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General Outline Of The Organization Of The Animal Kingdom, And Manual Of Comparative Anatomy | by Thomas Rymer Jones



The object of the writer of the present work has been twofold: first, to lay before the Naturalist a complete view of the organization and physiological relations of every class of living beings; and secondly, to offer to the Anatomical Student a succinct account of the structure and development of the vital organs through all the modifications they present in the long series of the animal creation. Such were the intentions of the Author, as announced at the commencement of his undertaking; and the reception the first edition received at the hands of the public has been such as to afford gratifying proof that his efforts to facilitate the progress of the cultivators of a science the importance of which is becoming every day more conspicuous have not been unsuccessful...

TitleGeneral Outline Of The Organization Of The Animal Kingdom, And Manual Of Comparative Anatomy
AuthorThomas Rymer Jones
PublisherJohn Van Voorst
Year1861
Copyright1861, John Van Voorst
AmazonA General Outline of the Animal Kingdom and Manual of Comparative Anatomy

By Thomas Rymer Jones, F.R.S, Professor Of Comparative Anatomy In King's College, London; Late Fullerian Professor Of Physiology To The Royal Institution Of Great Britain.

General Outline Of The Organization Of The Animal  1

Third Edition.

Illustrated By Four Hundred And Twenty-Three Engravings.

To Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S. Etc. Etc. Etc., The Following Pages Abe Inscribed By His Sincere Friend. The Author.

-Preface To The Second Edition
The object of the writer of the present work has been twofold: first, to lay before the Naturalist a complete view of the organization and physiological relations of every class of living beings; and ...
-Chapter I. On Animal Kingdom Classification
(1). From the earliest periods to the present time, the great desideratum in Zoology has been the establishment of some fundamental system of arrangement which, being universal in its application, sho...
-Chapter II. Protozoa
(13). Rhizopoda On carefully examining the contents of a marine aquarium, or a glass vessel casually filled with sea-water, the microscopic observer will not unfrequently perceive, adherent to the ...
-Protozoa. Part 2
2. The same after the solution of the shell in weak acid. * Whence the group has also received the name of Polythalamia, i. e. many-chambered. (18). On removing the delicate calcareous shell by ...
-Protozoa. Part 3
(22). In Faujasina and the Nummulites, apparently the most highly organized of the Foraminifera, the shell is of more complicated structure, being permeated by a system of radiating interseptal canals...
-Protozoa. Part 4
Fig. 4. 1. Podocystis Schomburgkii. 2. Rhopalocaniuni ornatum. * The following table indicates the proportions of genera and species of Forami-niferous shells which have been met with in var...
-Protozoa. Part 5
If entirely soluble, as, for instance, an Infusorium, the space in which it is contained contracts as the dissolution of its contents goes on, and finally disappears altogether: should there, however,...
-Protozoa. Part 6
(39). It will surprise some of our readers to find that the Noctilucae, small as they are, feed upon Diatomaceae, and that in these microphagists we have the means of supplying our cabinets with speci...
-Protozoa. Part 7
(43). In one species of Amteba (A. verrucosa, Ehr.) Mr. Carter* has witnessed ovular development, the Amoeba perishing as the ovules are perfected, and ending in becoming a mere ovisac. When first for...
-Protozoa. Part 8
Mr.Bowerbank*, however, has satisfactorily proved that some sponges possess a power of opening and closing the oscula at pleasure. He found that in a specimen of Spongilla fluviatilis about half an in...
-Protozoa. Part 9
The changes in shape and position of the sponge-cell are for the most part effected so imperceptibly that they may be likened to those which take place in a cloud. Its granules, however, are more acti...
-Protozoa. Part 10
(61). The multiplication of marine sponges, however, is effected in original, it attaches itself to a proper object, and, losing the now useless locomotive cilia, it becomes fixed and motionless, and ...
-Protozoa. Part 11
Fig. 13. This figure represents the several stages of evolution of the Spermatozoa in the common creeper (Certkia familiaris), magnified about a thousand diameters. I, an adult Spermatozoon, taken...
-Chapter III. Infusoria
(63). If we examine a drop of water taken from any pond or ditch in which vegetable or animal substances have been permitted to undergo incipient decay, with a microscope even of very limited power, w...
-Infusoria. Part 2
(64). The Infusoria, as characterized by M. Dujardin, are creatures which, when examined under the microscope, appear to be composed of a homogeneous, glutinous, diaphanous substance, and are either n...
-Infusoria. Part 3
As long as the animalcule continues free from annoyance, the trichocysts undergo no change; but when subjected to external irritation, as occurs during the drying away of the surrounding water, or the...
-Infusoria. Part 4
Fig. 16. * Perhaps some of our readers may think the above strictures upon the opinions of Professor Ehrenberg, which appeared in the first edition of this work, and have been written upwards o...
-Infusoria. Part 5
If no solid particles exist in the fluid surrounding the animalcule, the pellets are less consistent, exhibiting the appearance observable in specimens living in colourless water, in which case they a...
-Infusoria. Part 6
Fig. 18. Paramecium aurelia (Ehr.), magnified 300 diameters. 1. The animalcule at rest, under slight compression: o', the position of the mouth; 8,8, contractile vesicles surrounded with radiating...
-Infusoria. Part 7
(92). The reproduction of these animalcules is effected in various ways; and not unfrequently the same individual would appear to propagate by two or three different modes of increase. (93). The fi...
-Infusoria. Part 8
(100). Nearly all the Infusoria and Rhizopoda have in their interior a kind of nucleus, which is quite different in its compact texture from the parenchyma by which it is surrounded. The nucleus seems...
-Infusoria. Part 9
* Vide an elaborate paper by Dr. H. Cienkowski, in the 'Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathematique de l'Acad. Imp. des Sciences de St. Petersbourg' for January 1855. (104). The encapsulation of Plo...
-Infusoria. Part 10
As regards this fecundation itself, everything seems to prove that it takes place by means of an exchange made by the two coupled individuals of one or more of their seminal capsules, which pass throu...
-Chapter IV. Anthozoa
Zoophytes of old Authors. Phytozoa (Ehrenberg). (111). It is not surprising that many members of the extensive class upon a consideration of which we are now entering should have been regarded by t...
-Anthozoa. Part 2
(120). Although essentially similar in their habits, the compound polyps present various modifications of structure, which naturally causes them to be grouped in distinct families. Sometimes the centr...
-Anthozoa. Part 3
(126). On making a longitudinal section of one of the expanded polyps (fig. 26, 1), the main features of its anatomy become at once recognizable. The alimentary canal (c) is seen to be a cylindriform ...
-Anthozoa. Part 4
(130). It appears to be pretty generally admitted that among the aggregated polyps nutritive materials swallowed by one individual goes to the sustenance of the general community - an opinion seemingl...
-Anthozoa. Part 5
(140). Prom the above details it becomes easy to explain how a single polyp by its reproductive powers can form the complicated mass of the compound polypary of the Alcyonidao, as well as the means wh...
-Anthozoa. Part 6
(143). This singular mode of reproduction, M. Milne-Edwards observes, seems at first sight to be very different from that observed in the Alcyonidium; but on reflection, a considerable analogy may be ...
-Anthozoa. Part 7
Fig. 29. Corallium rubrum. (150). Upon making a transverse section of one of these polyparies (fig. 30, a), the solid axis is distinctly seen to be made up of layers arranged in a somewhat undu...
-Anthozoa. Part 8
(157). At the point where the ovigerous laminae reach the tentacles a membrane is observable, which assumes the shape of a funnel when the animal retires into its shell; and at the open end of the fun...
-Anthozoa. Part 9
(165). It is in seizing and devouring their prey, however, that the habits of the Actiniae are best exemplified. They will remain for hours with their arms fully expanded and motionless, waiting for a...
-Anthozoa. Part 10
When examined under the microscope, the granules extracted from their investment are found, in the male, to contain immense numbers of caudate and very active spermatozooids, - while those of the fema...
-Anthozoa. Part 11
(176). On cutting off a portion of one of the arms of an Actinia and subjecting it to pressure, it is seen to have, imbedded in the substance of its gelatinous parietes, an immense number of minute or...
-Chapter V. Hydrozoa
(177). The Hydrae:, or freshwater polyps, are common in the ponds and clear waters of our own country; they are generally found creeping upon confervae or submerged twigs, and may readily be procured ...
-Hydrozoa. Part 2
(186). But perhaps the most remarkable feature in the history of the Hydra is its power of being multiplied by mechanical division. If a snip be made with a fine pair of scissors in the side of one of...
-Hydrozoa. Part 3
The tube is of a yellowish-brown colour, sufficiently translucent to reveal a core or central axis of flesh running along its centre and sending off branches into the polyp-branchlets, from the open l...
-Hydrozoa. Part 4
Fig. 42. Tubularia coronata. b, the polypary, or horny sheath; c, living substance of the animal; d, boundary between the individual and the common stock; g, tentacular arms; k, tentacular zone; h...
-Hydrozoa. Part 5
The communication by means of transverse canals is another arrangement exactly similar to what exists in the adult Beroeform Medusae. Fig. 4.3. Development of Tubularia by free gemmae. (208)...
-Hydrozoa. Part 6
(216). Zoophytes of this description are readily found on our own coasts, and the microscopic observer can scarcely enjoy a richer treat than the examination of them affords. In order to study them sa...
-Hydrozoa. Part 7
Fig. 45. Diagram representing section of a Sertularian zoophyte, a, inner or nutritive layer; b, outer or tegumentary layer; e, oral tentacles of the polyp; d, e, gemmules; f, polypiform external caps...
-Hydrozoa. Part 8
(231). According to the observations of Loven on the reproductive process in Sertularia, the first appearance of the reproductive germ is a slight elevation (derived from the central mass contained in...
-Hydrozoa. Part 9
(244). In the earlier stages of growth the polypary consists of a primary trunk, from which alternating pedicles are given off at regular distances. These pedicles soon become transformed into branche...
-Hydrozoa. Part 10
(257). The marginal tubercles situated around the disk (fig. 48, e) now become sensibly elongated, and the whole embryo presents the appearance of a minute star-fish, the elongate tubercles representi...
-Chapter VI. Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv)
(267). The ocean, in every climate, swarms with infinite multitudes of animals which, from their minuteness and transparency, are almost as imperceptible to the casual observer as the Infusoria themse...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 2
(273). In the Pulmonigrade Acalephae, we have the best illustration of this arrangement: in these, the stomach or digestive cavity is excavated in the centre of the disk, and is supplied with food by ...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 3
Fig. 51. Cassiopea Borbonica. (278). The concave or ventral surface of the disk is furnished with a double investment, consisting of an outer and inner layer, the external of which resembles in its...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 4
(286). It is very probable that the older writers, who speak of a circulation of blood in the Medusae, only alluded to the movements observable in the contents of the intestinal ramifications; it appe...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 5
(293). Professor Forbes, in his admirable monograph upon the British Naked-eyed Medusas, not only confirms the above important observation of the Norwegian naturalist, but describes four different mod...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 6
(301). This kind of reproduction is effected by the development of stolons, gemmae, and bulblets from any portion of the surface of the polypoid animal, which in turn give origin to similar offsets (f...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 7
Arising from the under surface of the disk there are numerous membranous lamellae disposed in a radiating manner around the gastric cavity. These lamellae seem to be suspended from beneath each radiat...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 8
* Milne-Edwards, Ann. des Sci. Nat. torn, xvi., 1841. (315). The vascular apparatus above described is filled with a fluid in constant circulation, in which may be perceived innumerable round colou...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 9
* Dr. Grant's figure of the nervous system as he supposed it to be arranged in Cydippe pileus, is given in a preceding page, fig. 57, 2. (322). From the researches of Will1, it would appear that th...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 10
(326). Physalia In the third division of Acalephae, denominated by Cuvier Acalephes Hydrostatiques, the body is supported in the water by a very peculiar organ, or set of organs, provided for the...
-Hydrozoa. Acalephje (Cuv). Part 11
(333). The bodies of these strangely-constructed creatures are so extremely transparent, that their presence is discoverable with great difficulty even in small quantities of sea-water. They are gener...
-Chapter VII. Helminthozoa
(335). The Helminthozoa, embracing the vast class of parasitic worms, may be conveniently divided into two groups. First, those which live as parasites - the Entozoa, and secondly, those which are fre...
-Helminthozoa. Part 2
Fig. 67. Taenia solium: a, head; b, c, d, segments of the body. Fig. 68. Immature segment of Taenia solium: a, lateral canals; b, ovary; c d, accessory glands; e, lateral sucker. (343). ...
-Helminthozoa. Part 3
The matrix (q) thus receiving a continual supply of ova, becomes gradually distended, until it occupies almost all the interior of the body, and branches out in different directions into caecal pouche...
-Helminthozoa. Part 4
The Scolex, when fully formed, has its own individual development arrested at this point; but it now begins to give off buds, of which the body (Strobile) of the Entozoon is composed. * Vide Rech...
-Helminthozoa. Part 5
(360). Carrying out these observations, M. Van Beneden* has not only confirmed the doctrine, but added very materially to our knowledge on this subject, by ascertaining that the TetrarJiynchus undergo...
-Helminthozoa. Part 6
(368). The Echinococcus veterinorum, long considered as a distinct Entozoon,is in reality merely a hydatid cyst filled with the larvae (Scoleces) of Taenioid worms; it occurs in the liver, the cavity ...
-Helminthozoa. Part 7
(375). The male apparatus occupies the centre of the body. The testes (Jc), in which the spermatic fluid is secreted, consist of convoluted vessels of small calibre, arranged in close circular folds, ...
-Helminthozoa. Part 8
Fig. 72. 1. Cercaria echinata? of Siebold. 2. Distoma-pupa, or Cercaria in the pupa state after it has cast off its tail and enclosed itself in a mucoid case. 3. The animal proceeding from the pupa a ...
-Helminthozoa. Part 9
(387). We have thus followed the Distoma to its third stage of ascent, and, as no more stages in the generations of these animals have been detected, are not in a condition to trace the origin of the...
-Helminthozoa. Part 10
* Cloquet, Anatomie des Vers intestinaux. Paris, 1824. (392). The digestive system of the Echinorhynchus is extremely simple. The mouth is a minute pore, placed at the extremity of the proboscis, w...
-Helminthozoa. Part 11
(400). Although the existence of a nervous system in the Planarise has been doubted by some observers, the researches of M. de Quatrefages assure us of its presence in many species. It consists of two...
-Helminthozoa. Part 12
(408). In Planaria tremellaris, the penis, which during copulation is protruded from the anterior orifice (fig. 75, 6), is a white contractile body, enclosed, when in a retracted state, in a small ova...
-Helminthozoa. Part 13
(414). The median vascular trunk, throughout the greater part of its course, is situate immediately beneath the subcutaneous muscular layers; but when it arrives at the sheath of the proboscis it beco...
-Helminthozoa. Part 14
These motions in the living worm are vigorous, and easily excited by stimuli; they are therefore abundantly sufficient for the purpose of progression in such situations as those in which the creature ...
-Helminthozoa. Part 15
The sperm is usually accumulated in the bottom of the uterus to such an extent as to render it probable that this is the locality where the fecundation of the ova takes place*. (428). The male Asca...
-Chapter VIII. Echinodermata (Cuv)
(430). The next class of beings which presents itself for our consideration seems, upon a partial survey, to be completely insulated and distinct from all other forms of living creatures; so peculiar ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 2
* For a detailed account of the fossil Encrinites, the reader is referred to 'A Natural History of the Crinoidea, or Lily-shaped Animals,' by J. S. Miller. 4to, Bristol, 1821. Setting out from this...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 3
It is not only as agents in locomotion that the ambulacral suckers are used; for, helpless as these creatures appear to be, they are among the most formidable tyrants of the deep, as will be readily a...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 4
(443). Fistularidae At length, in the last division of the class, even the locomotive suckers are lost, and the only external resemblance left between the now worm-like body and the forms above enu...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 5
(451). In the generality of Star-fishes, the arrangement, and indeed the entire character of the calcareous plates, differs materially in different parts of the body; and even in the same species cons...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 6
(456). The fluid that thus fills the suckers, and performs so important a part in causing all their movements, is not secreted by the vesicles in which it is contained, but is conveyed into them by a ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 7
(465). The Star-fishes, grossly considered, might be regarded as mere walking stomachs; and the office assigned to them in the economy of nature, that of devouring all sorts of garbage and offal that ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 8
(471). The circular vessel around the mouth, which forms the central receptacle of the vascular system, resembles a sinus analogous to those of the dura mater in man, and is lodged in a groove between...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 9
The most probable appears to be that of Dr. Sharpey, who suggests that, should the fluid which distends the feet, and the vessels connected with them, be indeed sea-water, it may be introduced, and pe...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 10
(482). After the lapse of a few days certain appendages begin to make their appearance, sprouting, as it were, from the anterior part of the body, and ultimately appearing as four club-shaped processe...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 11
* Ueber die Larven und Metamorphose der Ophiuren und Seeigel. Berlin Trans. 1846. (488). The young Ophiura on leaving the egg presents itself under a most grotesque form, in which condition it has ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 12
Fig. 93. 1. Ophiura in a still more advanced stage of development, showing the larva portion (Pluteus) in great part obliterated: first appearance of the mouth and tentacles. 2. The larva has enti...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 13
There are ten rows of these tuberculated plates; but as they are disposed in pairs, each row of large pieces being united by a zigzag suture with another of a similar description, there are in reality...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 14
(507). The tubercles upon the external surface of the shell of the Echini support a corresponding number of long spines, which, as well as the apparatus of suckers, are employed as locomotive agents. ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 15
The entire apparatus removed from the shell is represented in fig. 96, and consists of the following parts: - There are five long teeth (c c), each of which is enclosed in a triangular osseous piece (...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 16
(516). Yet even these are not all the muscles that act upon the masticating apparatus: ten others (h h), arising in pairs from the middle of the interspaces between the arches, are connected with the ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 17
(524). Little is known concerning the nervous system of the Echini: a few delicate filaments have been observed in the neighbourhood of the oesophagus, apparently of a nervous character, communicating...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 18
The whole of this muscular case is lined with a delicate membrane or peritoneum, from which processes pass inwards to support the various viscera. (532). But although the calcareous shell of the Ec...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 19
Fig. 101. Anatomy of Holothuria: a, bristle inserted into the mouth; b, inverted tentacula; c, ampulla Poliana; ddd, intestinal canal; e, cloacal chamber opening externally by a wide orifice, into...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 20
Fig. 104. Young Holothuria. (541). The special instruments of touch, the only sense allotted to these animals, are the branched tentacula around the mouth, which seem by far the most irritable ...
-Echinodermata (Cuv). Part 21
(549). It is easy to account for this extreme length of the intestine when we consider the nature of the materials used as food, and the small proportion of nutriment contained among the sand and brok...
-Chapter IX. Homogangliata (Owen). Articulata (Cuv). Annulosa (Macleay)
(555). The next great division of the animal kingdom includes an immense number of living beings, adapted by their conformation to exist under a far greater variety of circumstances than any which we ...
-Chapter X. Annelida
(566). The lowest class of articulated animals comprehends an extensive series of creatures generally grouped together under the common name of Worms. In the outward form of their bodies many of them ...
-Annelida. Part 2
(574). On contemplating this singular dental apparatus found in the medicinal Leech, and considering the nature of the food upon which it usually lives, it is difficult to avoid arriving at the conclu...
-Annelida. Part 3
* Vide Dr. Williams's Report on the British Annelida, in the Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1851. (579). While, however, the peripheral segment of the vascula...
-Annelida. Part 4
By this action of the lateral canals the blood is made perpetually to pass and repass the respiratory sacculi; and, opposite to each of these, branches are given off which form so many independent vas...
-Annelida. Part 5
(589). Commencing with the male organs, we are not surprised to find the testes divided into numerous distinct masses, or, rather, repeated again and again, in conformity with a law to which we have a...
-Annelida. Part 6
In this course the fluid may afford the materials of nourishment to the ova as they travel from one limb to another of the looped organ. * Phil. Trans. 1858. (595). The organ itself may be descr...
-Annelida. Part 7
(598). The alimentary canal of the Earthworm is straight and very capacious. Its great size, indeed, is in accordance with the nature of the materials employed as food; for it is generally found diste...
-Annelida. Part 8
* The moniliform character which these vessels exhibit is produced by the process of dissection. If, in the ordinary way, a longitudinal dorsal incision is made, and the two halves be then separated a...
-Annelida. Part 9
(609). According to M. Duges1, the arrangement of the sexual parts is represented in the diagram, fig. 114. The testicles (b) are placed in successive segments of the body from the seventh backwards: ...
-Annelida. Part 10
This dilated muscular portion of the segmental organ is not ciliated internally, but its walls are capable of contracting vermicularly or peristaltically. (616). The vascular system in connexion wi...
-Annelida. Part 11
Careful experiments, made to ascertain how far the statements of former authors upon this subject might he substantiated, prove that the assertion is not entirely without foundation, although by no me...
-Annelida. Part 12
In the movement of the blood, then, in Nais as in Lumbricus, there are discernible only two leading directions - one forward in the primary and intestinal dorsal vessels, the other backward in the pri...
-Annelida. Part 13
From this portion of the tube they escape by the external orifice. (637). The testes on the other side bear the same relation to the tube as the ovary. The utriculus upon one side is represented by...
-Annelida. Part 14
(644). The second class of organs to be enumerated as entering into the composition of the lateral appendages are soft, fleshy, and subarti-culated processes called cirri (fig. 118,2, c, e); these are...
-Annelida. Part 15
(651). Although, as a whole, forming a cylinder, in no instance does the alimentary canal of the Annelida present the figure of a smooth-walled tube. The parietes are invariably sacculated, and often ...
-Annelida. Part 16
(657). The blood, after being subjected to the influence of oxygen in the branchial appendages, is returned by other transverse vessels which run along the interannular septa to the alimentary canal, ...
-Annelida. Part 17
(662). From various observations, it would seem that similar phenomena present themselves during the development of other Annelidans; proving that the bodies of these animals grow by the successive fo...
-Annelida. Part 18
Each branchial tuft and each individual vessel possesses an independent power of contraction: in the contracted state the tuft almost disappears, so completely effected is the emptying of the vessels....
-Annelida. Part 19
(670). In Arenicola piscatorum* the generative apparatus consists of six lateral pouches, which during the months of July and August are in a condition of extreme vascularity. They are quite visible t...
-Annelida. Part 20
This half of the divided worm, like the former, gradually presents evidences of decay: it becomes less and less irritable, the muscles and integuments begin to decompose, the blood-vessels of the bran...
-Annelida. Part 21
(679). The entire alimentary system must next be taken away, and with it necessarily a considerable portion of the reproductive network. A view will thus be obtained of the attached ends or roots of t...
-Annelida. Part 22
Under the first, the chylaqueous fluid alone is submitted to this process; under the second, the blood-proper fulfils the office. The mechanical organs subservient to this function under the former ar...
-Annelida. Part 23
(689). At the point corresponding with the circular vessel (fig. 134, 5), the primary ventral sends off a considerable division for the supply of the intestinal system. The current, therefore, enterin...
-Annelida. Part 24
(698). The segmental organs in the genus Terebella, in all essential particulars, agree in their general structure with those of Arenicola. They differ in number in different species: thus, in Terebel...
-Annelida. Part 25
(705). In Polynoe cirrata the months of February and March are the period of propagation, when the body assumes a pale rose colour, arising from a numberless quantity of eggs, which fill the abdominal...
-Annelida. Part 26
Fig. 136. Development of Terebella nebulosa. (After Milne-Edwards). (711). Having become deprived of the locomotive cilia with which they were previously furnished, the larvae now cease swimmin...
-Annelida. Part 27
(715). Many of the smaller marine Annelids are luminous; their luminosity, however, is not a steady glow like that of the glow-worm or fire-fly, but a series of vivid scintillations (strongly resembli...
-Chapter XI. Myriapoda
(716). The Annelidans examined in the preceding chapter, with the singular exception of the Earthworm, are only adapted to an aquatic life: the soft integument which forms their external skeleton, and...
-Myriapoda. Part 2
(725). In most points of their internal organization, the Myriapoda resemble insects; and we should only anticipate the observations that will be more conveniently made hereafter did we enter into any...
-Myriapoda. Part 3
* Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire des Insectes. 7 vols. 4to. Stockholm, 1778. 1 Osservazioni per servire alia storia di una specie di Julus comunissima. Bologna, 1817. (732). The development of t...
-Myriapoda. Part 4
(738). On again casting its skin, the new segments of the body produced at the former change, from the eighth to the twelfth inclusive (fig. 141, e, 8-12), are become of the same size as the original ...
-Chapter XII. Insecta
(750). The word Insect has at different times been made use of in a very vague and indeterminate manner, and applied indiscriminately to various articulated animals 1. In the restricted sense in which...
-Insecta. Part 2
Half. A wing. Straight. Rest, these are folded both in a transverse and longitudinal direction. The anterior wings are of a denser texture, resembling leather or parchment. To...
-Insecta. Part 3
Hair. May-flies (Phryganea). Aphaniptera (Kirby). Invisible. Fleas (Pulex). Aptera. Without wings. Wingless insects. Parasita (Latreille.) Lice (Pediculus). ...
-Insecta. Part 4
(777). But in other regions there is an absolute necessity for a mode of communication intermediate in character between the two kinds mentioned above, having neither the firmness of the one nor the m...
-Insecta. Part 5
(784). In Cimbex lutea (fig. 150, d) the arrangement of the suckers is different, one large and spoon-shaped disk being attached to the extremity of each tarsal joint. Moreover, in this case there is ...
-Insecta. Part 6
* Kirby and Spence, Introd, to Ent. vol. ii. p.362. Fig. 152. Metamorphoses of Dytiscus. (792). The same principles are carried out even more perfectly in the construction of the swimming-le...
-Insecta. Part 7
(800). The above observations relate only to the general disposition and connexion of the different parts of the skeleton, and locomotive appendages connected with it; it remains for us now to speak m...
-Insecta. Part 8
(809). We have already seen that the Flea or the Grasshopper will spring two hundred times the length of its own body; that the Dragonfly possesses such indomitable strength of wing, that for a day to...
-Insecta. Part 9
The mouths of all creatures are constructed upon purely mechanical principles; and in few classes of the animal world have we more beautiful illustrations of design and contrivance than in that before...
-Insecta. Part 10
(825). The first is met with among the Hemiptera, and is formed to perforate the stalks and buds of vegetables, in order to procure the juices which they contain; or, in some bugs, it is employed to p...
-Insecta. Part 11
In this mouth, therefore, all the parts, except the maxilla), would seem at first sight to be wanting; they may nevertheless be detected upon a very careful examination, and rudiments of the upper lip...
-Insecta. Part 12
(835). When bruised in the gizzard, the food passes on into the proper stomach, which is generally a long intestiniform organ (fig. 159, d d), extending from the crop or gizzard to the point where the...
-Insecta. Part 13
(843). The respiratory organs of the Insecta, as well as their circulatory apparatus, are constructed upon peculiar principles, and are evidently in relation with the capability of flying which distin...
-Insecta. Part 14
Fig. 162. Tracheal tube of an insect, highly magnified, showing, at a, the elastic spiral thread. (845). There is a limit, observes Dr. Williams*, different in different structures, at which the sp...
-Insecta. Part 15
The circulation of the nutritive fluids is, in fact, limited to their free diffusion amongst all the internal viscera, and is effected in the following manner: - If we examine the back of a silkworm, ...
-Insecta. Part 16
(855). In the nervous system of the Insecta, we have many interesting illustrations of that gradual concentration of the parts composing it, and consequently of increased proportionate development of ...
-Insecta. Part 17
Fig. 165. Nervus vagus and sympathetic system of an Insect: a a, optic nerves; d d, su-pra-oesophageal ganglion; I, oesophagus; b b, origins of the recurrent nerve ifk; g g, nerves surrounding the...
-Insecta. Part 18
* Vermischte Schriften, vol. ii. 1 Op. cit. p. 296. (866). In some moths, Treviranus* has discovered structures which would seem to be indubitably real auditory organs. He found in front of the bas...
-Insecta. Part 19
The existence of the secondary optic nerves (6) and common retina (c) is likewise disputed by Muller and Duges, who consider the proper optic nerves to arise immediately from the surface of the brain....
-Insecta. Part 20
Fig. 168. Male generative organs of the Hive Bee (Apis mellifica): a, testes; b b, vasa deferentia; cc, seminal receptacles; d, auxiliary glands; e, common excretory duct; f, g, ejaculatory saccul...
-Insecta. Part 21
(890). In many insects, especially of the Hymenopterous order, the generative apparatus is terminated externally by peculiar instruments provided for the purpose of introducing the eggs into a proper ...
-Insecta. Part 22
* Owen, Parthenogenesis, p. 24. 1 The multiplication of these little creatures is infinite and almost incredible. Providence has endued them with privileges promoting fecundity which no other inse...
-Insecta. Part 23
The connecting medium might even have permitted a common current of nutriment, contributed to by each individual, to circulate through the whole compound body. But how little of anything essential to ...
-Insecta. Part 24
(908). The first class comprises all insects of which the larva is a maggot entirely deprived of legs, that, after having changed its skin, or moulted, a certain number of times, becomes, previous to ...
-Insecta. Part 25
You will probably admit that your own visage would present an appearance not very engaging while concealed by such a mask: but it would strike still more awe into the spectators were they to see you f...
-Insecta. Part 26
(916). Having thus become acquainted with the various conditions under which insects arrive at maturity, and the principal forms that they exhibit during the different stages of the metamorphosis, the...
-Insecta. Part 27
In order fully to understand the circumstances connected with this part of our subject, it is necessary to premise that the outer integument of most larvae is of a dense corneous texture, coriaceous i...
-Insecta. Part 28
In the Dragon-fly, for example (fig. 147), when the cutis had become expanded to its mature larva condition, it secreted from its surface the external epidermic crust which gives form to the larva (b)...
-Insecta. Part 29
(929). The silk-secreting apparatus of such genera as possess the means of spinning a silken thread is peculiar to the larvae; and, after the commencement of the pupa state, no traces of its previous ...
-Insecta. Part 30
Fig. 183. Musical apparatus of Cicada: a, moveable horny plate, drawn aside to display the plicated membrane; b, rings of the abdomen. (934). All the luminous organs, both ventral and lateral, ...
-Chapter XIII. Arachnida
(935). The Arachnidans, long confounded with Insects, and described as such even by recent entomologists, are distinguished by characters of so much importance from the animals described in the last c...
-Arachnida. Part 2
(940). The arrangement of the digestive apparatus in the Acaridans is one of the most interesting points in the economy of these creatures. Behind the mouth, M. Dujardin1 was able to detect, in Trombi...
-Arachnida. Part 3
(949). Trombidium is the only Acaridan in which either M. Dujardin or Treviranus could discover the presence of a tubular two-branched ovarium; generally speaking, throughout this order of Arachnidans...
-Arachnida. Part 4
* Cyclop, of Anat. and Phys., art. Arachnida. 1 Pes, a foot; palpus, a feeler. (956). In Spiders, the organization of the mouth is altogether different. The mandibles (fig. 186, o o) are each ter...
-Arachnida. Part 5
Fig. 187. Digestive and circulatory apparatus of the Harvest Spider: a, the stomach, with its lateral caeca, on which is situated the dorsal vessel; b b, vascular sinuses. Fig. 188. Termina...
-Arachnida. Part 6
In addition to the above arrangement, Mr. Newport has discovered a fibrous structure, from which are given off two pairs of vessels, to be distributed to the first pair of branchial organs, as also a ...
-Arachnida. Part 7
(971). Professor Muller* has accurately described the pulmonibranchiae as formed of a multitude of closely-approximated, thin, double lamellae, which communicate, by a small orifice in each, with the ...
-Arachnida. Part 8
It is in Spiders that the concentration of the nervous system reaches its climax; for in them we find the whole series of ganglia (encephalic, thoracic, and abdominal) aggregated together, and fused, ...
-Arachnida. Part 9
In order to form the door in question, the Mygale first spins a web which exactly covers the mouth of the hole, but which is attached to the margin of the aperture by one point only of its circumferen...
-Chapter XIV. Crustacea
(981). Insects and Arachnidans are air-breathing animals; and even in such species of these two extensive classes as inhabit fresh water, respiration is strictly aerial. No insects or spiders are mari...
-Crustacea. Part 2
(994). Having thus found that the annuli, or rings, which compose the annulose skeleton may be detected even in the most compactly formed Crustacea, it remains for us to inquire, in the next place, wh...
-Crustacea. Part 3
Behind these locomotive legs are two feeble pairs, barely strong enough to enable the Soldier-Crab to shift its position in the shell it has chosen; and the false feet attached to the abdomen are even...
-Crustacea. Part 4
* Since writing the above, I have been fortunate in procuring a very good specimen of Astacus fluviatilis, obtained soon after casting its shell, and also its newly cast-off covering, both of which ar...
-Crustacea. Part 5
(1011). In the highest Crustacea, as the Decapoda, in which legs of an ambulatory character become such important locomotive agents, it is principally to the origins of these legs that we find the bre...
-Crustacea. Part 6
Fig. 203. Venous system of the Lobster: a, side view of the venous sinus covering the stomach; b, side view of the sinus surrounding the heart (the letter is placed near one of the valvular orific...
-Crustacea. Part 7
Thus the circulating fluid is brought into direct contact with all the viscera, and fills up the abdominal cavity, so that not until after it has passed through the respiratory apparatus does it again...
-Crustacea. Part 8
(1029). From a review of the above facts, Milne-Edwards and Audouin arrived at the following conclusions: - 1st. That the nervous system of Crustacea consists uniformly of medullary nuclei (ganglions)...
-Crustacea. Part 9
(1037). The medulla spinalis, which, as we shall see hereafter, corresponds to the ventral chain of ganglia in articulated animals, can perceive external impressions and originate motions, hut not fee...
-Crustacea. Part 10
The new limb is formed within the shell, where it lies folded up until the next moult, when it appears as a part of the new skeleton, the sac-like membrane which protected it being cast off with the ...
-Crustacea. Part 11
(1047). It is in the higher Crustacea that we, for the first time, indubitably find a distinct auditory apparatus; and, from the simplicity which the organ of hearing presents in this its earliest app...
-Crustacea. Part 12
(1055). In the Cray-fish, and also in the Lobster, the secerning organs or testes, when examined in situ, are found to occupy the dorsal region of the thorax, lying upon the posterior part of the stom...
-Crustacea. Part 13
Fig. 208. Female generative organs of Astacus Jluviatilis: a,bb, ovaria; c, oviduct; d, external termination of the right oviduct; e, escaped ovum. (1064). In a more advanced stage of growth th...
-Crustacea. Part 14
(1070). In the genus Apus, another plan is resorted to for the protection of the ova: - the eleventh pair of legs, called by Schaffer womb-legs, have their first joints expanded into two circular va...
-Crustacea. Part 15
(1076). Some authors have supposed, from the circumstance of all the individuals which have been met with belonging to certain genera being females, that some of these little beings were hermaphrodite...
-Crustacea. Part 16
Fig. 218. Lerneans. * Muller (O. F.), Zoologia Danica, 1788. (1084). These examples, however, are taken from the most imperfectly organized Epizoa; but as we ascend to more highly-developed ...
-Crustacea. Part 17
(1094). The muscular system of this animal is far more perfect in its arrangement than in the preceding classes, and the delicate fasciculi which move the rudimentary limbs are visible through the tra...
-Crustacea. Part 18
(1104). The reproductive organs are entirely similar to those of Achtheres, already described. Those of the female, represented in the figure, consist of sacciform ovaria, wherein the ova are secreted...
-Crustacea. Part 19
* Vide Ad. Brongniart, Mem. sur le Limnadia, Mem. du Mus. 1820. 1 Straus-Durckheim, Mem. sur le Daphnia, Mem. du Mus. 1820. (1111). Pycnogonidae In the Pycnogonidae*, the aperture of the mou...
-Chapter XV. Rotifera (Ehrenberg)
(1117). The class of animals that next presents itself for our consideration was, until very recently, confounded with the chaotic assemblage of minute creatures to which the name of Infusorial Animal...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 2
(1125). The whole of the ciliary movements are so evidently under the control of the animal as to leave not the slightest doubt in the mind of the observer upon this point. The whole fringe of cilia m...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 3
In this manner the intersections, having the appearance of the teeth of a saw, will appear to advance with a uniform motion in the direction of the movement of oscillation, giving the appearance of a ...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 4
Fig. 227. Melicerta ringens (after Prof. Williamson): a a, ciliated lobes, constituting the rotatory apparatus; b, hooks, called by Schaffer the lips; c, rotatory flap, or pellet-cup (Gosse); ...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 5
(1140). The nervous system of Notommata clavulata, as described by this indefatigable observer, is represented in fig. 230. It would seem to consist of several minute nodules (fig. 230, i i), exhibiti...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 6
* Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, no. 1. p. 9. 1 Williamson, loc. cit. (1147). In addition to the elaborate organization described above, the Prussian naturalist conceived that he had d...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 7
(1153). A vibratile body is contained in each of the caecal branches, and there is likewise one on each side in the transverse connecting branch. Two more are contained in each lateral main trunk, one...
-Rotifera (Ehrenberg). Part 8
(1159). This male is about 3/5ths of the size of the female, generally resembling it in shape, but more flattened at the lower part, or fundus, and more prolonged at the side, corresponding to the vag...
-Chapter XVI. Cirrhopoda
(1164). The Cirrhopoda present a strange combination of articulated limbs united with many of the external characters of a Mollusk, as will be at once evident from the examination of any species of Ba...
-Cirrhopoda. Part 2
(1167). The muscular system of Pentelasmis is partly appropriated to the movements of the shell and partly to the general motions of the body. The shell is closed by a single transverse fasciculus of ...
-Cirrhopoda. Part 3
(1172). In the outer maxillae, at their bases, where they are united together, but above the basal fold separating the mouth from the body, there are, in all the Lepadidge, a pair of orifices, sometim...
-Cirrhopoda. Part 4
* Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physical Series of Comparative Anatomy in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. i. p. 259. (1176). In opposition to the views e...
-Cirrhopoda. Part 5
Unquestionably, without a rigid examination, these four forms would have been ranked in different families, if not orders, of the Articulated kingdom. Fig. 236. Ibla Cumingii, showing the suppl...
-Cirrhopoda. Part 6
After keeping several of the above for some days in sea-water, they threw off their exuviae, and, becoming firmly adherent to the bottom of the vessel, were changed into young Barnacles; and the pecul...
-Chapter XVII. Heterogangliata (Owen). Mollusca (Cuvier)
(1191). The term Mollusca, employed by Cuvier to designate the fourth grand division of the animal world, is obviously derived from a very unimportant circumstance of their organization, which the tri...
-Chapter XVIII. Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre)
(1195). It is only within the last few years that microscopical researches have revealed to naturalists the real structure of a series of animals originally confounded with the simpler polyps, with wh...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 2
(1203). The food appears to be retained for a considerable time in the stomach, and may be frequently seen to be regurgitated into the gizzard, whence, after having been again submitted to its operati...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 3
(1214). The facts observed by Milne-Edwards relative to the formation of these cells possess a high degree of interest, and materially support the views already given concerning the formation of the t...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 4
(1223). Beneath the first enlargement, the digestive apparatus becomes narrower, but immediately expands again, and offers at this point a certain number of filiform appendages, which appear to be fre...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 5
(1233). When the cell has nearly reached its full development, its parietes become softened, and an opening is formed, which brings the young polyp into communication with the surrounding element. The...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 6
Fig. 240. Thin transverse section of Halodactylus diaphanus. The centre occupied by cellular tissue and water; the circumference formed by cells in close approximation; the brown bodies scattered ...
-Polyzoa (Thompson.) Bryozoa (Ehrenberg.) Ciliobrachiate Polypi (Farre). Part 7
(1251). The anus (j) is always situated at the base of the tentacular zone. (1252). The food of the fluviatile Polyzoa consists of Infusorial animalcules and the microscopic Desmidieae which abound...
-Chapter XIX. Tunicata
(1259). The singular class of Mollusca to which the name at the head of this chapter has been applied is at once distinguished by the remarkable character afforded by the texture of the external inves...
-Tunicata. Part 2
(1264). The heart, above described, is extremely thin and transparent, and is lodged in a distinct pericardium, which separates it from the other viscera. (1265). Notwithstanding this apparently si...
-Tunicata. Part 3
Fig. 244. Diagram of an Ascidian, showing the position of the viscera: a, the oral orifice; b, tentacula guarding it; c, d, nervous ganglia; e, respiratory sac; f, longitudinal vessel; h, i, k, I,...
-Tunicata. Part 4
Generally speaking, in proportion as these marginal tubes advance into the common tegumentary tissue around them, they divide into several branches, and the extremity of each of them becomes inflated ...
-Tunicata. Part 5
(1282). A very remarkable feature in the history of these animals is that many species are found swimming together in long chains, apparently adhering to each other by little. suckers, but without org...
-Chapter XX. Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier)
(1288). The great majority of Mollusks which inhabit bivalve shells constitute a very numerous and extensive class, distinguished by certain characters possessed by them in common. Encased in dense an...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 2
(1293). Our next investigations must be concerning the internal anatomy of the Conchiferous Mollusca* In the Oyster, the general disposition of the body resembles that of the Pecten described above; a...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 3
(1299). Diverse are the uses to which the foot may be turned. It is generally used for burrowing in the sand or soft mud; and, by its constant and worm-like action, those species in which it is largel...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 4
(1309). Simple as the structure of the hinge is in the Ostracea, in other Bivalves it frequently exhibits far greater complexity, and the opposed valves present prominent elevations and deep fossa) wh...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 5
(1318). While the margin of the mantle is thus the sole agent in enlarging the circumference of the shell, its growth in thickness is accomplished by a secretion of a kind of calcareous varnish, deriv...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 6
(1323). The Cockle family (Cardiacea) is recognized by having the mantle open anteriorly, but prolonged at one extremity into two tubes, one of which admits the water for respiration, while the other ...
-Conchifera (Lamarck.) Acephales Testaces (Cuvier). Part 7
(1331). The ovary is generally a wide glandular sacculus, occupying a considerable portion of the visceral mass. In the Oyster, when full of spawn, it is largely spread through the body; and if at suc...
-Chapter XXI. Brachiopoda (Cuvier.) Palliobranchiata (Owen)
(1338). The next class of Mollusca which presents itself for our consideration was named by Cuvier on account of the remarkable character of the organs by means of which the animals composing it procu...
-Brachiopoda (Cuvier.) Palliobranchiata (Owen). Part 2
The interspace between the two folds of the calcareous loop is filled up by a strong but extensile membrane, which binds them together, and forms a protecting wall to the viscera; the space between th...
-Brachiopoda (Cuvier.) Palliobranchiata (Owen). Part 3
Fig. 259. Vascular system of Terebratula Chilensis: a, c, the mantle; d, circular canal encompassing the margin of the mantle; f, g, h, muscles of attachment; mm mm, large venous trunks in the man...
-Brachiopoda (Cuvier.) Palliobranchiata (Owen). Part 4
The blood which circulates through them will consequently be returned in a perfectly aerated condition, to be mixed, however, with that in a less pure state from the visceral lacunes, before it enters...
-Chapter XXII. Gasteropoda (Cuvier)
(1365). Extensively distributed over the surface of the land, or inhabiting the waters either fresh or salt, there exist a very numerous body of Mollusea, differing widely among themselves in construc...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 2
(1372). In many marine Gasteropods, spines and various external processes are found projecting from the outer surface of the shell, the production of which depends upon the shape of the margin of the ...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 3
(1380). The mouth is situated upon the under part of the head, and, when widely opened, exhibits a cutting instrument of singular contrivance. Attached to the upper part of the muscular cavity that co...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 4
Fig. 264. Anatomy of the Snail (Helix pomatia). (1389). An organ, named by Swammerdam the sacculus calcareus, has recently been supposed by Mr. Jacobson to perform the office of a kidney. Ch...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 5
(1396). Another viscus, called by Cuvier simply the bladder, is, from the constancy of its occurrence, evidently an organ of importance; and there seems to be little room to doubt that it is intende...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 6
Fig. 265. Structure of the tentacles of the Snail. (1403). We have already found that terrestrial species, such as the Snail, breathe air, which is alternately drawn into and expelled from a ca...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 7
Fig. 268. Vermetus. (1414). Lastly, a distinct order has been established to embrace certain families in which the foot is so much compressed as to constitute a vertical muscular lamella, that ...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 8
Fig. 270. Vena cava of Aplysia laid open. (1420). In Aplysia, the arterial blood, having been distributed throughout the body by means of the heart and aortic vessels, is received into a capillary ...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 9
In fact, the aorta having reached the spot where the digestive canal curves downwards to descend from the upper aspect of the pharyngeal bulb into the abdominal cavity, it plunges directly into a wide...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 10
(1427). Lastly, it may be noticed that in the cephalic region, where the different organs are in immediate contact with the arterial blood, no traces are discernible either of veins or of lacunae serv...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 11
(1437). These two blades are very sharp, and there is nothing that has life that they cannot cut when the animal causes the cutting edges to glide over each other. For this purpose muscles of great st...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 12
Fig, 274. Alimentary canal of Buccinum. (1450). But although in Buccinum, Pterotrachea, and kindred genera the stomach is thus devoid of complication, it is by no means unfre-quently found to b...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 13
Fig. 275. Anatomy of Buccinum. (1461). The tentacula (fig. 275,ff) in the marine Gasteropoda are generally not retractile, and the eyes are frequently situated at the outer side of the base of ...
-Gasteropoda (Cuvier). Part 14
* The announcement of the discovery of spermatozoa in individuals belonging to these orders, mentioned in a former page, will, perhaps, materially modify the opinions of physiologists upon this point....
-Chapter XXIII. Pteropoda (Cuvier)
(1478). Nearly allied to the Gasteropods in their internal organization, but differing from them remarkably in the character and position of their locomotive apparatus, are the Pteropoda - a class of ...
-Pteropoda (Cuvier). Continued
(1485). The mouth itself is described by Cuvier as being a simple triangular opening, resembling the wound inflicted by a trocar; and in the solitary specimen at his disposal he did not succeed in det...
-Chapter XXIV. Cephalopoda (Cuvier)
(1503). We now arrive at the highest order of Mollusca, composed of animals distinguished by most strange and paradoxical characters, and exhibiting forms so uncouth, that the young zoologist who for ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 2
Fig. 281. Structure of the tentacular suckers in the Cephalopoda. Fig. 282. Onychoteuthis, showing the structure of the arms. Nor is this all that claims our admiration in the organizati...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 3
Fig. 284. Animal of the Nautilus Pompilius. (After Owen). * For this invaluable addition to zoological knowledge, science is indebted to George Bennett, Esq., who obtained the living animal nea...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 4
(1524). The most important piece met with in the cartilaginous skeleton of the Cuttle-fish encloses and defends the brain, and therefore is most appropriately called the cranial cartilage, being the c...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 5
Fig. 285. Animal of the Argonaut out of its shell: a, the siphon; b, the so-called vela; c, the head; d, the body; e,f, locomotive tentacula. (After Poli). (1531). M. Sander Rang, who, during a...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 6
* Magazine of Natural History, April 1839, Observations on the Poulpe of the Argonaut, by Madame Jeannette Power. (1536). It has been already stated that in all Cephalopods the aperture of the mo...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 7
(1541). The alimentary canal presents the same general structure in all the Cephalopod families. The oesophagus (fig. 287, a, d; fig. 289, s), derived from the posterior part of the fleshy mass of the...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 8
(1550). The Cephalopoda breathe by means of branchiae, and possess a complex and elaborate circulatory system, organized upon very extraordinary principles, to the consideration of which we now invite...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 9
* Memoire sur la Poulpe. 1 Jbid. (1556). Mayer* not only adopts the last of the above-mentioned suggestions relative to the nature of these spongy appendages to the great veins of the Cephalopoda, ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 10
(1562). In the Poulpe (Octopus vulgaris)*, the blood thus distributed through all parts of the body by the arterial vessels returns towards the branchiae through a system of venous canals composed par...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 11
(1569). The ganglia connected with the inferior aspect of the supra-oesophageal mass form two distinct collars embracing the oesophagus, - an arrangement of which we have already met with an example i...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 12
(1577). To the above forty tentacula must be added four others of a different construction, which project immediately beneath the margin of the hood, like antennae, one before and one behind each eye ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 13
* Cuvier, Meinoire sur la Poulpe, p. 36. (1581). In Nautilus, the part indicated by Professor Owen* as appropriated to the sense of smell consists of a series of soft membranous laminae (fig. 289, ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 14
(1587). The eyes of the Dibranchiate Cephalopoda are not less remarkable in their construction than those of the Nautilus, and from their greater complexity will require a more elaborate description. ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 15
(1593). The posterior portion of the orbital capsule is occupied by a large cavity quite distinct from the globe of the eye, although its walls are derivations from the sclerotic tunic, wherein is lod...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 16
(1600). All the Cephalopoda are dioecious; and the structure of the sexual organs both of the males and females is remarkable, inasmuch as it is peculiar to the class. (1601). In the females, the o...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 17
This sacculus is, in fact, filled with innumerable white filaments, each about half an inch in length, arranged parallel to each other, and disposed with much regularity. There are three or four rows ...
-Cephalopoda (Cuvier). Part 18
Fig. 301. Tremoctopus carina (male), showing the Hectocotylus (a) in its ordinary position. Fig. 302. A male Tremoctopus, seen from the ventral aspect. The visceral sac has been laid open a...
-Chapter XXV. Vertebrata
(1614). The fifth division of the animal kingdom is composed of four great classes of animals, closely allied to each other in the grand features of their organization, and possessing in common a gene...
-Vertebrata. Part 2
(1622). Secondly, we find appended to the cranial or cephalic portion of the spine, a set of bones disposed symmetrically, and forming the framework of the face: these bones, it is true, have by many ...
-Vertebrata. Part 3
(1629). In order to simplify as much as possible this important subject, we will select, first, what is generally considered as a single bone - one of the most complex vertebrae of a Fish for instance...
-Vertebrata. Part 4
(1638). A vertebra consists, in its typical completeness, of the elements or parts represented in the following diagram: - Fig. 307. (1639). The names in the above diagram printed in Roman t...
-Vertebrata. Part 5
(1647). As the segments approach the tail in the air-breathing vertebrates, they are usually progressively simplified, first by the diminution, coalescence, and final loss of the pleurapophysis, next ...
-Vertebrata. Part 6
Outlines of the chief developments of the dermo-skeleton in different vertebrates which are usually more or less ossified are added to the endoskeletal archetype: as, e.g. the median horn supported by...
-Vertebrata. Part 7
Their organs of digestion and nutrition are constructed according to a different type, and upon a more enlarged plan than in any of the classes enumerated in the preceding chapters; and parts are supe...
-Chapter XXVI. Pisces-Fishes
(1663). To whatever portion of the animal world we turn our attention, we find the lowest and least-perfectly organized tribes to be inhabitants of the water. To dwell upon the land necessarily demand...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 2
Fig. 309. Amphioxus. (1671). The branchial chamber is supported by a very singular sort of framework, first described by Retzius and Goodsir, and subsequently more in detail by Professor Muller...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 3
* Ueber den Bau und die Lebenserscheinungen des Amphioxus lanceolatus. Berlin Trans. 1842. (1680). Aortic Arch Performing The Functions Of A Heart The blood of the Amphioxus is not, as in fish...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 4
(1687). There are only two kinds of vertebrae recognizable in the skeleton of a Fish, viz. the abdominal and the caudal. The abdominal vertebrae support the ribs (for in these animals the ribs do not ...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 5
(1696). The articulation between every fin-ray and the corresponding interspinous bone forms a hinge-joint, so as to allow of the elevation or depression of the fin. The structure of this joint is ver...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 6
Fig. 312. Cranial and facial bones of the Perch: basilar view. (After Cuvier). (1714). Pterygo-Palatine And Temporal System Of Bones Upon each side of the head is situated a somewhat complex...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 7
(1727). Every branchial arch consists of several pieces (57,58, 59, 60, 61), so joined together by ligaments that the whole is perfectly flexible; and their edges are studded with little osseous plate...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 8
(1738). On examining the skeleton of a Flat-fish, we at once see that what we suppose to be the dorsal and ventral regions are in reality the two sides, which are thus strangely different in colour, a...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 9
It is true that it still exhibits great expansion in a vertical direction, and to a superficial observer, if examined without dissection, might seem to be constructed on the same principles; but, on e...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 10
(1755). We thus arrive at the important conclusion that different portions of the eocoskeleton become approximated in character to those of the endoskeleton, or, in truth, really convertible into true...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 11
(1763). Cuvier justly observes that, whatever opinions may be entertained relative to the use of the air-bladder, it is difficult to explain how so considerable an organ has been refused to so many fi...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 12
In the Cod-fish, Wolf-fish, and some other species, in proportion as the ossification of the tooth advances towards its base and along the connecting ligamentous substance, the subjacent portion of t...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 13
(1776). In most osseous fishes, in addition to the lips (which, even when fleshy, being destitute of proper muscles, would be unable to, retain food in the mouth), there is generally, behind the front...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 14
There is, therefore, no systemic heart in Fishes, the aorta itself serving to propel the slow-moving blood in its course through the arterial system. * For a detailed account of the lymphatic syste...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 15
(1800). The brain of an adult fish occupies but a small portion of the cranial cavity, - the space between the pia mater, which invests the brain, and the dura mater, which lines the skull, being occu...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 16
Fig. 321. Structure of the eye in Fishes. (1809). But the focus of the crystalline will be short in proportion as its power is increased: every arrangement has therefore been made to approximat...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 17
(1818). This branch is superficial until it reaches the little muscles that move the fin. It has sometimes other branches, equally superficial, which descend to the anterior parts of the muscles of th...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 18
(1832). All the above nerves posterior to the optic arise from a chain of ganglia constituting the medulla oblongata; but above these are situated other important masses entering into the composition ...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 19
(1842). Generally, as has been already stated, the ova of fishes are fecundated after their expulsion; but there are a few instances, as for example the Viviparous Blenny (Zoarcus viviparus) of our ow...
-Pisces-Fishes. Part 20
Fig. 326. Egg of the Shark. (1852). The means employed for this end are simple and beautiful. About the middle of the oviduct of the female there is a thick glandular mass, destined to secrete ...
-Chapter XXVII. Reptilia
(1857). The globe that we inhabit is usually said to be made up of land and water; and perhaps, for the purposes of the geographer, such a division of the surface of our planet is all that is requisit...
-Reptilia. Part 2
(1866). The most remarkable examples of the Caducibranchtate Amphibia are the Frogs, the Toads, and the Newts, so common in our own country; and the metamorphosis of these creatures from the tadpole- ...
-Reptilia. Part 3
(1875). The transition from the Ophidia to the Lizards (Sauria), composing the third order of Reptiles, is very gradually accomplished by several intermediate forms, in which the first buddings of leg...
-Reptilia. Part 4
(1885). The sternal apparatus is not less interesting to the osteologist. The anterior extremity of the sternum is osseous, and considerably prolonged forwards, to be articulated with the clavicles, a...
-Reptilia. Part 5
(1901). No ribs whatever are met with in the Frog; and even in those Amphibia which are possessed of these elements of the skeleton, they are mere rudiments appended to the extremities of the transver...
-Reptilia. Part 6
Fig. 335. Skull of Boa. (1908). The most extraordinary skeleton met with among Reptiles, and, indeed, among the Vertebrata generally, is that of the Chelonia, in which the ribs and sternum are ...
-Reptilia. Part 7
(1916). The Chameleon is another curious example of a reptile obliged to employ its tongue in securing insect prey. The Chameleon is arboreal in its habits: its feet, cleft as it were into two portion...
-Reptilia. Part 8
Fig. 337. Structure of the poison-teeth of the Rattlesnake. * In the collection of Professor Bell there is a small snake which, having by mishap attempted to swallow a mouse of too large size, ...
-Reptilia. Part 9
(1928). The stomach of the Crocodile is remarkable as affording another among the innumerable instances that might be adduced of that gradual transition everywhere observable as we pass from one class...
-Reptilia. Part 10
(1940). This important difference between Fishes and Reptiles as relates to their mode of respiration would seem, at first sight, to draw such a distinct line of demarcation between these two great cl...
-Reptilia. Part 11
(1950). Any one who watches a Frog or a Tortoise with a little attention will at once understand the mechanism by which this is effected. The mouth is kept closely shut; and the nostrils, which open i...
-Reptilia. Part 12
Moreover, from the lowest branchial arch (o) a 'pulmonary artery is given off, which ramifies over the surface of the as yet rudimentary lung (e), and thus gives rise to a distinct pulmonary circulati...
-Reptilia. Part 13
(1968). The os hyoides of the tadpole, at an early period of its development, supports four branchial arches (fig. 346, a, l, 2, 3, 4), which bound three branchial fissures, through which, as in a fis...
-Reptilia. Part 14
(1976). The principal difference observable between the brain of Reptiles and of Fishes is the increased proportionate size of the cerebral hemispheres (fig. 347, b); but they are still extremely smal...
-Reptilia. Part 15
(1989). In ordinary Lizards* the skin forms a kind of veil stretched over the orbit, and pierced by a horizontal fissure, which is closed by a sphincter muscle. The lower eyelid is the most moveable, ...
-Reptilia. Part 16
(2004). The glosso-pharyngeal and pneumogastric nerves in Reptiles supply the same organs to which they are distributed in the human subject,, the former being destined to the base of the tongue and t...
-Reptilia. Part 17
(2013). In tracing the development of the generative apparatus through the different orders of Reptiles, the student will not fail to observe many beautiful illustrations of progressive improvement. ...
-Reptilia. Part 18
(2021). In the Chelonian Reptiles the penis is much more perfectly developed, and really constitutes a very efficient intromittent instrument. The two corpora cavernosa, after commencing separately, a...
-Chapter XXVIII. Aves - Birds
(2027). The class of Vertebrate animals which now offers itself to our notice contrasts remarkably with the cold-blooded and apathetic inhabitants of the water, and even with the slow-moving Reptile, ...
-Aves - Birds. Part 2
(2035). The ribs appended to the dorsal vertebras may be called the true ribs; these enter into the composition of the thorax, and materially assist in strengthening that region. Each rib, as in the C...
-Aves - Birds. Part 3
(2041). The number of toes varies in different tribes of birds. Thus, in the Ostrich there are only two; in many genera there are three; in by far the greater number, four; and in the Gallinacea, five...
-Aves - Birds. Part 4
(2049). The gizzard in such birds as feed upon vegetable substances is an organ possessing immense strength, and constitutes, in fact, a crushing mill, wherein nutritive materials are bruised and trit...
-Aves - Birds. Part 5
Fig. 359. Digestive apparatus of a Fowl. (2059). The spleen (fig. 359,f) is of very small size in all birds; it is situated near the anterior extremity of the pancreas, and is loosely connected...
-Aves - Birds. Part 6
(2067). The upper larynx, or rima glottidis, is in Birds but of secondary importance in the production of vocal sounds: it is a simple fissure bounded by two osseous pieces (fig. 361, a, b, f), corres...
-Aves - Birds. Part 7
(2075). The sense of touch must obviously be extremely imperfect in these animals: their body, enveloped in feathers, can be little sensible to impressions produced by the contact of external objects;...
-Aves - Birds. Part 8
The obvious consequence of this figure of the globe of the eye is to allow room for a greater proportion of aqueous fluid, and for the removal of the crystalline lens from the seat of sensation, and t...
-Aves - Birds. Part 9
* Vide Barkow, in Meckel's Archiven, Band xii. 1 Cuvier, Lecons d'Anat. Comp. tom. ii. p. 431. (2085). Being thus provided with moveable eyelids, a lacrymal apparatus is, of course, indispensable; ...
-Aves - Birds. Part 10
(2995). The structure of the penis is far from being the same in all birds provided with such an organ; it offers, in fact, two types extremely different from each other, whereof the Ostrich and Drake...
-Aves - Birds. Part 11
Fig. 369. Generative apparatus of the Hen. * Vide Purkinje, Symbolic ad ovi Avium historiam ante incubationem. 4to. Lipsiae, 1830. (2104). The phenomena attending conception are therefore simply...
-Aves - Birds. Part 12
(2114). Towards the close of the first day of incubation the blastoderm has already begun to change its appearance, and two white filaments are apparent in the middle of the central pellucid circle. S...
-Aves - Birds. Part 13
(2127). It will be seen that as yet the real aorta does not exist; for at this period of the metamorphosis all the blood passes through the vascular arches that remain into the dorsal vessel (fig. 374...
-Aves - Birds. Part 14
(2138). While the above phenomena are in progress, another important system of vessels, provided for the respiration of the bird in ovo, is developed, and obliterated before the egg is hatched. (21...
-Chapter XXIX. Mammalia
(2143). The highest boon conferred upon the lower animals, Heaven's last, best gift, is parental affection. The cold-blooded Ovipara, unable in any manner to assist in the maturation of their offspr...
-Mammalia. Part 2
(2151). The thorax is enclosed by ribs, which in structure, and in their mode of connexion with the dorsal vertebras, resemble those of Man. At its dorsal extremity each rib is articulated by its head...
-Mammalia. Part 3
(2167). The occipital bone consists primarily of the same pieces as in the Reptile; but in the Mammifer these are at an early period consolidated into one mass, situated at the back of the cranium. It...
-Mammalia. Part 4
(2181). From this analysis of the composition of the cranium, it is apparent that the temporal bones, although in Man they assist so materially in completing the cranial cavity, are only intercalated ...
-Mammalia. Part 5
(2192). The lowest order of Placental Mammalia comprises those forms which, although they breathe air by means of lungs, and have hot blood like ourselves, are appointed to inhabit the waters of the o...
-Mammalia. Part 6
Fig. 386. Skeleton of Hippopotamus. (2200). The most important differences observable between the various genera of Pachydermatous Mammalia are found in the structure of their feet, and in the ...
-Mammalia. Part 7
Fig. 388. Skeleton of the Stag. (2209). The Rtjmotantia are generally distinguished as having cloven feet; and in fact, both the hind and fore feet present a very characteristic formation. Th...
-Mammalia. Part 8
(2217). Among all the countless races of the animal kingdom, Man alone is permitted, in a state of nature, to arrive at old age; that is to say, at such an age as to allow feebleness and decrepitude t...
-Mammalia. Part 9
Nor has Nature, in the case of the Dog, merely given to man a servant endowed with sagacity and zeal: man has need of help in various ways, and under very different circumstances. In bodily strength h...
-Mammalia. Part 10
For many of the American monkeys a fifth hand has been provided, formed by their long and muscular tail, which, from its extreme flexibility, can be forcibly twisted around any foreign object, and hol...
-Mammalia. Part 11
(2241). In Whales, no pelvis or posterior extremities exist; it is needless, therefore, to remark that the whole of the muscular system appropriated to those parts in higher animals must be totally wa...
-Mammalia. Part 12
(2251). The most remarkable form of teeth, one indeed that is unique, is met with in the Whalebone Whale (Balaena mysticetus.) The teeth in this Cetacean, indeed, are not instruments of mastication, b...
-Mammalia. Part 13
(2260). In the male Narwal (Monodon) there are no teeth implanted ' along the margins of the jaws; but from the intermaxillary bone of the left side of the face there projects a single tusk of great s...
-Mammalia. Part 14
(2270). By inspecting the accompanying figure (fig. 400) representing a section of the tooth of an Elephant, the disposition referred to will be better understood: the layers of enamel are seen to alt...
-Mammalia. Part 15
* Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological Series of Comparative Anatomy in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of London, Parti, p. 100. (2281). But whatever the degree o...
-Mammalia. Part 16
(2293). In a few species, in addition to the salivary glands met with in Man *, there is a group, apparently a continuation of the molar, which mounts up along the superior maxillary bone, beneath the...
-Mammalia. Part 17
(2304). The stomach itself presents such endless diversity of form, that merely to enumerate all the details that have been amassed relative to this part of our subject would fill many volumes, withou...
-Mammalia. Part 18
* Sir E. Home, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, vol. i. p. 225. (2312). The rest of the alimentary canal in most quadrupeds, like that of Man, is divisible into the small and the large intestines, ...
-Mammalia. Part 19
(2328). Neither will it be at all necessary to describe at any length the construction of the respiratory and circulatory organs in the class now under consideration, seeing that the structure of the ...
-Mammalia. Part 20
The precise function assigned to this extensive plexus of arteries has not been as yet satisfactorily determined, although it is doubtless a receptacle wherein arterial blood is stored up during the l...
-Mammalia. Part 21
A bulb or sacculus, formed by an inward reflexion of the cutis (fig. 404, b, e), and lined by a similar inflexion of the cuticle (f), contains in its fundus a vascular pulp (ggg), well supplied with l...
-Mammalia. Part 22
Many of the Rodentia are furnished with glands of this description, and they are situated on each side of the penis, immediately beneath the skin that covers the pubic region. (2353). It is with th...
-Mammalia. Part 23
(2362). The interior of the nasal cavity is divided by a median septum into chambers, in each of which a very large surface is produced by the complicated convolutions of the thin nasal plates of the ...
-Mammalia. Part 24
Fig. 408. Brain of the Rabbit. * Curier, Lemons d'Anat. Comp. ii. p. 673. Nevertheless the tubercula quadrigemina (fig. 408, d d) occupy the same relative position as in the Tortoise (vide fig. ...
-Mammalia. Part 25
(2384). All the nerves derived from the medulla oblongata and from the spinal cord are throughout the Mammiferous class exactly comparable to those met with in our own species, and therefore will requ...
-Mammalia. Part 26
(2397). The plan adopted is simple and efficacious: - The external meatus of the ear is reduced to the smallest possible diameter, the canal being barely wide enough to admit a small probe: this is th...
-Mammalia. Part 27
(2409). Widely different, however, is the arrangement of the male genito -urinary system in the class we are now considering. The cloacal cavity is no longer met with, the terminations of the rectum a...
-Mammalia. Part 28
* The Lemur and the Mole form remarkable exceptions; for in these creatures the female urethra traverses the clitoris precisely as in the other sex. (2419). In this respect his expectations will be...
-Mammalia. Part 29
* Owing to an error on the part of the draughtsman, who has neglected to reverse the drawing, the left uterus in the above figure is represented on the right side, and vice versa. (2427). From the ...
-Mammalia. Part 30
(2435). We select the Kangaroo as an example of the entire group, beginning, as we have hitherto done, with the organization of the male organs of generation. (2436). The first circumstance that st...
-Mammalia. Part 31
* On the Generation of Marsupial Animals, with a Description of the Impregnated Uterus of the Kangaroo, by Richard Owen, Esq., Phil. Trans. 1834. (2443). The body of the foetus itself was immedia...
-Mammalia. Part 32
Now it can scarcely be supposed that the foetal efforts of suction should always be coincident with the maternal act of injection; and if at any time this should not be the case, a fatal accident migh...
-Mammalia. Part 33
Fig. 419. Male generative apparatus of the Hedgehog. (2460). The quantity of the seminal fluid furnished by the testes is very small, as must be evident from the extreme narrowness of the duct ...
-Mammalia. Part 34
(2472). The third portion of the urethra is enclosed in the body of the penis, and surrounded by the erectile tissue, of which that organ essentially consists; but in all quadrupeds this part of the c...
-Mammalia. Part 35
(2482). It is true there are no longer two vaginae terminating in a single cloacal cavity; but let the reader observe how nearly the vagina of the Rabbit (fig. 421, a, b) approximates the condition of...
-Mammalia. Part 36
Fig. 423. Embryo of the Sheep. (2489). The appearance of the placenta varies much in different tribes: thus in the Sheep and other Ruminants it consists of numerous detached masses of villi (fi...
-The Aquarian Naturalist. A Manual For The Sea-Side
By Professor T. RYMER JONES, F.R.S. Of all popular books upon the Natural History of our shores, it is the most complete and the most scientific, while of scientific books it is the most popular. ...
-Natural History Of Animals
Being the substance of Three Courses of Lectures delivered before the Royal Institution of Great Britain. By T. RYMER JONES, F.R.S., Professor of Zoology in King's College, London. Post 8vo. Vol...
-John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row. Students' Class-Books
1. Elementary Course Of Geology, Mineralogy, And Physical Geography By DAVID T. ANSTED, MA., F.R.S. etc. Second Edition, 12s. 2. Elementary Course Of Botany: Structural, Physiological, And Sy...









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