(a). Submaxillary gland and duct.
(a'). Submaxillary gland of left side, covered by deep cervical fascia.
(β). Deep cervical fascia, forming sheaths for the muscles and capsules for the glandular structures in this region. A circular bulging indicates the area where it is underlaid by the submaxillary gland.
(7). Latissimus dorsr of right side, passing beyond the tendons of the great pectoral and the 'dermo-humerien ' cutaneous muscle to be inserted, together with the teres major, and underneath the tendon of the coracobrachialis, upon a well-marked facet below the inner tuberosity of the humerus.
(5). Tendon of 'dermo-humerien' muscle displaced outwards so as to leave a half-moon-shaped space between it and the tendon of the latissimus dorsi. The 'dermo-humerien' muscle joins the posterior part of the pectoralis major, c, and first gains a fixed attachment to the pectoro-deltoid ridge, and then, by arching over the biceps, to the inner tuberosity of the humerus.
(c). 'Latissimo-condyloideus' muscle, passing down from the tendon of the latissimus dorsi to be inserted into the olecranic process of the ulna on a semilunar raised line a little way above its posterior angle. It here joins the triceps, to which in lower mammals it usually gives an additional head, only through fibrous expansions connecting it with the scapular head £. See Nat. Hist. Rev. 1861, p. 512.
(0. Scapular head of triceps, concealing external humeral head.
(77). Internal humeral head of triceps, exposed by removal of brachial vessels and nerves.
(0). Biceps flexor brachii, which gives off a band of fascia from the anterior surface of its muscular belly, passing on to the fascia enveloping the muscles of the fore-arm; which, secondly, gives off a narrow tendinous slip from its broad principal tendon, which connects itself with the radius and the tendon of the pronator radii teres; and which, thirdly, takes insertion by its broad principal tendon into a well-marked pit just above the inner and lower border of the ulna and below the anterior horn of its sigmoid articular surface. To show this insertion the pronator radii teres and the flexor muscles of the fore-arm have been divided and turned aside.
(k). Brachial plexus, seen, in the absence of any fibres of the posterior belly of the omohyoid or of the anterior scalene muscle, to be crossed vertically by phrenic nerve, and to give nerve-supply to the sterno-scapular and stemo-clavicular muscles by a slender nerve arising by three roots; and to distribute other branches to the pectorals and shoulder and arm muscles. The phrenic nerve has one principal root in the neck above the level at which the formation of the brachial plexus begins; it is connected, however, very usually with the factors of this plexus by more than one nervous filament. The nerve passing to the sterno-scapular and sterno-clavicular muscles is the homologue of the nerve given to the subclavius in man. For this portion of the nervous system of the cervical region the figure and description given by Hirschfeld and Leveille in their Neurologie, P1. 40, Fig. 1, 1853, and reproduced in Quain's Anatomy, ed. 1882, i. p. 604, Fig. 338, may be compared. For other portions of the nerves of the cervical region, see Ludwig and Cyon, in Ludwig's Arbeiten for 1866, p. 148, or as reproduced in Cyon's Atlas zur Methodik der Physiologischen Experimenten, Taf. xvi. 1876, or with some modifications in Handbook for Physiological Laboratory, P1. xciii, or in Foster's Physiology, 4th ed. 1883, p. 190 (ed. 3, p. 176). For the nerves in the upper part of the neck in the Rabbit, see Loven, Ludwig's Arbeiten, l. c.
Taf. i, and for the phrenic, Budge, Physiologie, 1862, p. 76. For the cervical region in the Dog, see Schmiedeberg, ibid. 1871, p. 56, reproduced locc. citt.
The literature of Comparative Myology is very extensive. Amongst the older memoirs upon this subject may be specified Douglas, Myographiae Comparatae Specimen, 1707, and the authorities cited by Otto in his Compendium of Human and Comparative Pathological Anatomy, translated by South, 1831, p. 245. Meckel, in 1828, devoted one volume of his System derVergleichenden Anatomie to this subject. It also occupies a great part of the first volume of the second edition of Cuvier's Lecons d'Anatomie Comparee, published in 1835, and is treated of in certain special departments in the third and fourth volumes also. In the Vergleichende Anatomie der Myxinoiden, S. A. pp. 216-247, 1835, S. A. pp. 109-in, 1841, of Johannes Muller, valuable views as to the general homologies of muscles are to be found. Memoirs with similar scope but differing in results were written by Professor Goodsir in 1857-1858 (see Anatom. Memoirs, i. p. 451, 1856), and the subject has subsequently been treated as a whole, and also in many specialised memoirs, by Professor Humphry in successive issues of the Cambridge and Edinburgh Journal of Anatomy and Physiology (see his Observations in Myology, 1872, and especially pp. 105-188).
Cuvier's plates of the Myology of Mammals were published by M. Laurillard in 1849. The following memoirs may be mentioned as treating of the Comparative Myology of the Primates: - Ilg, Anatomie der Sehnenrollen, 1824 j Burdach, Beitrag zur Vergleichenden Anatomie der Affen, 1838; Vrolik, Recherches d'Anatomie Comparee sur le Chimpanze, 1841 j Duvernoy, Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, viii. 1855-1856; Les Grands Singes pseudanthropomorphes; Owen, P. Z. S. i. pp. 28-67; Church, Nat. Hist. Rev. 1861-1862, Myology of Orang;
Burt Wilder, Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. vii. 1862, Myology of Chimpanzee; Prof. Flower and Dr. Murie on the Dissection of a Bushman, Journal of Anat. and Physiol, vol. i. 1867, pp. 196-205; Pagenstecher, Mensch und Affe, Zoologische Garten, April, 1867; Bischoff, Anatomie des Hylobates leuciscus, S. A. 1870, pp. 7-70; Abhandl. k. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Matth.-phys. CI. Bd. x. Abth. 3, 1870, pp. 203-266; Champneys, Muscles and Nerves of a Chimpanzee, Journal of Anat. and Physiol, vol. vi. pp. 176-211.
Professor John Wood's papers in the Philosophical Transactions for 1869 on the Varieties of the Human Shoulder Muscles and their homologies in the Mammalia should be read in connection with the above description of those muscles in the Rabbit. Many other memoirs on Myology in its various aspects, morphological and physiological, have appeared in this country from the pens of Professors Turner, Haughton, Macalister, Mivart, and Drs. Murie, J. D. Cunningham, A. H. Young, and others in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, and elsewhere; and abroad from those of Professors Gruber, Gegenbaur, Fiirbringer, Riidinger, and MM. J. C. G. Lucae and Paul Albrecht. The muscles of the Rabbit are treated of in Professor Krause's monograph, Die Anatomie des Kaninchens, pp. 136-138, ed. 2, 1884, and those of the other domestic animals in Chauveau, Traite' d'Anatomie Comparee des Animaux domestiques, 2nde ed.; 1871, pp. 200-347, Franck. Anatomie der Hausthiere, 1871, pp. 343-478; Gurlt's Handbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie der Haussaugethiere, ed.
Leisering and Miiller, ed. 5, 1873, pp. 206-329. For the masseter muscle in Rodents and its relation to the antorbital fissure, see Waterhouse, History of Mammalia, ii. p. 151, PI. 6 a, 1848; Brandt, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pe'ters-bourg, Ser. 6, Sc. Nat. Tom. vii. 1855, p. 153; Giebel, Zeitschrift, Ges. Wiss. 1865, p. 427; A. Milne Edwards, Nouv. Archiv. Museum, iii, p. 92, 1867, Lophiomys; and Cuvier, Lecons, ed. 2, 1835, iv. pt. 1, p. 67, where the maxillary portion of the masseter is called 'musculus mandibulo-maxillaris.'