, the food must be sufficient in quantity and composition. The measure of a horse's appetite is b...
-Food For Young Horses
The great difference between the feeding requirements of a young animal and those of an adult, is that the former needs more materials for development than the latter, and that the grown-up animal wan...
-Ill Effects Of Too Much Food
The principal ill effects produced by an excess of food may be classed according to the composition of the offending article of fodder, as follows : 1. Too High A Percentage Of Water, as in the case ...
-Combining Foods According To A Standard
It often happens that a horse-owner in a foreign country, can obtain for his animals two or more grains, none of which are of suitable composition; although a combination made from them might give the...
-Maximum Amount Of Nitrogenous Matter In Food
The foregoing considerations suggest the question : what is the maximum amount of nitrogenous matter which a hardworking horse can eat daily without injury to his health? From practical experience in ...
-Hunger And Thirst
We may define hunger as appetite (p. 104) in excess. Thirst is the desire to drink, caused by functional necessity, and accumulation, in the body, of decomposition products which require water for th...
-Chapter IV. Theory And Practice Of Watering Horses
Objects of Drinking Water - Destination of Water drunk by Horses - Conditions which Drinking Water should fulfil - Quantity of Drinking Water required daily by Horses - Number of Times a Horse require...
-Destination Of Water Drunk By Horses
When water is drunk by a horse in the usual way, it passes through the gullet, stomach, and small intestine, which is able to absorb fluids, and the remainder flows into the caecum. This transit from ...
-Conditions Which Drinking Water Should Fulfil
1. It Should Be Free From Injurious Matter And Hurtful Organisms Among these we find decomposing organic (vegetable and animal) matter, which is often derived from sewage; and infective microbes, whi...
-Conditions Which Drinking Water Should Fulfil. Continued
Apparently, the only natural mineral impurities of water that are desirable within narrow limits are carbonate of lime (chalk) and common salt, the nutritive roles of which have been already discussed...
-Quantity Of Drinking Water Required Daily By Horses
Some animals, such as sheep, goats, rabbits, and hares, will drink little or no water while subsisting on green food, because they perspire only to a slight degree (Colin). The skin of horses, on the ...
-Number Of Times A Horse Requires To Drink Daily
The small size of a horse's stomach points to the conclusion, which experience verifies, that a horse should be frequently fed. On the other hand, the large volume of his caecum shows, as we have alre...
-Summary Of Rules For Watering Horses
1. Drinking Water For Horses Should Not Be Artificially Warmed, especially if the animal is at work (p. 137). 2. It Should Be Given To A Horse As Fresh As Possible (p. 133). 3. The Best General Rule...
-Chapter V. Varieties Of Food
Oats - Maize - Barley - Dried Brewers' Grains - Wheat - Bran - Linseed - Beans and Peas - Millet - Rice - Rice Meal - Rye - Cocoanut Meal - Potatoes - Roots, Fruit, Gourds, and Sugarcane - Indian Puls...
-Oats
Description Oats are divided according to their colour, into white oats, tawny or grey oats, and black oats. The shape and weight of oats vary more than those of any other kind of feeding grain, chie...
-Maize
During late years, maize has steadily increased in favour among English and Continental owners as a food for horses, in which respect it certainly comes next to oats as regards value. Formerly it was ...
-Barley
A long experience of feeding horses on barley in India leads me to conclude, that when properly employed, it answers its purpose fairly well, and that it is not much inferior to maize as a food; provi...
-Dried Brewers' Grains
Sattig reports using dried brewers' grains and finding them a cheap winter feed for horses, the energy and general condition of the animals being pronounced as good as though they were maintained on ...
-Wheat
A grain of wheat consists of cells, each of which has a thin cellulose wall. Some of these cells contain starch; and others gluten, which is a kind of albumen. They are collectively surrounded by a la...
-Bran
Bran, except in the form of bran mash, is used for horses in England, almost exclusively as an adjunct to other foods. Muntz (Annates de l'Institut National A gronontique) has shown that it is highly ...
-Linseed
This grain, which is the seed of the flax plant, contains 37 per cent. of fat and oil, and consequently is useful for fattening horses that are low in flesh. It improves the state of the coat in a mar...
-Beans And Peas
Muntz has shown by exact experiments that beans are very digestible, even when given in daily quantities of 141b. Such a conclusion, though chemically correct, may be practically misleading; because t...
-Millet
These seeds are largely grown in India, South Africa, Northern Africa, and America. In Bengal, great millet or guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare) is known as juwar; in Madras, as cholnm; and in South Afric...
-Rice
In some parts of India, especially in Eastern Bengal, unhusked rice, which is commonly called paddy (Hind., Dhan), is often given to horses after it has been kept for a year. In a raw and unbroken sta...
-Rice Meal
Rice meal is the covering (or bran) of the grains of rice which is removed during the preparation of rice for table purposes. Its analysis shows that it is particularly rich in fat and mineral matters...
-Roots, Fruit, Gourds, And Sugar-Cane
The chief articles which come under this heading, and which can be given to a horse with advantage, are carrots, parsnips, swedes, pumpkins, apples, pears, plums, and other sweet and succulent fruit. ...
-Indian Pulses
Gram (Cicer arietinum), which is called chunna in Hindus-tanee, is a kind of pea, and is the grain most commonly used for horses in Northern India and the Bombay Presidency; not because it is preferre...
-Cows' Milk
On comparing the respective analyses of mares' milk and cows' milk, on page 63, we find that to make the latter approximately equal to the former, we should add to each pint of fresh cows' milk about ...
-Grass, Hay, And Straw
As far as their respective feeding values are concerned, hay may be regarded as grass which has been deprived of a portion of its water and of a varying percentage of nutritive matter, lost during har...
-Lucerne
Lucerne, which is known as alfalfa in America, is a very valuable food for horses, both green and as hay. It requires dry ground, a warm aspect (preferably in England, ground sloping to the south), an...
-Bamboo Leaves
In the hill districts of Eastern Assam and Burma, I have had many opportunities of seeing bamboo leaves used as a complete substitute for ordinary grass and hay in the feeding of horses, without any m...
-Condiments, Etc
Condiments are agents which stimulate the appetite, but do not supply material that can be utilised in the nourishment of the system. Fortunately for horses, the use of condiments has almost entirely ...
-Chapter VI. Feeding. Economy In The Selection Of Food
canal; but dry forage which is rich in fibre, such as hay and straw, retard its action. Hence, when horses, presumedly idle ones, are given little or no corn, the remainder or the entire of their rati...
-Scales Of Diet
In all cases I assume that the horse gets at least 3 1/2 oz. of salt (p. 101) daily in his food, or that he has a lump of rock salt constantly in his manger. 1. Idle Horses The experiments of Grande...
-Regularity In Feeding
The good effect which regularity of feeding has on the health of horses is apparently due to the fact that the respective functions of nutrition and excretion readily accommodate themselves to routine...
-Advisability Of Not Giving A Horse More Food Than He Can Consume At One Time
An important point in the routine of feeding is that a horse should not be given at one time more corn, mash, roots, or chop than he will consume then and there. If he leaves some of the food, we sh...
-Daily Distribution Of Food
A working horse, as we have already seen, should be frequently fed. While observing the rule that a horse should not get more corn than he can finish straight away, we should bear in mind that the soo...
-Hours Of Feeding
The food of a working horse, as we have already seen, should be divided into several portions (at least five) during the twenty-four hours. This rule of frequency of feeding can generally be observed ...
-Chapter VII. Stables
Necessity of Stables - Site and Aspect of Stables - Drainage - Temperature of Stables - Ventilation - Cubic Contents of Stables - Lighting of Stables - Floors for Stables - Outer Walls of Stables - In...
-Necessity Of Stables
The exigencies of hard work and the demands of fashion require the coat to be kept clean and short (by grooming and clipping); and the extra work which civilised conditions entail, makes the covering ...
-Site And Aspect Of Stables
Dryness being, as we have seen, a condition favourable to the health of horses, the site chosen for stables should be as free as possible from moisture, and should be well drained. Soil which is natur...
-Drainage
The drainage of a stable may be defined as the removal by gravitation of fluid which is on or near the surface of the stable. Drainage may be carried out in two ways, namely, more or less horizontall...
-Temperature Of Stables
Experience proves that the health of stabled horses, other conditions being equal, varies according to the purity of the air in the building, which, under ordinary circumstances in cold and moderate c...
-Ventilation
We may define ventilation as the process of removing foul air and substituting for it pure air in a building. The subject of ventilation is closely connected with that of drainage; for inefficient dr...
-Ventilation. Continued
The foregoing principles of ventilation may be applied in the following ways : - A. By ventilation on or close to the level of the floor obtained by means of air bricks, gratings or other narrow op...
-Cubic Contents Of Stables
A stable should not only be roomy, so as to afford the horses a comfortable abode, but should also be fairly lofty, in order that it may contain a comparatively large volume of air; because in that ca...
-Lighting Of Stables
As sunlight has a good effect on horses, we should secure a sunny aspect for the stable and have it well lighted by windows. When the horses are at work, it is a great advantage to be able to open out...
-Floors For Stables
The whole of the ground surface included between the foundations of the outer walls, should be laid down with a material which is thoroughly damp-proof, so as to keep the building dry, and which will ...
-Floors For Stables. Continued
An admirable flooring can be made with specially manufactured paving bricks, such as those of Candy and Co., and the adamantine clinkers of Towers and Williamson, both of which bricks are buff colou...
-Outer Walls Of Stables
The outer walls of a stable, while serving their purpose as a means of protection to the horses in the building, should be durable; should be as nearly non -porous as possible, so that the walls may n...
-Inner Walls And Divisions
For the inner walls and divisions, iron in various forms is to be recommended; for it is non-absorbent, non-inflammable, and is stronger, more durable, and occupies less space than any other substance...
-Roofs
For a roof, thick thatch affords a maximum of protection from both heat and cold; but it is inflammable; needs frequent repairs; and invites the visits of countless birds and rats. I prefer thick flat...
-Doors
It is advisable to have the stable door of ample dimensions, say, 6 ft. wide and 8 ft. high, so as to diminish the chance of an accident occurring by a horse knocking himself against the door post, or...
-Comparative Merits Of Loose Boxes And Stalls
The compartments used for the residence of horses in a stable, are either loose boxes or stalls; the presumption being that each animal has a place to itself. In a stall, a horse is constantly tied up...
-Size Of Boxes And Stalls
A narrow box or stall has the serious disadvantage that a horse is more apt to become cast in it than in a larger one. I may explain that a horse usually gets cast in the act of rolling, by being...
-Construction And Fitting Of Stalls
Divisions of stalls (and boxes) are made with the following objects: 1. To keep the animal within certain limits of space; for instance, those necessary for the economical employment of bedding. 2. To...
-Construction And Fitting Of Stalls. Part 2
It is manifest that the most natural position for a horse's food to occupy when he is eating it, is on the ground. In ordinary cases, it is certainly the one which is most conducive to his health; bec...
-Construction And Fitting Of Stalls. Part 3
If the wall of the stall is not made of glazed bricks and expense is no object, the appearance of the stall will be greatly improved and its cleanliness promoted by having the portion of the wall abov...
-Construction And Fitting Of Loose Boxes
In the following remarks on loose boxes, it is necessary to allude only to the points in which the arrangements differ from those of stalls (vide preceding section). In order to obstruct ventilation ...
-Sick Box
A sick box is useful in the smallest stable, and is a necessity in a large one. The only thing needed to convert an ordinary loose-box into a sick one is the addition of a set of slings, which should ...
-Feeding Room
Even a moderately-sized stable will require a feeding room, which should contain a corn-bin for current expenditure; a chaff-cutter; an oat bruising-machine; and a few small articles, such as a quarte...
-Saddle And Harness Room
If practicable, saddles and harness should be kept in a separate room and not hung up in the stable, as is often done; for the damp and ammonia that are given off to a greater or less extent in a stab...
-Cleaning And Brush Room
This room is a desirable adjunct to the saddle room, especially to that of a large stable. In it all washing, brushing, and cleaning of hunting things should be done. It should, if practicable, have a...
-Coach-House
The coach-house should be separated from the stalls and boxes, so that the carriages in it may not be exposed in any way to the fumes arising from the stable. Not only is damp injurious to a carriage ...
-Stable-Yard
A capital ground surface for a stable-yard, if expense be no object, is one made of hard buff-coloured paving bricks laid on a layer of concrete. Hard blue bricks will be cheaper, but are less resista...
-Riding School
A riding school is one of the greatest conveniences a hunting man, trainer, or owner of polo ponies can possess; for it is not only very useful for the breaking-in of saddle horses and ponies, but it ...
-Stable Utensils
The tools for grooming are described on pages 326 to 332. I refrain from quoting the prices of stable utensils and grooming tools; because they are matters of common knowledge, and are not more aff...
-Plans For Stables
The principles which should guide us in drawing out the plan of a stable, are those by which we can obtain healthy stable conditions combined with safety for the horses and convenience for carrying ou...
-Disinfection Of Stables
Absolute cleanliness is the best form of disinfection, but unfortunately it is not always possible in stables. Comparative purity can generally be obtained when there are no subsoil drains, which requ...
-Chapter VIII. Bedding. Necessity Of Bedding
Necessity of Bedding - Varieties of Bedding - Comparative Powers of Absorption of Water by Various Kinds of Bedding - Requirements in a Bedding - Classification of Bedding Materials - Effects of Beddi...
-Varieties Of Bedding
The principal varieties of bedding are straw, peat moss, sawdust, wood shavings, tan, ferns, sand, and fir needles. Comparative Powers Of Absorption Of Water And Ammonia By Different Kinds Of Bedding...
-Requirements In A Bedding
To fulfil all the conditions of comfort, health, cleanliness, and economy, a bedding should be dry, soft, elastic, absorbent of watery fluids and gases, clean in use, easily procurable, fairly cheap, ...
-Classification Of Bedding Materials
An instructive classification of bedding materials can be made by dividing them according to the special aptitude they respectively show for either drainage or absorption. It is evident that the great...
-Effects Of Bedding On Horses' Feet
The various kinds of bedding materials might be divided not only into absorbent bedding and drainage bedding, but also into (1) those which exert an injurious influence on the feet of horses stabled o...
-Straw
Old straw is to be preferred to new straw, because it is dryer and more elastic. Its higher price will be more or less made up by the fact of its containing less water, and consequently being lighter ...
-Peat Moss (Moss Litter)
Origin And Nature Peat is formed in more or less stagnant water, such as that of marshes, by the decomposition of bog plants, the chief of which is bog moss (Sphagnum). Mosses of this genus grow in ...
-Sawdust
Sawdust is generally obtained in the form of sawdust and chips, from which all hard pieces of wood should be removed. The only sawdust fit to be used for horses, is that which is obtained from dry and...
-Tan
My experience of tan as a bedding for horses, is that it is very apt to heat the feet, unless great care is taken in picking them out and in removing wet portions of litter without delay. According to...
-Sand
Horses appear to like sand as a bedding, for they often show a great inclination to roll on it when they find it under them. It makes a cool bedding in hot weather. Sea sand should on no account be us...
-Combined Bedding
Although, as we have seen, the drainage capability of a bedding material varies inversely as its power of absorption, and vice versa, we can obtain both of these valuable qualities by employing two ma...
-Choice Of A Bedding
In this selection, the question of economy comes largely into play, especially as regards power of absorption; for although, as we have seen, 1 lb. of moss litter, for instance, will absorb four times...
-Bedding-Down
The first thing to do before bedding-down, is to see that the floor is dry and clean. If the floor is damp, and especially if it is evil smelling, we may have it freely sprinkled over with powdered pe...
-Mucking-Out
Whenever a groom sees dung, urine or contaminated litter on the floor of box or stall, he should at once remove it outside; because its retention in the stable will be injurious to the animal's health...
-Stable Manure
Heiden (Storer's Agriculture) states that for each 100 lb. of dry matter which the horse consumes, he gives off 210 lb. of dung and urine. An ordinary cart horse will produce about 1/2 cwt. of dung an...
-Chapter IX. Clothing. Necessity And Objects Of Clothing
Necessity and Objects of Clothing - Nature of Clothing - Amount of Clothing Necessary as a Protection against Cold - Various Kinds of Clothing - Quarter Sheet - Roller - Roller Cloth - Breast Cloth - ...
-Nature Of Clothing
From the principles already discussed, we may see that the clothing used for protection of horses from cold should be of a material which, like a horse's coat, absorbs moisture readily, and parts with...
-Amount Of Clothing Necessary As A Protection Against Cold
It is evident that the more the skin is stimulated by exercise and grooming, the more liable will the animal be to suffer from chill in the stable. Hence, racehorses, especially when they are wound u...
-Various Kinds Of Clothing
A full suit of clothing consists of a quarter sheet, with fillet strings and button loops, breast cloth, roller, roller-cloth, tail-guard, hood, and a set of woollen bandages, with an under rug, if re...
-Head Collars
An ordinary head collar (Fig. 38) consists of a noseband, two cheek pieces, a throat-latch, a forehead-band (front), an under piece which connects the nose-band and throat-latch together, and a crown-...
-Halters
A halter is a head-collar whose nose-band forms a running loop with the rope or chain to which it is attached. Halters are generally made of webbing. (Fig. 43). Fig. 40. Anti-slipping Head-collar. ...
-Bandages
As I have entered somewhat fully into the subject of bandages in Veterinary Notes for Horse Owners, my remarks here will be more or less a repetition of those made in that book. The only bandages whi...
-Chapter X. Handling And Leading Horses
Influence of the Voice on Horses - Good Temper in Horses - Going up to a Horse - Lifting up a Fore Foot - Lifting up a Hind Foot - Holding up a Fore Leg - Holding up a Hind Leg - Holding a Quiet ...
-Chapter XI. Grooming
Definition - Necessity of Grooming - Chief Objects of Grooming - Shedding the Coat - Grooming Horses Kept in the Open - Hours of Grooming - Washing Horses - Hand-Rubbing - Grooming Tools and their Use...
-Shedding The Coat
Nature provides the horse with a fine and a comparatively short coat for summer wear; and a coarser and longer one for winter use. The animal sheds the former covering during the autumn; and the latte...
-Grooming Working Horses Kept In The Open
The question of grooming working horses that are kept in the open, is one of atmospheric conditions, clothing, food and state of the coat. We need here consider only animals which are picketted outsid...
-Hours Of Grooming
The best time to groom a hard-working horse is on his return from labour; for then appropriate grooming will perform its most valuable office of lessening the danger of chill by preventing the surface...
-Washing Horses
This practice as a rule is injurious, because it removes the natural oil from the skin, and predisposes the animal to chill. The application of water to a horse's skin increases the heat-conducting po...
-Hand-Rubbing
In England, the expression hand-rubbing is used in almost all cases, only in connection with the legs of a horse. The extension of this process to the body of the animal, in the manner practised in ...
-Grooming Tools And Their Uses
The tools generally used in grooming (Fig. 55) are : Body-brush. Water-brush. Mane-comb. Burnisher. Dandy-brush. Curry-comb. Hoof-picker. Scrapers. To these we must add rubbers, wash leathers, sp...
-Wisping
Wisps are generally of two kinds, namely, a straw wisp, which consists of a handful of straw, and a hard hay wisp or hay pad. To these I would add that very useful form of wisp which is made from unpr...
-Time And Help Required For Grooming
For merely cleaning a horse, one man is enough; but for producing a healthy glow all over the surface of his body, at least two men - one on each side - are required; because one man could not possibl...
-Time And Help Required For Grooming. Continued
It is the custom to make the mane lie to the off side; because, as we usually look at a horse from the near side, his neck and shoulders will appear to better advantage than if their lines were broken...
-Care Of Legs And Feet
The alleviation of filled legs, is one of the most common problems given to grooms to solve. This condition is a chronic ailment which is brought on by stagnation of blood in the limbs from want of ...
-Greasing And Stopping The Feet
Although an impermeable covering, like varnish, might do harm to the wall of the hoof by preventing transpiration, I see no objection to the application of hoof ointment or other greasy matter (neats'...
-Protection Against Flies
From June to October, and particularly in August, gadflies or breeze-flies (OEstridae), seek to lay their eggs on convenient parts of horses during the hottest hours of the day. The female flies of th...
-Testing The Efficiency Of The Grooming
A good plan of finding out if a horse's coat is clean, is to go up to the side of the neck upon which the mane falls, and after turning the mane over to the other side, to examine its roots to see if ...
-Chapter XII. Clipping, Singeing, And Trimming. Shortening The Coat
IT is evident that the protective power possessed by the coat of a horse is proportionate to its interference with his capacity for work. In fact, a saddle or harness horse with a long coat is like un...
-Trimming And Banging
The hair of the fore-lock, mane and tail is useful to a horse, chiefly as a defence against the attacks of flies. The assistance which the mane gives when mounting, especially if the animal be tall an...
-Chapter XIII. Cleaning Gear, Carriages, Etc
Component Parts of Gear - Brown Leather - Black Leather - Patent Leather and Enamelled Leather - Serge and Linen covered Panels - Steel, Iron and Alloys of Nickel - Brass - Silver and Plated Work - Pi...
-Cleaning Gear, Carriages, Etc. Continued
It is evident that the object of wiping the leather with a damp sponge in the first instance, is to remove dirt, and that the application of the soap is to soften the leather. Instead of soap we might...
-Cleaning Carriages
The floor of the wash-box or other place in which a carriage is cleaned, should be paved, so that mud and grit may not be splashed on to the wheels. When the carriage comes in after use, the cushions ...
-Blacking Boots
Boots, especially top-boots, to look well, to be easily cleaned and to wear long, should be put on trees immediately after use. The surface should then be cleaned with a hard brush, and if necessary w...
-Chapter XIV. Management Of Horses On Board Ship
Special Dangers - Best kind of Ship - Position of Horses on Board Ship - Preparation before going on Board - Taking a Horse on Board - Slinging - Horse Boxes - Feeding Trough - Floor - Rough Cocoanut ...
-Management Of Horses On Board Ship. Part 2
Generally, the safest way of bringing a horse on board is, when practicable, to walk him into the ship by a broad and well-protected gangway, the slope of which should be by no means steep. In this ca...
-Management Of Horses On Board Ship. Part 3
With respect to the loss of Ossory and Prince Io, I read in The Spirit of the Times that the man who had charge of them said that he could not keep either straw or sawdust under them, as it got washed...
-Chapter XV. Stable Routine
Racehorses and Steeplechasers - Hunters - Carriage Horses - Vanners, Cart Horses, etc. The following routine may be observed with racehorses and steeplechasers which are kept in boxes. The lad enter...
-Chapter XVI. Summering Hunters And Wintering Polo Ponies. Summering Hunters
By the first week in April, a hunting man who wishes to keep his horses for the next season, has usually to decide what he has to do with them in the meantime. In such a case, old English custom gives...
-Wintering Polo Ponies
As polo ponies are the only working horses which are usually wintered, I shall here refer only to them. Mr. E. D. Miller's Modem Polo contains such an able and full account of this subject, that I nee...
-Chapter XVII. Exercise For Conditioning Hunters
Length of Preparation - Physic - Exercise Ground - Leading Horses - Riding barebacked - Nature of Exercise - Clothing and Sweating - Daily Distance to be travelled. I TAKE hunters as typical saddle h...
-Chapter XVIII. Stable Servants
Varieties and Duties - Wages, Board and Lodging - Commission - Allowances and Tips - Livery and Stable Clothes - Qualifications of Grooms and Coachmen - Veterinary Surgeons and Grooms - Respect due fr...
-Stable Servants. Continued
A groom-coachman generally has some help. He has to ride exercise as well as drive, and can do a couple of horses. He is simply a groom who has to drive. A second horseman holds a position about equa...
-Livery And Stable Clothes
As a rule, the only stable servants who would wear livery are coachmen (including head coachmen, second coachmen and third coachmen, according to the size of the establishment), carriage grooms, secon...
-Qualifications Of Grooms And Coachmen
The average efficiency of men who take charge of horses, is greatly lowered by the fact that no special qualifications are demanded before a man or boy can call himself a groom or coachman. In fact an...
-Veterinary Surgeons And Grooms
The large majority of grooms and coachmen who are in charge of horses, never like to see a veterinary surgeon within their stable walls, except when they want to shift on his shoulders the responsibil...
-Commissions
Owing to the ignorance and apathy displayed by the large majority of horse-owners with respect to the conditions under which their animals live; many grooms and coachmen have got into the habit of res...









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