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The Stable Book: Being A Treatise On The Management Of Horses | by John Stewart



In Relation To Stabling, Grooming, Feeding, Watering And Working-Construction Of Stables, Ventilation, Stable Appendages, Management Of The Feet. Management Of Diseased And Defective Horses.

TitleThe Stable Book: Being A Treatise On The Management Of Horses
AuthorJohn Stewart
PublisherOrange Judd & Company
Year1855
Copyright1855, Orange Judd & Company
AmazonThe Stable Book

By John Stewart, Veterinary Surgeon, Professor Of Veterinary Medicine, In The Andersonian University, Glasgow.

With Notes And Additions, Adapting It To American Food And Climate, By A. B. Allen, Formerly Editor Of The American Agriculturist.

With Illustrations.

-American Preface
It may be thought, perhaps, by some, presumptuous on the part of any American, to undertake the editing with a view of improvement, of a work of the standard reputation of Stewart's Stable Economy. Bu...
-First Chapter. Stabling. Construction Of Stables
Stables have been in use for several hundred years. It might be expected that the experience of so many genera-tions would have rendered them perfect. They are better than they were some years ago. Ma...
-Situation Of Stables
Few have much choice of situation. When any exists, that should be selected which will admit of draining, shelter from the coldest winds, and easy access. The aspect should be southern. Training stabl...
-All New Stables Are Damp
It is a long time ere the walls get rid of the moisture introduced by the mortar. Entry to a new stable should be delayed till it is dry, or as long as possible. If, as often happens, the stable be wa...
-Size Of Stables
They are seldom too large in proportion to the number of stalls; but they are often made to hold too many horses. Those employed in public conveyances in coaches and boats, are frequently crowded into...
-Arrangement Of The Stalls
In this there is little variety. In a square or circular apartment, the stalls may be ranged on each side, or all round. There is one at Edinburgh in a circular form. When full and lighted from the ro...
-Doors
A stable should have only one door. [This is not enough. They should have a door at each end, for the ake of a draught of air when necessary. The stables are much drier for such an arrangement, and mo...
-Windows
Windows may or may not be made to open. Some of them should open, in order that the stable may, upon certain occasions, receive an extraordinary airing. But for constant and necessary ventilation ther...
-The Roof
The Roof of the stable usually forms the floor of the hayloft. In some of the farm stables there is no hay-loft. The outer roof is the roof of the stable, and is of thatch or tile, plastered or unplas...
-The Floor
In Scotland the floor of the stable is almost universally laid either with whinstone or freestone, or partly with the one and partly with the other. Very often, the gangway and about one half of the s...
-Earth Floors
One of the best kinds of Stable-floors, where the soil is a dry one, is made of a composition of lime, ashes, and clay, mixed up in equal parts into a mortar, and spread twelve to fifteen inches deep ...
-Drains
These are seldom thought of. But, in some situations, to have a dry and sweet stable, they are absolutely necessary. In short stables, having only four or five horses in a row, underground drains are ...
-Declivity Of The Stall
The ordinary mode of draining the stall is to make it slope from the head to a gutter, about ten feet from the manger. The inclination varies from two to three inches on the ten feet This has been obj...
-Precautions Against Rats
In laying the floor, some measures should be adopted to prevent or check the inroads of these vermin. They are very destructive about stables. They undermine the pavement, eat the wood-work, choke the...
-Partitions Between The Horses
In some parts of England horses are permitted to stand two and two, without any partition between them. This rarely happens in .Scotland. He is poor indeed who can not afford a stall to each horse. ...
-There Are Objections To Bales
They permit the horses to bite, and to strike each other, whether in play or in mischief, and some harm is often done in this way. Horses that are idle, playful, or vicious, are constantly doing each ...
-Hay-Racks
Ordinary hay-racks are made of wood; they are wide as the stall, have the front sloping, and the back perpendicular. Racks of this kind are giving way to others made of cast-iron, and much smaller. As...
-Mangers
The trough in which the horse receives his grain is termed a manger. It is made of wood, or of cast-iron. Stone has been employed, but it forms a bulky clumsy manger, and is not in any respect superio...
-Water-Manger
Sometimes two mangers are placed in each stall - one for water, and another for grain. It is said that a horse drinks least when he has water constantly before him; and, if this be true, it is certain...
-Ventilation Of Stables
It is upward of eight-and-forty years since James Clarke of Edinburgh protested against close stables. He insisted that they were hot and foul, to a degree incompatible with health; and he strongly re...
-Ventilation Of Stables. Part 2
Then there are many people who are indifferent about ventilation. They dislike trouble; they can suffer much, but they can do nothing. They will bear all the evils, all the loss, and all the vexations...
-Ventilation Of Stables. Part 3
The deterioration of air by consumption of oxygen, and addition of carbon, is produced entirely by breathing; and when carried beyond a certain point, debility, or disease, or death, one or all, must ...
-Ventilation Of Stables. Part 4
Under circumstances like these, death reveals the operation of a wise and beneficent law. Man, in the pride of his ignorance, may regard the result as a great evil, and to him it truly is such; but a ...
-Modes Of Ventilating Stables
Many people are perfectly aware that their stables ought to be aired; but they are igno rant of the mode in which it should be done. The owner or groom is told that the stable is too close; and he rep...
-Apertures For The Admission Of Pure Air
Most people do not imagine that one set of apertures are required to carry away the foul, and another to admit the pure air. Even those who know that one set can not answer both purposes in a perfect ...
-Stable Appendages
These consist of loose boxes; of apartments for provender and litter; of a sleeping chamber for the stable-man; a harness-room; a yard, or shed, for grooming and exercise; and a water-pond. Of the con...
-Boiler-House
A copper for heating water or cooking food, is a very necessary appendage to all stables. Hot water is frequently required for numerous operations, which are not performed if the water can not be easi...
-Water-Pond
At the seats of country gentlemen, this is rather a common appendage to the stables. It is employed for washing, and for watering the horses. They, and sometimes the carriage, are dragged through it t...
-Stable-Yard Or Shed
Few, besides the large proprie tor and the country gentleman, can have a stable-yard for his own use. In towns, the only place in the shape of a yard is the lane. In this the horses must be groomed an...
-Harness-Room
In some large stables, where a saddler is kept, his workshop forms the harness-room. In others there is an apartment for the spare and old harness. In posting establishments there is usually a dry roo...
-Stable Cupboard
In those stables where the men are often changed, or where several are working together, each should have a small cupboard furnished with a good lock. In this the man may deposite his working implemen...
-Groom's Bedroom
Wherever a number of horses are kept together in stables, accidents will frequently happen through the night. One will break loose, one will cast himself over the travis, one will get halter-cast, som...
-Stables Of Mr. Gibbons
The most complete stables which we have seen in the United States, or indeed anywhere else, when we take into consideration their cost, comfort, and convenience, are in Madison, New Jersey, at the For...
-Stalls Of Mr. Pell
Fig. 12 is a perspective view of two stalls in the stables of R. L. Pell, Esq., of Pelham, N. Y. a, Hay-loft. Behind the hoppers b, b, are holes in the floor through which the hay is put down into ...
-Second Chapter. Stable Operations
To many people the stable operations may appear to be few and simple, requiring little dexterity and almost no experience. A great many horses do not demand much care; their work is easy, and their pe...
-Stablemen
There are several kinds of stable servants. There are coachmen grooms, hunting-grooms, training-grooms, headgrooms, head-lads, boys, strappers, ostlers, carters, and many more of smaller note. Taken a...
-The Groom
A good groom should have been among horses from his boyhood. He should have learned his business under a senior. He should have all the regularity, sobriety, activity, and cleanliness of the thorough-...
-Boys
Under the direction and discipline of a good groom, boys of from fourteen to seventeen are soon taught to perform the duties of the stable. But until they have been well trained, and they must be trai...
-Strappers
The men who look after horses at livery, and those employed in public conveyances, are termed strappers. They have nothing to do with the working of the horse3. Their business is to dress, harness, wa...
-The Head-Ostler Or Foreman
On large establishments a head-man superintends the strappers, and the general management of the horses. His work varies according to the size of the stud, and to the time and attention which the owne...
-Drivers
These are men who work the horses. Some also have the stable management of them. The gentleman's coachman has already been spoken of. The others are postboys, hackney-coachmen, cab, omnibus, noddy, an...
-Grooming
In general, the word grooming is confined to those operations which have cleanliness for their object. To made the horse clean, and to keep him clean, form a part, and in many stables the whole of gro...
-Dressing Before Work
To keep the skin in good order, the horse must be dressed once every day, besides the cleaning, which is made after work. This dressing is usually performed in the morning, or in the forenoon. It vari...
-Dressing Vicious Horses
A few horses have an aversion to the operations of the groom from the earliest period of their domestication. In spite of the best care and management, they continue to resist grooming with all the ar...
-Utility Of Dressing
It improves the horse's appearance, it renders the coat short, fine, glossy, and smooth. The coat of a horse in blooming condition is always a little oily. The hair rejects water. The anointing matter...
-Dressing After Work
This operation varies according to many circumstances; it is influenced by the kind of horse, the state and time in which he arrives at the stable. Slow-working horses merely require to be dried and c...
-Scraping
The scraper is sometimes termed a sweat-knife. In some stables it is just a piece of hoop iron, about twenty inches long, by one and a half broad; in the racing and hunting-stables it is made of wood,...
-Walking A Heated Horse
Everybody knows that a horse ought not to be stabled when perspiring very copiously after severe exertion; he must not stand still. It is known that he is likely to catch cold, or to take inflamed lun...
-Walking A Wet Horse
Gentle motion to a heated horse is necessary, to prevent the evils likely to arise from one sot of organs doing more than another set requires. But in many cases motion after work is useful when the h...
-Wisping A Wet Horse
When there is sufficient strength in the stable, the proper way to dry the horse is by nibbing him with wisps. After removing all the water that can be taken away with the scraper, two men commence on...
-Clothing A Wet Horse
When the horse can neither be dried by the wisp, nor kept in motion, some other means must be taken to prevent him catching cold. He may be scraped, and then clothed, or he may be clothed without scra...
-How To Remove The Mud
There are two ways of removing the mud. One may be termed the dry, and another the wet mode. The first is performed by means of the scraper and the currycomb, or a kind of brush made of whalebone, whi...
-Washing
When the horse is very dirty he is usually washed outside the stable; his belly is scraped, and the remainder of the mud is washed off at once by the application of water. Some clean the body before t...
-Wet Legs
It is a very common practice, because it is easy, to wash the legs; but none, save the best of stablemen, will be at the trouble of drying them; they are allowed to dry of themselves, and they become ...
-Bathing
This name may be given to the operation of washing the horse all over. Where possible, and not forbidden by the owner, a lazy or ignorant groom always performs it in the neighboring river or pond. Som...
-The Uses And Properties Of The Hair
That which forms the general covering is intended to keep the horse warm. It conducts heat very slowly, and is therefore well adapted for retaining it. It absorbs no moisture, and when the horse is in...
-Docking
In this country the horse's tail is regarded as a useless or troublesome appendage. It was given to ward off the attacks of blood-sucking flies. But men choose to remove it without being able to give ...
-Nicking
In England and Scotland this operation appears to be fast and justly getting into disrepute. It is still very common in all parts of Ireland. Its object is to make the horse carry his tail well elevat...
-Dressing The Tail
Sometimes the hair of the tail grows too bushy. The best way of thinning it is to comb it often with a dry comb, having small but strong teeth. When the hair is short, stiff, almost standing on end, i...
-Dressing The Mane
In general the mane lies to the Tight side, but in some horses it is shaded equally to each. On some carriage horses it is made to lie to the right side on the one, and to the left on the other, the b...
-Trimming The Ears
The inside of the ear is coated with fine hair, which is intended by nature to exclude rain, flies, dirt, and other foreign matters floating in the air. When left to itself, it grows so long as to pro...
-Trimming The Muzzle And Face
All round the muzzle, and especially about the nostrils and lips, there are long fine hairs, scattered wide apart, and standing perpendicular to the skin. These are feelers. They perform the same func...
-Trimming The Heels And Legs
The hair of the fetlock, the hollow of the pastern, and the posterior aspect of the legs, is longer on heavy draught-horses than on those of finer bone. It is intended to keep the legs warm, and perha...
-Hand-Rubbing The Legs
This is not altogether an ornamental operation, but as it is performed chiefly or only where decoration is attended to, this seems to be the proper place for taking notice of it. I have said that the ...
-Singeing
Stablemen have long been in the habit of singeing away the long loose hair which grows about the jaws, throat, neck, belly, and quarters of horses that have been much exposed to cold; a flame is appli...
-Clipping
This operation has been truly termed, a bad substitute for good grooming. I is done only on the better kinds of horses, especially upon hunters, and consists in shortening the hair all over the body...
-Clipping. Continued
There are other agents which may co-operate with these, when they do not produce their ordinary effects. Boiled barley, boiled or raw linseed, raw carrots, and boiled turnips, are among the articles o...
-Management Of The Feet
The feet of some horses require particular attention. They are liable to injuries and to diseases, of which one or two may be prevented by a little care. Picking the Feet is among the first things ...
-Stopping The Feet
This operation is performed only on the fore feet; it is often neglected altogether, and often it is overdone. It consists in applying some moist matter to the sole, for the purpose of keeping it soft...
-Thrushes
A thrush, as every stableman knows, is a disease of the frog. At first there is a slight discharge from the cleft of this wedge-like protuberance. The discharge is produced by the frequent, long-conti...
-Anointing The Wall Of The Hoof
Among grooms and coachmen it is a common practice to apply oil or some greasy mixture to the wall, or, as it is sometimes termed, the crust, all that portion of the hoof which is visible when the hors...
-The Clay-Box
In some establishments, the upper half of a stall, or one corner of a loose box, is laid with wet clay. A horse having tender, contracted, or brittle fore-feet, is put into this for one or two hours e...
-Shoeing
Many stablemen, especially those employed in livery stables, are very careless as to the state of the horse's feet and his shoes. The shoes are often worn till they drop off in the middle of a journey...
-Operations On The Stable. Bedding
To a hard-working horse, a good bed is almost is essential as food. Many stablemen can not make it. I* should be as level and equal as a mattress. There should be no lumps in the litter; it should com...
-Changing The Litter
In well-managed stables the dung and soiled litter are removed every morning at the first stable hour; or, if the horses are going to work or exercise, this operation is delayed till they are gone. Th...
-Day Bedding
Among veterinarians it has been a disputed point whether or not the horse should have litter below him during the day, some contending that he should, others that he should not. The straw, it is said,...
-Washing The Stable
In some places the floor is washed every morning, in others only once a week; in very many it is never washed. The water, with the assistance of a broom, clears the grooves, and prevents the stones fr...
-Third Chapter. Stable. Restraints
By these I mean all those abridgments of the horse's liber ty in the stable which prevent him from injuring himself or others. The twitch, the arm-strap, and the muzzle, are spoken of in connexion wit...
-Accidents Connected With Restraint
Some of these accidents arise from peculiar habits of the horse, others from carelessness or ignorance on the part of his groom. Getting Loose Some horses are very cunning and per-severing in th...
-Hanging In The Halter
Many horses attempt to get free by falling back upon the haunches, and throwing their weight upon the halter-rein; there they hang for a while till some part of the rein gives way, or till they find i...
-Standing In The Gangway
When first stabled, horses are much disposed to stand as far out of the stall as they can get. They dislike the confinement; they want to see about them, and they dislike the impure air so often found...
-Rolling In The Stall
Many horses are much addicted to this, especially during the night. Some practise it the moment they come off the road. They lie down, harness and all, and roll over from one side to another two or th...
-Halter-Casting
This is the most dangerous accident to which the stabled horse is liable. The horse often scratches his neck, ears, or some part of his head, with a hind-foot. In doing that, or rather in drawing back...
-Treatment Of Stall-Cast Horses
The first thing to be done is to liberate the head by cutting the rope, or the halter, if the horse be bound by a chain. Place him in a favorable position, and urge him to rise. After a horse has lain...
-Stepping Over The Halter-Rein
This and the last-mentioned accident arise from the same cause. The binding is too long, or tied to the ring unloaded by the sinker, and the horse is apt to get his fore-feet over it. If he be a stead...
-Leaping Into The Manger
Young idle horses sometimes set their fore-fret into the manger, for the purpose, I suppose, of looking about them. This can rarely happen when the manger is at the proper height, and the halter-rein ...
-Stable Habits
Among stablemen the word habit is applied only to pecu liarity of conduct, to some unusual or objectionable action. Kicking The Stall-Post Many idle horses, and mares during the spring, more tha...
-Shying The Door
While leaving or entering the stable, the horse frequently gets a fright. The posts catch his hips or some part of the harness, and besides being alarmed he is sometimes seriously injured. After this ...
-Stable Vices
Horses art often termed vicious when they have no vice. Docile but bold horses may be excited to retaliate upon those who abuse them. They never strike but when they are struck; they are obstinate, bu...
-Biting
There are horses who delight in biting. Some are so much addicted to it that it is not possible to enter their stall without obtaining substantial evidence 01 their prowess in this respect. An experie...
-Kicking
This vice is not so common as that of biting; but it is much more dangerous, and the mischief is not so easily avoided. Some strike only at horses, and never attempt to injure persons. These have litt...
-Refusing The Girths
Some horses are difficult to saddle. When the girths are tightened, or as the man is in the act of tightening them, the horse suddenly drops on his knees as if he were shot. Sometimes he rears up and ...
-Fourth Chapter. Warmth
Hot Stables have been condemned by every veterinarian who has had occasion to mention them. They have been blamed for producing debility, inflamed lungs, diseased eyes, chronic cough, and recent cough...
-Warm Stables
[When exposed to an average temperature of 60 to 65 degrees, to keep up a healthy animal heat, the horse expires every twenty-fours, 97 1/8 ounces of carbon. The food which he eats supplies this carbo...
-Temperature Of The Stable
When the stable is properly constructed, and not too large for the number of horses, it need never be heated by fire or steam. These conditions being observed, I know of no case in which it is necessa...
-Clothing
When it is desirable to keep the horse warm without endangering the purity of the air, he maybe clothed. Coarse slow-working horses require clothing only when sick. A fine coat is not much wanted in t...
-Fifth Chapter. Food. Articles Used As Food. Kinds Of Food
In this country horses are fed upon oats, hay, grass, and roots. Many people talk as if they could be fed on nothing else. But in other parts of the world, where the productions of the soil are differ...
-Grass
Grass is the natural food of horses. It is provided for him without the interference of art. It is composed of a great number of plants, differing much or little from each other in structure, composit...
-Clover, Ryegrass, Tares, Lucerne, Saintfoin, And The Oat-Plant
Clover, Ryegrass, Tares, Lucerne, Saintfoin, And The Oat-Plant, are all used as green food. So far as the horse is concerned, one seems to be as good as any of the others. They appear to produce the s...
-Whin, Furze, Or Gorse
This is an abundant and cheap plant. It is very good green food for horses, and is procured when there is no other. To sick horses it is an excellent substitute for grass, and many will eat it when th...
-Dry Herbage
In this country the dry herbage consists of hay and straw. In France the vine-leaves are collected and stored for winter fodder. In the West Indies the tops of the sugar-cane are deemed highly nutriti...
-Hay
In Scotland, most of the hay used for horses is composed of ryegrass, or ryegrass and clover. The natural hay, which is not very much used here, contains several plants. Much of the hay in Scotland is...
-Salted Hay
Salted Hay, that is, hay with which salt has been mingled a the time of stacking it, is not much used in Scotland. It is not to be had. I can tell nothing about it. Horses are said to prefer it to any...
-Hay Tea
An infusion of hay made by pouring boiling water upon it, and covering it up till cool, has been recommended as an excellent nutritious drink for sick horses, and also for those in health. It might pe...
-Hay-Seed
In Scotland, and wherever the hay is made chiefly from rye-grass, the seed is often made use of in feeding. It is sometimes mixed with the oats to prevent the horse from swallowing them whole, but mos...
-Straw
There are five kinds of straw used as fodder. [Of their relative value for food see page 199.] Straw, however, is little used here. In many parts of Europe, wheat, barley, or rye straw forms the whole...
-Barn Chaff
The shell which is separated from wheat and oats in thrashing is often given to farm-horses. It seems to be very poor stuff. It looks as if it contained no nutriment, yet it may serve to divide the gr...
-Roots
Potatoes, carrots, and turnips, are the roots chiefly used for feeding horses. Parsnips, sugar beet, mangel-wurzel, and yams, are occasionally employed. ...
-Potatoes
Potatoes are given both raw and boiled; in either state they are much relished by all horses as a change from other food. They are rather laxative than otherwise, and especially when given uncooked. G...
-Turnips
Turnips are in very general use for farm and cart-horses. Of late they have also been used a good deal in the coaching-stables; in many they have superseded the carrot. The Swedish variety is preferre...
-Carrots
This root is held in much esteem. There is none better, nor perhaps so good. When first given it is slightly diuretic and laxative. But as the horse becomes accustomed to it, these effects are not pro...
-Parsnips
This root is used a good deal in France : in the neighborhood of Brest, parsnips and cabbages are boiled together and given to the horses warm, along with some buckwheat flour. In the island of Jersey...
-Grain
In this country the grain consists chiefly of oats, beans, and pease, but barley is now in very common use, and wheat is occasionally given. The last two articles, however, are rarely used to the excl...
-Oats
There are several varieties which need not be described. Good Oats are about one year old, plump, short, hard, rattling when poured into the manger, sweet, clean, free from chaff and dust, and weig...
-Diabetes
It is the same disease as that which arises from the use of mowburnt hay. The horses urinate often; the urine is quite colorless, and it is discharged in immense quantities. The horse would drink for ...
-Preparation Of Oats
Most frequently oats are given raw and whole. But occasionally they are bruised, or coarsely ground. Sometimes they are boiled, and sometimes germinated. There is no objection to bruising but the cost...
-Substitutes For Oats
Substitutes For Oats have been frequently sought. Many experiments have been made to ascertain how far their use might be dispensed with. Roots and bread have both been tried, and the results have sho...
-Oat-Meal Seeds
The husk of the oat, as it is sifted from the meal, is sometimes given to horses. This stuff is termed seeds. It always contains a little meal; but is often adulterated by adding what are called the s...
-Barley
There is much difference of opinion concerning this article. Some consider it quite as good as oats in every respect; others allege that it is too laxative; others that it is heating; some that it is ...
-Malt
Dust, in some places termed cumins, is that portion of barley which sprouts in germination. It is generally given to cattle, but horses sometimes get it mixed with the boiled food. They seem to like i...
-Wheat
There is a general prejudice against wheat as horse-grain, especially in its raw state. It is supposed to be poisonous; and without doubt many horses have been destroyed by it. Horses eat it very gree...
-Bran
Bran is seldom give in its dry state, but when beans or peas form the bulk of the grain, some dry bran is added, to make the horse masticate them, and to correct the constipating property of these art...
-Wheaten Bread
Wheaten Bread, either brown or white, is much relished by nearly all horses. Occasionally it may be given to a horse that has been tired off his appetite, or to an invalid. It should never be less tha...
-Buck-Wheat, Or Brank
Buck-Wheat, Or Brank, is hardly known in this country. It is used on the Continent, and the horses are said to thrive on it. Young says that a bushel goes farther than two of oats, and that, mixed wit...
-Maize, or Indian-Corn
Maize, or Indian-Corn, is much used as a horse-food in America, and in various parts of Europe. Cobbett recommended its introduction, and among its other uses, spoke of horse-feeding. I do not know th...
-Rye
Rye is used in Germany, but generally in the shape of bread made from the whole flour and bran; and it is not unusual, in travelling through some parts of that country, and of Holland, to see the post...
-Beans
There are several varieties of the bean in use as horse-food, but I do not know that one is better than another. The small plump bean is preferred to the large shrivelled kind. Whichever be used, the ...
-Peas
Peas are seldom used without beans, with which they are mixed in large or small quantities. They may be given without either beans or other grain, but much care is necessary to inure the horse to them...
-Bread
In former times it was customary to feed horses with bread, and the statute book is said to contain several acts of parliament relating to the manner of making it. Ger-vase Markham, a very old author,...
-Linseed
Linseed in small quantities, either whole or ground, raw or boiled, is sometimes given to sick horses. It is too nutri tious for a fevered horse, but is very useful for a cough, and it makes the skin ...
-Oil Cake
Oil Cake, ground and given in the boiled food, when not very rich, consisting chiefly or entirely of roots, is much stronger than bran, and stronger, perhaps, than oatmeal seeds. Two to four pounds pe...
-Hempseed
Hempseed used to be given to racers a few days before running. It was supposed to be invigorating and good for the wind. I believe it is not now employed, except occasionally to stallions, during t...
-Sago
In the year 1839, this article was a good deal spoken of as an excellent food for horses. Mr. Ritchie, veterinary surgeon of Edinburgh, made some experiments with it, and detailed them in the Quarterl...
-Sugar
Mr. Black, veterinary surgeon of the 14th Light Dragoons, informed me that sugar was tried as an article of horses' food during the peninsular war. The experiment was made at the Brighton depot, upon ...
-Flesh
The structure of the horse does not seem adapted to the assimilation of animal food. But some seem to have no dislike to it; and it is well to know that it may, to a certain extent, supply the place o...
-Eggs
Eggs are sometimes given to stallions in the travelling season, for exciting desire, and to other horses for producing a smooth coat. They are quite useless for either purpose, at least as they are gi...
-Milk
In this country, milk is not used as an article of food for grown-up horses. Occasionally it is given to stallions in the covering season. A mash is made of milk, bran, and oil-cake, ground; and in Ay...
-Mare's Milk
For the first six months of the young horse's life, his principal food is mare's milk. He begins to eat much sooner, but few are entirely weaned before this time. Farm mares are usually put to gentle ...
-Cow's Milk
Should the mare die, or become unfit, from sickness or a diseased udder, to suckle her foal, it must be fed with cow's milk. If a week or two old, it may be fed from a pail in the same way as calves. ...
-Weaning
When the foal is to be taken from the udder, he is either shut up in a loose house by himself, or turned to pasture; in either case his cry must not be heard by the dam. When within hearing, both beco...
-Composition Of Food
The articles used as food for horses have been submitted to chymical examination, with the purpose of ascertaining the amount of nutritive matter yielded by each in proportion to its bulk. The Nutr...
-Bitter Extract
It is distinguished from all other ingredients chiefly by its bitter taste. In some plants it is found in great abundance, in some others, not at all, or only in certain stages of their growth. It mai...
-Feeding
A certain quantity of food is required to keep an animal alive and in health: this is called his necessary ration of food: if he has more he will gain flesh, or give milk or wool. A horse usually r...
-Preparation Of Food
Some of the articles used as food frequently undergo prepa-ation before they are given : they are dried, boiled, bruised, out, and so forth. One object is to economize the consumption; another to r...
-Cutting The Fodder
Hay, straw, and grass, are sometimes cut into short pieces. A portion of this is mixed with grain, and another portion is given by itself, instead of rack hay; in a few cases the grain is given oftene...
-Prevention Of Waste
It has been said that cutting the hay is attended with a saving, according to some, of one fourth; or, according to others, of a third, and even a half, in the whole consumption: that is to say, a sto...
-Mastication Of The Grain Insured
By mixing chaff with the oats and beans, these articles must be broken down before they can be swallowed. They can not be entirely separated from the chaff; and the chaff is too sharp to be swallowed ...
-Deliberate Ingestion Insured
Many horses swallow their grain in great haste; when much is eaten, this is dangerous. The stomach is filled, overloaded, before it has time to make preparation for acting upon its contents. The food ...
-Consumption Of Damaged Provender Promoted
When the hay is not of the best quality, the bad is rejected and lost; but by converting it into chaff, the horse must either eat the whole or leave the whole. He can make no selection. This is a favo...
-Chaff Quickly Eaten
It is eaten in less time than an equal quantity of hay. For old horses, having bad teeth, and for those that work all day, it is desirable that the food be easily eaten, in order that they may have as...
-Mixing Food
When a number of articles having different properties are to be mingled together, some trouble must be taken to mix them equally. I often see beans, barley, bran, and chaff, thrown into a bucket hardl...
-Food Washing
Turnips, carrots, potatoes, and other roots, are generally washed before they are given. In some places, however, they are given with the mud about them, which I think is not a good practice. It is an...
-Food Bruising
Grain and pulse are broken, or bruised, by passing them between a pair of metal rollers. The only object of this practice is to insure the digestion of these seeds, which do not resist solution when t...
-Germinating
In this process the grain is steeped in water for twelve or twenty-four hours, and afterward exposed to the air till it begins to sprout, when it is ready for use. In the stable this preparation is te...
-Masking
When hay is steeped in boiling water, it is said to be masked. The juice, and perhaps all the nutritive matter, is extracted from the hay and dissolved in the water. This liquor, termed hay-tea, is se...
-Boiling
The articles usually boiled are turnips, potatoes, grain of all kinds, beans, and peas. It is not likely that boiled food has exactly the same properties as that which is raw. To the eye and to the ta...
-Steaming
In some places the food is cooked by steam. Whether it be better to steam it or to boil it, must depend upon circumstances. In a large establishment, if the food be very bulky, consisting chiefly of r...
-Seasoning
The custom of seasoning the horse's food is of recent origin, and, as yet, it is not general. Stablemen -have indeed, from time immemorial, been in the habit of mixing nitre with all boiled food, and ...
-Rock Salt
The salt which is sold under this name in Glasgow, is brought from Cheshire, and is employed chiefly for cattle. It is procured in large masses, of a stony hardness. It is somewhat different from comm...
-Assimilation Of The Food
By the assimilation of the food, I mean its conversion into a part of the living body. This is effected by a series of processes, each of which is preparatory to that which follows it. Most of them ha...
-Insalivation
The food suffers mastication and insaliva-tion at the same time. While under the operation of the grinders it is moistened and diluted by a fluid which enters the mouth at many little apertures. This ...
-Maceration
Many of the articles upon which horses feed are hard and dry. They require to be softened before they can be dissolved, or before they will part with their nutritive matter. One end of the horse's sto...
-Indigestion Of The Food
Men, particularly household men, who do not work for what they eat, often have indigestion for several successive years. They are said to have a weak stomach, or to be troubled with bile. They are alw...
-Staggers
A kind of apoplexy is sometimes produced by the presence of undigested food in the stomach. In this country the disease is not common, and there is nothing like it when the food ferments. Obstinate co...
-Colic
I go a little out of my limits to speak of this disease. I do so for four reasons. In the first place, the disease is deadly; it destroys more heavy draught-horses than all others put together. In the...
-Principles Of Feeding
The principles of feeding are facts which influence and ought to regulate the practice of feeding. The word feeding refers to the manger-food, given at intervals, not to the hay or fodder, which is al...
-During Fast Work Digestion Is Suspended
In the general commotion excited by violent exertion, the stomach can hardly be in a favorable condition for performing its duty. The blood circulates too rapidly to permit the formation of gastric...
-Salt And Spices Aid Digestion
On a journey, or after a severe day, horses often refuse their food. When fatigued, tired of his feed, a handful of salt may be thrown among the horse's grain.. That will often induce him to eat it, a...
-Inabstinence
It often happens that horses who are much in the stable, and receiving an unlimited allowance of food, are never permitted to fast. They get food so often, and so much at a time, that they always have...
-Hard Food
For a long time it has been almost universally supposed that the greatest and most lasting vigor could not be obtained without an ample allowance of hard, substantial food, such as raw oats and beans ...
-Changes Of Diet
After the horse has been accustomed to a certain kind or mixture of food, it is not to be suddenly changed. By inattention to this, many errors prevail re garding a horse's food. It is extensively bel...
-Deficiency Of Food
When the owner can afford to feed his horse, he generally allows him sufficient. He soons discovers that the work can not be done without it. He may grudge the cost of keeping, but he soon finds that ...
-Excess Of Food
When the supply of food is greater than the work demands, the horse becomes fat. The superfluous nutriment is not all wasted. The system does not require it at the time, but it may at some other. To p...
-Humors
Everybody has heard of humors flying about the horse. It is an old stable phrase, and still a great favorite. The horse is not well, yet he is not ill. There is always something wrong with him. One ...
-Practice Of Feeding
In well-managed stables the practice of feeding is regulated by the principles, so far, at least, as they are understood. Nevertheless it may be useful to give a short account of the matters and modes...
-Masticant
Any article - such as cut fodder, bran-chaff, hay-seeds, of meal-seeds - which ensures mastication of the grain with which it is mi-fled. Mr. Harper of Bank Hill, Lancashire, ploughs seven acres p...
-Cart-Horses
The cart-horses employed about towns are fed on oats, beans, bran, and hay. Meal seeds, barley, and corn-dusts, hay-seeds, and roots, are also in common use. In winter, one feed is generally boiled an...
-Carriage, Gig, Post, Noddy, Cab, Omnibus, And Street-Coach Horses
All these, with few exceptions, have for many years been fed in the same way, and upon the same articles as at present. In general they receive three or four feeds per day, consisting of oats and bean...
-Mail, Stage, And Fast-Boat Horses
Many of these horses are fed in the old way. In winter they receive oats, beans, bran, and hay; in summer, oats, beans, hay, and grass, all given without preparation, and only three times a day. But a...
-Hunters
The horses employed in the field vary so much in size and breeding, and are treated so variously in different places, that it is difficult to give any useful account of the mode in which they are fed....
-Objections To Grazing Hunters
There are only two. The horse loses his hunting condition, and he acquires so much flesh that his legs and feet are apt to be injured in taking the superfluous flesh off him. It is true that a pasture...
-Nimrod's Mode Of Summering Hunters
This gentleman, whose real name is Apperley, has acquired considerable celebrity in the sporting world by his writings in favor of home summering. He was the first to introduce the system which bears ...
-Objections To Home Summering
The expense attending the in-door system is the only objection that can, I think, be justly urged against it. As far as the health and vigor of the hunter are concerned, experience seems to have fully...
-Race-Horses
I have never been at Newmarket, and have had so little to do with race-horses that I can not say much about them. The few remarks I here make, are not derived from extensive personal observation, and ...
-Pasturing
In another place, I have spoken of grass as an article of food. Its laxative and alterative properties are well known. So far as mere health is concerned, grass is the most salubrious food the horse c...
-Exposure To The Weather
Wet cold weather always produces emaciation and a long coat. If the horse be put out without preparation, he is apt to have an attack of inflamed lungs, a sore throat, or a common cold, with discharge...
-The Flies
The horse is persecuted by at least three kinds of flies. One, the common house-fly, settles on his ears and different parts of his body, tickling and teasing him. Another is a larger fly,' termed the...
-The Soil
The influence of the soil upon the horse's feet and legs has been much spoken of; but it has been much exaggerated. Horses reared in soft marshy pastures have large flat feet, low at the heels, and we...
-Quantity Of Food
In the stable a horse's food can be given in measure proportioned to his wants. But at pasture he may get too much, or he may get too little. This is a strong objection to summering hunters in the fi...
-Times Of Turning Out
Horses are pastured at all times of the year. Some are out for lameness, some for bad health, and some that they may be kept at less than the stable cost. The usual time of turning out is about the en...
-Preparation For Pasturing
Grooms are much in the habit of giving the horse a dose or two of physic before sending him to grass. I do not think that any is necessary, yet it appears to do no harm. Physic, they say, prevents the...
-Confinement
Some horses are not so easily confined at pasture. They break or leap the fences, and wander over the country, or proceed to the stable. The fore feet are sometimes shackled in order to confine them; ...
-Attendance While Out
Horses at grass should be visited at least once every day. If neglected for weeks, as often happens, one may be stolen, and conveyed out of the country before he is missed; the fences may be broken; t...
-Treatment After Grazing
When taken from grass to warm stables, and put upon rich constipating food, horses frequently become diseased. Some catch cold, some suffer inflammation in the eyes, some take swelled legs, cracked he...
-Soiling
When grass is given in the stable, the horse is said to be soiled. From what the word is' derived, or what was its original meaning, I have not been able to learn. At present the term is. used as if i...
-The Straw-Yard
Horses are sometimes turned out all winter to a place called a straw-yard. It is, properly speaking, a manure-yard, a dung-pit, a place fitter for manufacturing manure than lor lodging horses. It ofte...
-Sixth Chapter. Water
Thirst is a compound sensation. There are pain and a desire for that which is known to remove the pain. The two co-exist, but the pain always precedes the desire. The sensation in ordinary circumstanc...
-Temperature Of The Water
In the stables of valuable horses, considerable attention is paid to the temperature of the water. If too cold, or supposed to be too cold, it is warmed, either by adding hot water, or by letting it s...
-Habitual Restriction
It is Lawrence, I think, who remarks that grooms consider water as at best a necessary evil Among professional men, I mean among veterinarians, it is the general opinion that horses should not suffer ...
-Modes Of Watering
When the horse is at home, he is watered either in the stable from a pail, or in the yard from a trough, which, in racing establishments, is provided with a stout lockfast cover as security against po...
-Seventh Chapter. Service. General Preparation For Work
Breaking is the first process the horse undergoes to prepare him for work. His education does not, however, come within the limits of this treatise. It forms a part of horsemanship, and is best perfor...
-Inuring To The Stable And Stable Treatment
A change of lodging, or of diet, is often a cause of disease. When a fresh horse is procured, it is well to know how he has been treated during the previous month. If a valuable animal, he will be wor...
-Inuring To The Weather
The work of some horses exposes them much to the weather. Those employed in. street-coaches, in the carriages of medical men, all those that have to stand in the weather, can never do so with safety D...
-Inuring To The Harnkss
New horses are very liable to have the skin injured by the harness. The friction of the saddle, collar, or traces, produces excoriation. In some horses this is not altogether avoidable, especially whe...
-Inuring To Exertion
Horses from whom extraordinary exertions are not demanded; those that are never expected nor required to do all that a horse is capable of doing, stand in little need of inurement to work, and it is s...
-The Circulation Of The Blood
This fluid is distributed over every portion of the frame. Without its agency there is nothing done in any part of the body; and, in performing its varied duties, it suffers some alteration, which ren...
-Preparation For Fast Work
The natural powers of the horse, contrasted with those he acquires, are feeble beyond what a stranger can conceive. Some people are prone to talk nonsense about nature. They would have horses placed a...
-Size Of The Belly
Horses that are fed on bulky food, and those that are very fat, have a large belly. In one, its size is produced entirely by the contents of the intestines; they may be laden with grass, hay, straw, o...
-State Of The Muscles
Exertion, under certain regulations, produces a particular state of the muscles, the parts of motion, and of the nerves, the blood, and the blood-vessels, by which the muscles are supplied. Neither an...
-State Of The Breathing
I have said that the horse's breathing can not be free so long as a large belly interferes with the action of the lungs. To lighten a large carcass is to improve the wind. But I am persuaded that the ...
-Quantity Of Flesh
When the horse goes into preparation tor work he is sometimes lean. He may have been half starved. He may be so low in flesh that he has neither ability nor inclination to make exertion. To get such a...
-Agents Of Training
The agents and processes employed in preparing the horse for fast-work are, physic, sweating, blood-letting, diuretics, alteratives, diaphoretics, cordials, and exertion. I do not mean that all these ...
-Giving A Ball
A dose of medicine, whether purgative cordial, diuretic, or any other kind, when given in a solid form, is termed a ball. It should be soft and about the size and shape of a pullet's egg The operator ...
-Preparing For Physic
If a full dose of physic be given when the bowels are costive, it is apt to produce colic and inflammation. The medicine is dissolved in the stomach, passes into the intestines, and mingles with their...
-Sweating
Every horse must perspire more or less while undergoing preparation for fast work; but in all racing and hunting studs there are some horses that require to De purposely sweated. By putting the horse ...
-Sweating With Exertion
It is only in racing and in hunting stables that horses are put through this process. When the training-groom speaks of sweating, he means sweating with exertion. The horse is put through his physic, ...
-Cordials
These medicines are seldom wanted in training. Their principal use is to give the horse an appetite. There are many spare feeders among fast-working horses. They are apt to refuse their food every tim...
-Muscular Exertion
A good deal has been said about exertion in other parts of this work, and it is not necessary to say much here. In preparing for fast work the rule is to pro-coed from less to more, from a short to a ...
-Preservation Of Working Condition
The ultimate object of training, seasoning, or conditioning, is to fit the horse for performing his work easily, or at least with as little distress as possible. But it is not enough to give him condi...
-Agents That Injure Condition
Condition for work may be impaired or entirely destroyed in six ways. Disease, continued pain, idleness, excess of work, excess of food, and deficiency of food, all operate more or less against workin...
-Pain
While a horse is in constant pain, he is never in excellent condition for work. Very acute pain materially impairs his condition in a couple of days. Many horses are compelled to work when lame, and i...
-Excess Of Work
A single day of severe exertion may destroy the horse's working condition. His lungs may be injured, a disease may succeed, and require many days to cure it. Between the disease, the cure, and the idl...
-Cleaning
If possible, the horse is to arrive at his stable cool and dry; when not possible, the first thing to be done is to make him so, and the quicker the better. It is not of importance to clean him thorou...
-Fomenting The Legs
I believe this is a useful operation after a day of extraordinary exertion. It subdues or prevents the tumefaction of the joints and sinews, to which the legs of many horses are very liable. The water...
-Food
Fatigue destroys the appetite of some horses very readily. Carrots, boiled barley, malt, or any article which the horse is known to prefer, may be offered in small quantity. After a severe day, the fo...
-Pulling Off The Shoes
There are few cases in which it is proper to remove the shoes, merely because the horse has been doing much work. It is not an uncommon practice; but I believe it has had its origin in a theory or sup...
-Accidents Of Work
The accidents of work are very numerous. A full description of each would form a volume as large as this. I select a few from those which occur most frequently, from those which may be prevented, and ...
-Over-Reaching
The heel and the pastern are sometimes struck by the hind-foot. Most frequently it is the heel, just where the hoof joins the skin. It happens only in fast paces in leaping, or galloping over deep gro...
-Losing A Shoe
When a shoe gets loose on the road, proceed cautiously to the nearest forge. A fast pace will throw the shoe, and break the foot. Should the shoe be hanging off, or twisted across the foot, pull it aw...
-Falling
Horses sometimes fall on the side, sometimes on the head, and sometimes back upon the haunches; but moat frequently they fall upon their knees. A saddle-horse seldom needs assistance to rise; but if o...
-Broken Knees
The skin may be only ruffled, or the knee may be bared to the bones; in both cases, and in all degrees between these, the slightest and the severest injuries, the horse is said to get a broken knee. T...
-Injuries Of The Head
The horse is often stunned from a side or a back fall, or from running against some fixed obstacle. The blow falls with such violence that the brain receives a shock from which it does not immediately...
-Breaking Down
There are two injuries which go under this name. One is merely a sprain of the back tendons, usually in a fore leg. It may be so slight as to escape notice till the horse be cool; or it may be such as...
-Broken Leg
On the road, or on the street, a horse sometimes falls, makes several violent efforts to rise, and then lies still. Upon examination a fracture is found in one of his legs, generally a fore leg. There...
-Staking
In leaping fences and gates, a stake sometimes wounds the belly. The slightest examination with the eye and the finger discovers the depth of the wound. When not into the belly, among the bowels, the ...
-Bleeding Wounds
The shoulder and breast are exposed to deep and extensive wounds from shafts, from the pole and the splinter-bar. Until professional assistance can be obtained, all that need be done is to arrest the ...
-Choking
Heavy draught horses, going up hill with much weight behind, sometimes choke in the collar. The collar presses upon the windpipe, and the horse instantly falls; sometimes he staggers for a moment befo...
-Over-Marked
This word is synonymous with overexerted, over-done, over-driven, distressed, and blown. All are applied, indifferently, to congestion of the lungs, to spasm of the diaphragm, and to excessive fatigue...
-Kinds Of Work
Power and Speed bear a certain relation one to another. It has been long and well known that no horse can exert all his speed and all his strength at the same moment; as we increase the pace beyond a ...
-Travelling
The preparation for a long journey should consist in training the horse to suffer, with impunity, the influence of those agents and circumstances to which his work will expose him. He should be put in...
-Coaching
The horses employed in stage-coaches, mails, canal-boats, railways, and other public conveyances, are all prepared for work in nearly the same way; some difference, nowever, must be made according to ...
-Carting
Cart-horses work from eight to ten hours every day, except Sunday. The pace varies from two miles to three and a half per hour. At long distances the draught rarely exceeds thirty hundred weight, cart...
-Repose
In another place I have stated the immediate effects of muscular exertion. Fatigue, the result of exertion, consists in a particular state of the muscles, the joints, the sinews, and some other parts....
-Eighth Chapter. Management Of Diseased And Defective Horses
Young Horses are not at full strength till they are nearly five years old. At fast work they require careful shoeing to prevent cutting, careful stable-management to prevent the evils arising from cha...
-Megrims Or Epilepsy
Some horses are liable to giddiness at work. It is not the same as choking or swooning in the collar. It seems to be a kind of apoplexy. The horse drops without the least warning, lies for a few secon...
-Sickness
This word is usually applied to all dangerous or febrile diseases, all in which the horse is dull, pained, and without appetite. The stable-management of these must vary according to the nature of the...
-Blistering
Blistering plasters are never applied to horses We always use an ointment, of which rather more than a half is well rubbed into the part to be blistered, while the remain-der is thinly and equally spr...
-Medical Attendance
The people who know, or pretend to know, anything about the diseases of horses, may be divided into three classes : - Owners and their stablemen form one class. They stand at the bottom of the list...









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