Why is the kermes so highly prized?

Because, in the south of Europe, where it is found, on holly, carmine is prepared by sprinkling vinegar on the berry or gall-shaped nests of this animal's eggs.

Why is gum-lac so called?

Because it is the produce of the lac-insect, on the hilly parts of Hindostan. Blumenbach says, " a white wax-like kind of lac has lately been found in Madras, the specimens of which, in my possession, consist of single cells, resembling coffee-berries in size and shape ; it may prove very valuable in India, where bees'-wax is scarce." Although Blumenbach states this as a recent discovery, Dr. Pearson, in 1794, obtained from the same substance, or white lac, a peculiar acid, which he called laccic acid.

Lac appears designed to answer the purpose of defending the eggs of the insect from injury, and affording food for the maggot in a more advanced state.