Brady classifies the Foraminifera as follows:

Fam. I. Gromidae

Test chitinous; smooth or encrusted with foreign bodies; imperforate; with a pseudopodial aperture at one or both extremities; pseudopodia long, branching, reticulate; with a single terminal aperture, Lieberkuhnia, Microgromia, Gromia, Diaphoropodon; with an aperture at each end of the test, Shepheardella.

Fam. 2. Miliolidae

Test imperforate, normally calcareous and porcellanous, sometimes encrusted with sand; under starved conditions (e. g. in brackish water) becoming chitinous or chitino-arenaceous; at abyssal depths occasionally consisting of a thin homogeneous siliceous film; contains Nubecularinae; Miliolininae; Hauerininae; Peneroplidinae,e.g. Comuspira, Peneroptis, Orbitolites; Alveolininae; Keramosphaerinae.

Fam. 3. Astrorhizidae

Test invariably composite, usually of large size and monothalamous; often branched or radiate, sometimes segmented by constriction of the walls, but seldom or never truly septate; polythalamous forms never symmetrical; contains Asirorhizinae with thick walls to test composed of loose sand, or mud, slightly cemented, e. g. Astrorhiza, Pe/osina, Syringammina; Pilulininae with monothalamous test, composed of loosely felted sponge-spicules and fine sand without any cement, Pilutina, Technitella, Bathysiphon; Saccamininae with thin spherical chambers composed of firmly cemented sand-grains, Psammosphaera, Sorosphaera, Saccamina; Phabdamminae, test composed of firmly cemented sand-grains often with sponge-spicules intermixed; tubular, straight, radiate, branched or irregular; free or adherent; with one, two, or more apertures; rarely segmented, e. g. Jaculella, Marsipella, Phizammina, Sagene//a, Haliphysema.

Fam. 4. Lituolidae

Test arenaceous, usually regular in contour; septation of polythalamous forms often imperfect; chambers frequently labyrinthic. Comprises sandy isomorphs of the simple .porcellanous and hyaline types together with some adherent species; contains Lituolinae; Trochammininae; Endothyrinae (extinct); Loftusinae - Cydammina, Loftusia, Parkeria.

Fam. 5. Textularidae

Tests of the larger species arenaceous, either with or without a perforate calcareous basis; smaller forms calcareous and conspicuously perforate. Chambers arranged in two or more alternating series, in a spiral, or confused; often dimorphous; contains Textularinae; Bulimininae; Cassidulininae.

Fam. 6. Chilostomellidae

Test calcareous, finely perforate, calcareous. Segments following each other from the same end of the long axis (Ellipsoidina) or alternately at the two ends (Chilostomella), or in cycles of three (Alloniorphina), more or less embracing. Aperture a curved slit at the end or margin of the final segment. See note 1, p. 886.

Fam. 7. Lagenidae

Test calcareous, very finely perforated; either monothalamous, or consisting of a number of chambers joined in a straight, curved, spiral, alternating or rarely branching, series. Aperture simple or radiate, terminal. No supplemental skeleton nor canal system; contains Lageninae; Nodosarinae; Polymorphininae; Ramulininae.

Fam. 8. Globigerinidae

Test free, calcareous, perforate; chambers few, inflated, arranged spirally; aperture single or multiple, conspicuous. No supplemental skeleton nor canal system. All the larger species pelagic in habitat; e. g. Globigerina, Orbu/ina, Hastigerina.

Fam. 9. Rotalidae

Test calcareous, perforate, free or adherent. Typically spiral and 'Rotaliform,' i. e. coiled so that the whole of the segments are visible on the superior surface, those only of the last convolution on the inferior or apertural side, sometimes one face being more convex, sometimes the other. Aberrant forms evolute, outspread, acervuline (i. e. irregularly massed) or, irregular. Some of the higher forms with double chamber walls, supplemental skeleton and interseptal canal-system: contains Spirillininae; Rotalinae, e. g. Cymbalopora, Carpenteria, Rotalia, Cakarina; Tinoporinae, test composed of irregularly heaped chambers with or without a distinctly spiral primordial portion; for most part no general aperture; e. g. Tinoporus, Polytrema.

Fam. 10. Nummulinidae

Test calcareous and finely tubulated; typically free, polythalamous and symmetrically spiral; higher forms with a supplemental skeleton and more or less complex interseptal canal system; contains Fusulininae; Folystomellinae; Nummulitinae, e. g. Amphistegina, Operculina, Heterostegina, Num-mulites; Cyclodypeinae - Cydodypeus, Orbitoides; (?) Eozoninae, test forming irregular, adherent, acervuline masses; Eozoon.

Biitschli, Bronn's Klass. und Ordn. des Thierreichs, Protozoa, i. pp. 3-260 under 'Rhizopoda,' together with Amoebina and Proteomyxa; Brady, ' Report on Foraminifera,' Challenger Reports, ix. 1884 with lit. pp. 1-42 d; cf. Id. Q. J. M. xix. 1879; xxi. 1881; Moebius, Beitrage zur Meeresfauna der Insel Mauritius, etc, Berlin, 1880, pp. 65-108; Carpenter, W. K. Parker, and T. Rupert Jones, 'Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera,' Ray Soc. 1862, with lit. pp. xvii-xxii; Max Schultze, 'Organismus der Polythalamien,' Leipzig, 1854.

Lieberkuhnia, W. B. Carpenter, 'Introduction,' supra, pp. 29, 63; Maupas, A. N. H. (5), x. 1882; as Gromia paludosa, Cienkowski, A. M. A. xii. 1876, p. 32; Gruber, Nova Acta, xlvi. 1884, p. 484; with Shepheardella, Siddall, Q. J. M. xx. 1880; Gromia terricola, Leidy, Freshwater Rhizopoda of N. America, U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, xii. 1879, p. 277; Microgromia, Hertwig and Lesser, A. M. A. x. 1874, suppl. p. 8; Cienkowski, ibid. xii. 1876, p. 34; Archer, Q. J. M. xvii, 1877, p. 115 and A. N. H. (5), viii. 1881, p. 230; Diaphoropodon, Archer, Q. J. M. ix. 1869, p. 394. Various marine forms, Gruber, 'Protozoen des Hafens von Genua, Nova Acta, xlvi. 1884; Calrituba, von Roboz, SB. Wien. Akad. 88, Abth. I, 1884; Orbitolites tenuissima, W. B. Carpenter, Ph. Tr. 174, 1883; Id. 'On species of Orbitolites) Challenger Reports, vii. 1883; Keramosphaera, Brady, A. N. H. (5), x. 1882. Syringammina, Brady, P. R. S. xxxv. 1883; Haliphysema, p. 808, ante. Cyclodypeus and Orbitoides, Martin, Niederland. Archiv f.

Zoologie, v. 1879-80.

Foraminifera of marine deposits, Brady, Challenger Reports, ix. supra, pp. 753-85; pelagic, Id. ibid. pp. ix-xv; cf. on Hastigerina, Murray, P. R. S. xxiv. 1875-6, p. 534, and R. Hertwig, J. Z. xi. 1877, p. 342; of brackish water, Brady, A. N. H. (4), vi. 1870; of salt pool, = Entzia, von Daday, Z. W. Z. xl. 1884, cf. A. N. H. (5), xiv.

Fossil Foraminifera: T. Rupert Jones, Catalogue, British Museum, 1882; Zittel, Handbuch der Palaeontologie, Abth. 1, Palaeozoologie, i. 1876-80; Biitschli, Bronn's Thierreich (supra), pp. 242-60; liassic, Hausler, N. Jahrbuch fur Min. Geol. Palaeont. 1883, (1); Swiss Jurassic, Id. Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. xxxix. 1883; of London Clay, Sherborne and Chapman, Journal R. Micr. Soc. (2), vi. 1886; Eozoon, Cogan, Dawson, Carpenter, Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. xxi. 1865; Carpenter, King and Rowney, ibid. xxii. 1866; Moebius, Palaeontographica, xxv. 1878; Id., Dawson, Carpenter, Nature, xx. 1879; Dawson, Amer. Journal of Science and Arts, (3), xvii. 1879; Moebius, ibid. xviii. 1879. Syringosphaeridae, Martin Duncan, Sc. Results of Second Yarkand Mission, Calcutta, 1879; Stoliczkaria, Id.

Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. xxxviii. 1882. Parkeria, Loftusia, W. B. Carpenter and Brady, Ph. Tr. 159, 1869; Loftusia, Dawson, Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. xxxv. 1879; cf. Carter, A. N. H. (4), xix. 1877. Orbitoides, Martin, supra.

Dimorphism: Brady, Challenger Reports, ix. supra, p. viii; Munier-Chalmas on Nummulites and Assilina, Bull. Soc. Geol. France (3), viii. 1881; De la Harpe, ibid, ix. 1882; Munier-Chalmas and Schlumberger on Miliolinae, A. N. H. (5), xi. 1883; Id. 'Miliolides tr6Tiatophordes,' Bull. Soc. Ge'ol. France, (3), xiii. 1885.

Chemical composition of test: Brady, Challenger Reports, ix. supra, pp. xvi-xxi. Structure of protoplasm, Biitschli, M. J. xi. 1886. Nuclei: Id. ibid.: R. Hertwig, J. Z. x. 1876, xi. 1877, pp. 345-7; F. E. Schulze, A. M. A. xiii. 1877, p. 9; Gruber, Z. W. Z. xl. 1884, pp. 127-8; Multinucleate Gromia, Max Schultze, A. M. A. ii. 1866, p. 140.

Reproduction: W. B. Carpenter, etc, 'Introduction,'supra, pp. 37-8 with re.;ld, on species of Orbitolites, Challenger Reports, vii. p. 16; Peneroplis (and Orbu-lina), Schacko, A. N. 49, 1883; Cristellaria, Brady, Challenger Reports, ix. supra, Conjugation (?), Gervais, C. R. xxv. 1847, p. 467.

Symbiotic algae, etc, Biitschli, M. J. xi. 1886, pp. 93-9.