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Forms Of Animal Life | by George Rolleston, W. Hatchett Jackson



Being outlines of zoological classification based upon anatomical investigation and illustrated by descriptions of specimens and of figures

TitleForms Of Animal Life
AuthorGeorge Rolleston, W. Hatchett Jackson
PublisherClarendon Press
Year1888
Copyright1888, Clarendon Press
AmazonForms of Animal Life

A Manual Of Comparative Anatomy With Descriptions Of Selected Types By The Late George Rolleston, D.M., F.R.S, Lin Acre Professor Of Anatomy And Physiology In The University Of Oxford

Second Edition

Revised And Enlarged By W. Hatchett Jackson, M.A New College F.L.S. ; Natural Science Lecturer, St. John's College Oxford

London Henry FrowdeForms Of Animal Life 2
-Preface To Second Edition
The present edition of 'Forms of Animal Life' was taken in hand by the late Professor Rolleston in the Long Vacation of 1879. The work was carried on with prolonged interruptions, incident to a life o...
-List Of Abbreviated Titles
The following works which are continually quoted are referred to in the text by letters only. It is hoped all other abbreviations will explain themselves. It may be well to mention that 'SB.' and 'Dk....
-Additions And Corrections
Page 131. Labial tentacles, Thiele, Z. W. Z. xliv. 1886. Pericardial gland (also in Gastropoda), Grobben, Z. A. ix. 1886; x. 1887. pp. 144-5. There are ten stigmata, the abdominal being eight, not se...
-Errata
Page 53, line I2 from bottom, for and read end. p. 55, line 2 from bottom, for interclvaicular read interclavicular. p. 59, line 20, for vertebrae read vertebra. p. 6I, line 20 from bottom, for lon...
-General Introduction
There are two kingdoms, an Animal and a Vegetable, to one of which everything that lives may be assigned with more or less certainty. The contrast between the higher or multicellular animals and plant...
-General Introduction. Part 2
But all these powers are exercised at the cost of a chemical transformation or degradation of the protoplasm itself, in part respiratory, i. e. oxydative. The products of this degradation, Carbon diox...
-General Introduction. Part 3
These cells may perhaps be regarded as collectively making up an undifferentiated ovary, i.e. as cells from which, in another phase, the immature Fluke, the reproductive organs are derived. As soon a...
-General Introduction. Part 4
What is generally considered, but perhaps wrongly, to be the most primitive mode of segmentation is seen in an oosperm, which is alecithal, i. e. devoid, or nearly so, of food-yolk. The nucleus divide...
-General Introduction. Part 5
Putting, the Mesozoa aside, the vast majority of multicellular animals may be classified as Metazoa. The growth of the individual is complicated by the formation of tissues and systems of organs. . Se...
-General Introduction. Part 6
To this type the name metacoele might be applied 2. (3) It is an enterocoele, i. e. the persistent cavity of diverticula of the archenteron (supra), as in Amphioxus, Balanoglossus, Sagitta, Brachiopod...
-General Introduction. Part 7
Special embryonic organs may attain a great prominence; normal embryonic phases may be slurred over, or perhaps extinguished. It is often hard to say what is ancestral, what acquired, to distinguish b...
-1. Common Rat (Mus Decurnanus)
Dissected so as to show its craniospinal nervous axis in its entire length as well as portions of most of the organs of vegetative life. A RED injection has been thrown into the veins; and the left h...
-Common Rat (Mus Decurnanus). Part 2
In the angle between the inferior surface of the diaphragm and the lumbar muscles, the two psoas muscles and the quadratus lumborum of the left side, we see the smooth-surfaced kidney, which by this e...
-Common Rat (Mus Decurnanus). Part 3
There are very rarely any vertebrae with unanchylosed ribs anteriorly to the first dorsal vertebrae. The jaws are ordinarily dentigerous, but teeth are never found elsewhere than upon the mandibular, ...
-Common Rat (Mus Decurnanus). Part 4
The depth of the symphysis pubis, and the oblique forward direction of the transverse processes in the lumbar region, are points probably correlated functionally with the strength of the hind limbs. T...
-3. Skeleton Of Wild Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus, Vzx.fera)
The skeleton of the Rabbit differs from that of the Rat and many though not all other Glires Myomorphi, not merely in such points as its larger absolute size, the incompleteness 1 of its clavicles, th...
-Skeleton Of Wild Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus, Vzx.fera). Continued
To these points, dependent upon a deficiency of ossification, may be added the involution of the angle of the lower jaw, which represents, though but rudimentarily, the inversion of that part of the j...
-4. Cervical, Dorsal, Lumbar, Sacral, And Caudal Vertebrae Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
Great mobility is secured by the particular arrangements observable in the region where the two upper cervical vertebrae articulate with each other and with the skull, and in the region of the lower d...
-5. Upper Half Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
Dissected so as to show some of the muscles of the head, neck, shoulder, and fore-leg 1. The letters and the description correspond with those on the figure annexed. With Figure 1. The skin has been...
-Upper Half Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus). Part 2
The muscular bellies of the pronator and the flexor muscles arising from the ulna and internal condyle of the humerus have Been cut through and reflected to show this insertion of the biceps. 1 Bisch...
-Upper Half Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus). Part 3
g'. Insertion of the sterno-clavicular muscle into the clavicle. The under fibres pass under the clavicle without being attached to it, to be inserted, together with fibres from the two muscles next t...
-Upper Half Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus). Part 4
(a). Submaxillary gland and duct. (a'). Submaxillary gland of left side, covered by deep cervical fascia. (). Deep cervical fascia, forming sheaths for the muscles and capsules for the glandul...
-6. Duodenum, Pancreas, Spleen, And Left Kidney, Together With Portions Of Stomach, Of The Jejunum, Of The Large Intestine, And Of The Mesentery Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
With Figure 2. The stomach, which in these animals, like the paunch of Ruminants, is never found empty after they begin to eat solid food, has been removed, with the exception of a little more than a...
-7. Caecum And Parts Of Large And Of Small Intestine Of Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
With Figure 3. THE lymphatic (or lacteal) sinuses 1 surrounding the Peyerian follicles in the walls of the vermiform appendix, a, in the dilated termination of the small intestine, c, and in a saucer...
-8. Bladder, Uterus Masculinus, Urogenital Canal, And Rectum, With Glands In Relation With Them Respectively, - Of Male Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
With Figure 4. The upper half of the bladder has been removed, and the cavity of the lower half, a, laid open from behind, as have been also the cavities of the Uterus masculinus, s. 'Organ of Weber,...
-Bladder, Uterus Masculinus, Urogenital Canal, And Rectum, With Glands In Relation With Them Respectively, - Of Male Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus). Continued
Cowperian Glands opening into it, together with the Rectum and Anopreputial Glands of Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus) seen from behind. One-third larger than the parts figured are in the period of sexual ac...
-9. Generative Organs, Together With The Bladder And Rectum, And The Glands In Relation With Them, Of Female Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus)
With Figure 5. The dissection has been made upon the same plan as the preceding Preparation of the urinary and generative organs of the male Rabbit, and it shows very clearly the exactness of the hom...
-Generative Organs, Bladder, Rectum, Glands Of Female Rabbit. Part 2
The ovaries, as in animals still in the breeding period of life, are tuber-culated or nodular from the presence on their exterior of Graafian follicles with ova nearly mature; they are seen to be atta...
-Generative Organs, Bladder, Rectum, Glands Of Female Rabbit. Part 3
The order, Tillodontia, established by Professor O. C. Marsh, would seem to bear more striking evidence still in the same direction, coming as it does from the earliest geological formation, the lower...
-Generative Organs, Bladder, Rectum, Glands Of Female Rabbit. Part 4
The Elephant might have been expected to have had a single superior cava, as have some of the largest existing Rodents, the South American Subungulata, and all other existing large-sized mammals. But ...
-Generative Organs, Bladder, Rectum, Glands Of Female Rabbit. Part 5
There can scarcely be any doubt that the Insectivora must be considered to be as ancient a form of mammalian life as the Rodentia; indisputable remains however of the order have not as yet been found ...
-Generative Organs, Bladder, Rectum, Glands Of Female Rabbit. Part 6
These differences appear to place the Lagomorphi at a much greater distance from the group made up of the Hystricomorphi, the Myomorphi, and the Sciuromorphi, than any one of those sections is from an...
-10. Common Pigeon (Columba Livia)
Showing nervous, digestive, circulatory, and parts of respiratory and renal systems. The brain has been exposed in situ by the removal of the roof of the cranium; the integument has been removed from...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 2
A doubling back of the tendon of the short alar extensor on to the nodule of origin of the long radial extensor of the carpus has been shown by Professor Garrod to be characteristic of the true Passer...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 3
The kidney, like the lung of Birds, is shaped conformably with the bones supporting it; and it is divisible here into three lobes, increasing in size from before backwards in correspondence with the i...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 4
The filo-plumes are closely associated with the pennae from which they differ in having a slender shaft with but a trace of the tube and a rudimentary vane composed of a few barbs bearing simple and d...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 5
The swelling of grain, peas, etc, in the crop may be due only to the action of moisture and warmth, and is therefore a physical effect. It is stated by Hasse that a similar milky secretion occurs in s...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 6
The respiratory system has the usual structure seen in birds. The syrinx or lower larynx is simple. The last 3-4 rings of the trachea send towards one another on the ventral surface processes which do...
-Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 7
The thyroid is a paired gland, and lies close to the origin of the common carotid arteries. The thymus is also paired, and may be found in young birds as a long gland, one on each side of the neck. Th...
-11. The Skeleton Of The Common Pigeon (Columba Livia)
A Bird's skeleton has characters both peculiar and well-marked. The bones undergo extensive anchylosis especially in the skull, pelvic region, hand and foot The bone-substance is dense, and is stated ...
-The Skeleton Of The Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 2
The convex outer surface of the sternum carries the keel or carina, whence comes the name Carinatae, applied to the vast majority of living birds as opposed to the Ostrich and its allies, known as Rat...
-The Skeleton Of The Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 3
The outlines of the cranial bones can only be seen in a young skull. The single condyle is made up, as in some Reptiles, by the basi- and ex-occipitals. The parietals are short but wide. Two membrane ...
-The Skeleton Of The Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 4
The clavicular process of the coracoid gives attachment in Carinatae to the deltoideus minor muscle and principal ligament of the shoulder-joint. In Ratitae it is represented by a mere roughness or sl...
-The Skeleton Of The Common Pigeon (Columba Livia). Part 5
The ascending spur of the tibiale (? = astragalus) is present in Deinosauria. The bony arch confining the extensor tendons in the Pigeon as they pass over the tarsal region of the tibio-tarsus is liga...
-12. Common Ringed Snake (Tropidonotus Natrix)
Injected and dissected so as to show the manner in which the viscera are arranged in situ. The following external characters, for the most part discernible in this specimen, should be noted: - the ab...
-Common Ringed Snake (Tropidonotus Natrix). Continued
The following points of anatomy may be noted, not visible in the specimen. The subcutaneous connective tissue is very scanty in amount and absent altogether on the abdominal surface. Nervous System ...
-13. Vertebra Of Constricting Serpent (Python Sp. ?)
The vertebral column of Ophidians is, according to most authorities, divisible into three sections. - A cervical region containing only an atlas and axis: a second region containing vertebrae very num...
-14. Common Frog (Rana Temporaria)
Injected and dissected so as to show its nervous, circulatory, and respiratory systems, together with some of its reproductive and digestive organs. THE following external points may first be noted: ...
-Common Frog (Rana Temporaria). Part 2
The sympathetic trunk commences at the Gasserian ganglion, is connected with the vagal ganglion, and passes out with the vagus through a foramen in the exoccipital. A ramus communicans connects it wit...
-Common Frog (Rana Temporaria). Part 3
The pancreas is a thin lobed gland lying between the stomach and duodenum; its duct enters the bile duct which opens on the dorsal wall of the duodenum. The aperture of the larynx opens on the ventral...
-15. Skeleton Of Common Frog (Rana Temporaria)
With Figures 6 and 7. The skeleton, as is commonly the case in Amphibia, retains a large amount of cartilage, in the deeper portions of which much calcareous matter is deposited, but not in the form ...
-Skeleton Of Common Frog (Rana Temporaria). Continued
The five ordinary toes are present, the number usual in the hind foot of both Anura and Urodela. As in the majority of Amphibians, the skull of the Frog has no basi- or supra-occipital; no basi- or a...
-16. The Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis)
Dissected so as to show its nervous, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and reproductive systems in situ. The following external characters are to be noted: - the laterally flattened body and point...
-The Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 2
These organs are composed of two sets of elements: (1) short pyriform sense-cells terminating in a sensory hair at their outer free extremity, and a nerve-fibril at their inner; (2) supporting cells w...
-The Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 3
There is however an internal valve, a remnant perhaps of a spiral valve, which is stated to exist only in Chirocentrus (Clupeidae) among Teleostei. The folds of the mucous membrane vary much in charac...
-The Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 4
The testes are paired; they are rarely single in Teleostei. The inactive organ is semi-transparent; the active organ varies much in size, shape, and lobulation, according to its state. The vas deferen...
-17. Skeleton Of Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis)
With Figures 8 and 9. The Perch belongs to the order Acanthopteri among Teleostei. It may be taken as an illustration of a highly specialised as opposed to a generalised type of organisation: combini...
-Skeleton Of Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 2
The branchial arches are five in number on each side. In the median ventral line, and immediately following the basi-hyal, are three basi-branchial bones. The first arch consists, proceeding from its ...
-Skeleton Of Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 3
The fin contains about ten soft rays. The hind-limb lies immediately behind the median union of the pectoral arch. The basal part of the limb consists of a long triangular bone produced by the contac...
-Skeleton Of Common Perch (Perca Fluviatilis). Part 4
The number of haemal arches present in the caudal lobe varies much, e. g. the Cod and Stickleback have only two. The 'accessory' rays are in some instances of large size, e.g. in the Cod, and the caud...
-18. Vertebrae Of Common Cod (Gadus Morrhua)
THE anterior and posterior surfaces of the centra of these vertebrae, as in all fishes with distinct vertebrae, except Lepidosteus, are concave, the anterior surface being less so than the posterior. ...
-Vertebrae Of Common Cod (Gadus Morrhua). Continued
The presumption is, that in other cases the canal is formed by haemal arches with ribs remaining continuous with them. This view was strongly supported by the late Professor Balfour in his paper on Le...
-19. Ascidian (Ascidia Affinis)
Dissected to show the chief features in the anatomy of Urochorda. THE animal is mounted with the base of attachment or posterior end downwards, and the oral or inhalent aperture or anterior end upwar...
-Ascidian (Ascidia Affinis). Continued
The terms 'mantle' and 'branchial sac,' often used in speaking of the body walls and pharynx respectively, are better discarded, as it is a well-established fact that there is ho relationship between ...
-20. Shell Of Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia)
WHEN the shell has its apex directed upwards, and its aperture downwards and towards the reader, its spire, as is the case with the great majority of Gasteropod spiral shells, ascends obliquely toward...
-21. Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia)
Dissected so as to show the position of the heart and the respiratory cavity. THE shell, with the exception of a part of the columella or spire left in situ, has been removed. The foot is completely ...
-22. Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia)
Dissected so as to show its digestive and reproductive, together with portions of its circulatory and respiratory organs. The body has been detached from the shell, and the greater part of the mantle...
-Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia). Part 2
The body-wall consists of connective tissue and muscle-fibres. Its surface in the exposed parts of the body is raised into ridges and tubercles. The muscle-fibres are non-striated long cells. They occ...
-Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia). Part 3
In the ducts are found columnar cells, sometimes ciliated, but not in H. pomatia (Barfurth), as well as mucous-cells: in the acini three kinds of cells - liver-cells (Barfurth) or granular-cells (Fren...
-23. Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia)
Dissected so as to show its nervous system. THE collar has been divided to the right of the pulmonary aperture, to the left of its columellar lobule, which is left in situ on the right side. The atta...
-Edible Snail (Helix Pomatia). Continued
The ganglion cells of Helix vary from 0.4 mm. in the visceral ganglia to 0.16 mm. or 0.007 mm in the cerebral. Some of the larger cells have a connective tissue capsule. The majority are unipolar, but...
-24. Shell Of Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea)
The shell of Anodonta and of all Lamellibranchiata is bivalve. The two valves correspond to the two sides, right and left, of the body, and they resemble one the other. The shell is therefore equivalv...
-Shell Of Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea). Continued
In those Lamellibranchiata which possess siphons, the pallial line is incurved beneath the impression of the posterior adductor muscles, forming a bay or sinus. Such shells are said to be sinupalliate...
-25. Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea)
Removed from its shell and suspended so as to show the general external features of the animal. The animal is suspended by the anterior adductor muscle, and the two folds (right and left) of the mant...
-Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea). Continued
The labial tentacles are vascular, richly supplied with nerves, and ciliated. Their opposed surfaces are covered with fine parallel ridges. The upper tentacles appear to rise in part from the mantle, ...
-26. Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea)
Dissected so as to show the viscera in situ. The animal is suspended by the apex of its foot and fastened on its left side. The mouth is superior, the anus inferior; the heart to the left hand, and t...
-27. Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea)
Dissected to show the nervous system and the route along which the ova pass from the generative gland into the interlamellar cavity of the external gills, where, as in the pouch of a marsupial mammal,...
-28. Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female
Dissected to show its digestive, renal, nervous, and reproductive systems. AMONG external features characteristic of the class Insecta, the head with the antennae, the three pairs of jointed thoracic...
-Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female. Part 2
The mouth is constructed for biting, and consists of three pairs of jaws: the mandibles, the maxillae, and the labium. Each mandible is of one piece, triangular, attached by two condyles to the head. ...
-Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female. Part 3
In the female the 7th sternum is very large, and its posterior extremity is cleft medianly in the adult (imago). The two halves are boat-shaped, and are connected by a distensible soft skin. They reta...
-Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female. Part 4
If the abdominal terga are removed as a connected piece, the heart and surrounding tissues may be found on its inner surface. The heart consists of a tube, divisible into an anterior aortic membranous...
-Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female. Part 5
The organs are generally restricted to certain joints of the antennae, e.g third joint in Diptera Brachycera, terminal joints in Lepidoptera Rhopalocera Hauser points out that the number and perfectio...
-29. Larva Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri)
This and the two following preparations are intended to illustrate the various points of external anatomy in which the larva, pupa, and imago of a Lepidopteron, an insect with perfect metamorphosis, d...
-Larva Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri). Continued
The duration of a caterpillar's life varies. It may extend only to a fortnight, or to three years in Cossus. The number of moults is generally three or four. In this process the old cuticle as a rule ...
-30. Pupa Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri)
There are two forms of quiescent pupae among Insects: one in which the antennae, mouth-parts, limbs and wings are free, the other in which they are coherent to one another and to the body. Of the firs...
-Pupa Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri). Continued
It will also be found that the horn-like projection of the pupa consists of a right and left division, one belonging to each maxilla: that its labium consists of two back-wardly turned lobes united ba...
-31. Imago, Male And Female, Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri)
In the imago or Moth, Sphinx Ligustri reaches the last stage of its life-history, the sexually mature insect. The dissimilarity between the head, thorax and abdomen, which first appears in the pupa, i...
-Imago, Male And Female, Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri). Part 2
The ninth somite in the male is inclosed by the eighth. It consists of two narrow lateral chitinous bands which meet with expanded ends dorsally and ven-trally. Each band consists of a median, a dorsa...
-Imago, Male And Female, Of Privet Hawk Moth (Sphinx Ligustri). Part 3
The inferior edge of each channel bears a series of processes by which one galea is strongly tied to the other; while its superior edge carries one or more series of flat processes which overlap the c...
-32. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female
The body of this Crustacean, like that of all Podophthalmata, consists of two great divisions, an anterior, the cephalothorax, covered dorsally and at the sides by a large continuous shield, the carap...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 2
The English and Irish Crayfish is widely spread over the Continent. It constitutes the variety of Astacus fluviatilis known as A. torrentium, the Ecrevisse a pieds blancs. There is a Crayfish which is...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 3
Shortly before oviposition the female flexes the abdomen; the cavity thus formed becomes filled with a transparent viscid fluid which glues the edges of the opposing somites together. The ova pass int...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 4
Nucleated yellow brown pigment cells intervene between the retinulae, and two (or more) black pigment cells between the crystalline cones. The ectoderm cells at the margin of the eye are elongated and...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 5
The second maxilla has a very thin lamellate coxopodite and basipodite, each partially subdivided by a fissure. The endopodite is small and simple. The exopodite forms a large plate, the scaphognathit...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 6
When Astacus quits the egg it only differs from the adult in certain points summarised here from Professor Huxley's account. The cephalothorax is relatively large and convex in shape; the short rostru...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Female. Part 7
The following table shows in parallel columns the post-oral somites and their appendages in the Crustacea, Arachnida, Myriapoda, and Insecta. The antennae of the two latter classes are not included as...
-33. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Male
Dissected so as to show the nervous, circulatory and digestive systems in situ, and in the relations they hold to each other and to the external body walls. THE animal has been bisected longitudinall...
-34. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis)
Dissected to show the heart and the origins of the chief vessels in situ. The cardiac region of the omostegite and the adjoining region of the cephalostegite have been removed, as well as the tergal ...
-35. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis)
Dissected so as to show its digestive, reproductive, and respiratory systems in situ. The greater part of the tergal region of all the segments of the body has been removed, together with the heart a...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis). Part 2
Claus has pointed out (Arb. Zool. Inst. Wien, vi. 1885, pp. 39-47) (1) that the relation of the coxopodite to the body-walls is by no means a constant one in Crustacea, and the arthrodial membrane has...
-Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis). Part 3
It is to be regarded as a cuticular structure forming a storehouse of calcareous matter preliminary to the moult, which is not effected healthily unless the gastroliths are previously and well develop...
-36. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fliwiatilis), Male
Dissected so as to show its nervous system. The supra-oesophageal ganglion and the twelve post-oral ganglia of the adult Crayfish, of which six belong to the thorax and six to the abdomen, have been ...
-37. Common Starfish (Asterias Or Asteracanthion Rubens), Dried
The animal consists of a central disc, which is prolonged into five lobes, the so-called arms, rays, or radii. The interval or part between each radius is known as an interradius. Two surfaces may be ...
-Common Starfish (Asterias Or Asteracanthion Rubens), Dried. Continued
It is known as the odontophore, and appears to be homologous with the oral plate of many other Echinoderms. See the general account of the Phylum. A single row of minute adambulacral ossicles articula...
-38. Common Starfish (Asterias, Or Asteracanthion Rubens)
Dissected so as to show its digestive and motor systems. ONE of the rays, the central ray of the trivium, has been cut short, and more or less of the dorsal or anti-ambulacral integument removed from...
-39. Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricola)
Suspended by the anterior extremity to show its external characters. The anterior region of the body tapers to a conical point: the posterior is flattened dorso-ventrally and tapers abruptly. The fir...
-Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricola). Continued
Branched pigment cells are found most plentifully in the connective tissue of the circular layer of muscles. They are more numerous on the dorsal and lateral aspects of the body than on the ventral; m...
-40. Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricolca)
The first forty-one somites of the body including the clitellum, dissected to display so far as possible the reproductive system as well as the portions of the digestive, and circulatory systems conta...
-Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricolca). Part 2
The dorsal wall of the stomach-intestine is invaginated in nearly all terrestrial Oligochaeta to form a ridge or typhlosole. This structure is absent in Megascolex, and in the aquatic Criodrilus and s...
-Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricolca). Part 3
It corresponds to the more or less pyriform vesicle into which the glandular part of the nephridium opens in some terrestrial and most of the aquatic Oligochaeta and the Leeches, and is probably there...
-Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricolca). Part 4
It projects into the latter (Bergh). The female apparatus is completed by two pairs of vesicular sperma-thecae which open in the intersegmental furrows between somites nine and ten, and ten and eleven...
-41. Common Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris, S. Agricola)
Dissected so as to show its nervous system. THE integument has been divided down the middle dorsal line and fastened out on either side. The entire digestive tract with the exception of the buccal ca...
-42. Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis)
Suspended to show the external form of the body and the coloured bands which differentiate the variety H. medicinalis from the variety //. officinalis. THE animal is suspended by the anterior extremi...
-Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis). Continued
The epidermis or hypodermis of the medicinal Leech consists of mallet-shaped cells about 1/1500 of an inch long. The heads of the mallets are placed superficially beneath the cuticle. The handles are ...
-43. Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis)
Prepared to show its laterally sacculated stomach and the intestine. A stiffening injection of gelatine was thrown into the digestive tube, the specimen hardened in spirit and then dissected. The int...
-44. Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis)
Dissected so as to show its nervous system. A PART of the pharynx with the jaws has been left in situ, and a black bristle also passed down it through the oesophageal or nerve-collar. The supra-oesop...
-45. Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis)
Dissected so as to show its reproductive and segmental organs or nephridia in situ. A BLACK bristle has been passed into the pharynx through the nerve-ring, and the ventral chain of ganglia is visibl...
-46. Tapeworm (Taenia Serrata)
With the cysts of Cysticercus pisiformis, s. C. Taeniae serratae. In the upper part of this preparation is suspended a portion of the great omentum of a Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus). Seven pyriform sacs ...
-Tapeworm (Taenia Serrata). Continued
In Taenia lineata the cuticula has the same structure as in Solenophorus. There is a similar matrix which is finely granular. It contains large granular, oval, round or amoeboid cells, small fusiform ...
-47. Tapeworm In Cystic Stage (Cysticercus Pisiformis, S. C. Taeniae Serratae)
Mounted as a preparation for the microscope. The worm has been removed from its connective tissue sac or capsule, and the head with a small portion of the neck has been evaginated by gentle pressure ...
-Tapeworm In Cystic Stage (Cysticercus Pisiformis, S. C. Taeniae Serratae). Continued
The proscolex in T. serrata gives origin to a single scolex, and the resulting organism is therefore termed Cysticercus. When it produces a number of scolices, the resulting organism is a Coenurus, e....
-48. Broad-Leafed Hornwrack (Flustra Foliacea)
With Figure 10. A seaweed-like Polyzoon, universal in European seas and widely spread over the world. It is colonial, like the vast majority of Polyzoa, and the colony or zoarium forms erect fronds w...
-Broad-Leafed Hornwrack (Flustra Foliacea). Continued
The muscles present in a zooecium are (i) parietal muscles (pm.) formed by bundles of two to five fibres, attached to the basal angle of the sides at one end and to the upper surface at the other. Thi...
-49. Sea Anemone (Tealia Crassicornis)
The animal has been bisected vertically: and one of the halves thus obtained has been suspended with the peristome or mouth-disc pointing to the right, and the base of attachment or pedal disc to the ...
-Sea Anemone (Tealia Crassicornis). Part 2
The innermost circle of tentacles is the oldest. There are in a few instances circum-oral and intermediate tentacles, i. e. tentacles placed round the mouth and between the mouth and marginal tentacle...
-Sea Anemone (Tealia Crassicornis). Part 3
Many marine animals belonging to different groups, e. g. many Radiolaria, many Anthozoa, especially Sea-anemones, some species of Convoluta among Turbellaria are infested with 'yellow cells.' These bo...
-50. Sea-Fir (Sertularia Abietina)
With Fig. n, illustrating the structure of a Craspedote Medusa. THE Sea-fir belongs to the class Hydrozoa and order Hydroidea. It forms a fixed colony or hydrosoma, which is protected in all its part...
-Sea-Fir (Sertularia Abietina). Continued
The lamina, which lies externally to the endoderm, i.e. on the convex side of the bell, is very much thickened, and forms the umbrella (u.), the substance of which is watery, jelly-like, and as a rule...
-51. Fresh-Water Sponge (Spongilla Lacustris)
From the Isis, growing on the wall of a lock, with Figure 12, illustrating the structure of Enspongia officinalis. This specimen, like the preceding Hydroid (Prep. 50), is plant-like in appearance, c...
-Fresh-Water Sponge (Spongilla Lacustris). Continued
The living organism is dark violet-grey, passing into yellowish brown where the light does not reach it freely. The surface is beset with minute elevations or conuli (A: c), and is marked by fine clos...
-52. Paramecium Aurelia And Amoeba Proteus
With Figure 13. Paramecium Aurelia, the Slipper Animalcule (Fig. 13, A. B. and 1, 2, 3, 4), is commonly found in pond water and vegetable infusions. The length of its body varies from1/120 to 1/96 of...
-Paramecium Aurelia And Amoeba Proteus. Continued
When the organism has been starved for a time the medulla becomes nearly hyaline: when full-fed, on the contrary, perfectly opaque with granules. Reproduction takes place by the transverse division o...
-Plate I. Common Rat (Mus Decumanus)
Dissected so as to show, superiorly, the cerebrospinal nervous system lodged in the craniospinal cavity, and, inferiorly, portions of most of the organs of Vegetative life. Plate I. Common Rat, Mus...
-Plate II. Common Pigeon (Columba Livia)
Dissected so as to show the main points characteristic of Aves, and the arrangement of the principal muscles of flight. Plate II. Pigeon, Columba livia. The characters distinctive of Birds shown i...
-Plate III. Common Frog (Rana Temporaria)
Injected and dissected to show the chief features of the circulatory organs, and especially the connected systems of the renal-portal and epigastric veins, together with certain portions of the muscul...
-Plate IV. Skate (Raja Batis)
THIS plate, illustrating the anatomy of the Skate, is introduced for the purpose of supplementing the description of the Perch, a member of the order Teleostei, p. 83. The Skate belongs to the more ge...
-Skate (Raja Batis). Part 2
h. Middle lobe of the liver, which is trilobed in this species, cut short. The right and left lobes are seen on either side of the aperture made in the abdominal walls. i. Gall-bladder, in the fissur...
-Skate (Raja Batis). Part 3
g. Optic nerves. There is a superficial chiasma to these nerves in Elasmobranchii, Ganoidei, and Dipnoi. h. Third nerve or oculomotor. It springs from the base of the mid-brain, but its superficial o...
-Plate V. Cellar Slug (Limax Flavus, S. Variegatus)
Dissected so as to show its digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive systems. Plate V. Cellar Slug, Limax flavus. The muscular envelope has been separated from the foot along...
-Plate VI. Fresh-Water Mussel (Anodonta Cygnea)
Dissected so as to show its muscular and nervous systems, as well as certain other organs in relation with them. Plate VI.. Fresh-water Mussel, Anodonta cygnea. The animal has been taken out of th...
-Plate VII. Lamellibranchiata
FIG. 1. The common Oyster (Ostrea edulis), dissected so as to show the principal features of its anatomy. Plate VII. Lamellibranchiata. The animal has been removed from its shell and dissected on ...
-Plate VIII. Common Cockroach (Periplaneta Orientalis), Female
Dissected so as to show its digestive, nervous, and reproductive apparatus; the 'fat body,' and a considerable portion of the dorsal integument having been removed. Plate VIII. Cockroach, Periplane...
-Plate IX. This Plate Represents Points Of Interest In The Anatomy Of Various Groups Of Arthropoda
FIG. 1. Machilis polypoda, from Sir J. Lubbock, Monograph of the Collembola and Thysa-nura, Ray Society, 1873, Pl. LIII. and p. 236. Plate IX. Arthropoda. This Insect belongs to the order Thysanur...
-This Plate Represents Points Of Interest In The Anatomy Of Various Groups Of Arthropoda. Continued
FIG. 5. The mouth-parts of the Honey-bee, Apis mellifica, worker. Drawn from a specimen as seen from the aboral surface and removed from the head. a-d'. Parts of the labium. a. The lingua or tongue:...
-Plate X. Common Crayfish (Astacus Fluviatilis), Male
Dissected so as to show its nervous, digestive, circulatory, and reproductive systems in situ; the various organs having been exposed in a vertical section, by the removal of the tegumentary skeleton,...
-Plate XI. Common Starfish (Asterias Rubens), Linn
Dissected so as to show its motor, digestive, and reproductive systems. Plate XI. Common Star-Fish, Asterias rubens. LInn. The dorsal integument has been removed from the central ray of the triviu...
-Plate XII. Earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris)
The fifteen anterior somites, numbered from before backwards, the 'prostomial segment' counting as the first. Plate XII. Earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris. THE integument has been divided, except in...
-Plate XIII. Figure Of Medicinal Leech (Hirudo Medicinalis)
Dissected so as to show its nervous, digestive, reproductive, and segmental organs, as seen from below; slightly altered from Moquin Tandon's figure, P1. VIII., Fig. 10, Monographic des Hirudinees, 18...
-Plate XIV. Cestoda: Hydroidea
The figures 1 to 5 are intended to show diagrammatically the life-history of one of the typical Cestoda, genus Taenia. Figure 1 represents the sexual animal as it is found in the segmented form, calle...
-Cestoda: Hydroidea. Part 2
A segment with the generative organs in the condition here figured, would be found in either Taenia solium or Taenia mediocanellata, the two common human Tapeworms, at about the 450th segment counting...
-Cestoda: Hydroidea. Part 3
d. Testis. The testes are always placed near the base of the tentacular circle, and are, as here, generally more than one in number (8-9). They are formed by the local multiplication of interstitial e...
-Cestoda: Hydroidea. Part 4
B. Deeper layer of ectoderm, composed of ganglion cells, young cnidoblasts and muscle cells. A flattened ganglion cell, g, is figured with its nucleus and outrunners. Von Lendenfeld did not observe an...
-The Animal Kingdom
Metazoa Multicellular animals in which there is an ectoderm (=epi- or hypo-dermis) and an endoderm with tissues of various kinds, - sensory, nervous, muscular, connective and reproductive, derived ei...
-Phylum Chordata
Bilaterally symmetrical coelomate Metazoa, in which the neural surface of the body is dorsal, the haemal ventral, i.e. the surface of locomotion, the reverse of what obtains in the other phyla of this...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata
CHORDATA, which possess the following characters. The integument is composed of an epidermis consisting of several layers of cells, and a dermis chiefly composed of fibrous connective tissue. There is...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 2
The skeleton, or endo-skeleton, assumes a vast importance in Vertebrata. It consists of an axial and an appendicular portion. The former includes the skull and backbone: the latter the skeleton of the...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 3
To this cartilaginous skull, as above-described, are added a series of bones, developed in the first instance from the skin or mucous membrane of the mouth, but engrafting themselves in higher forms u...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 4
It is always divisible into a portion dorsal to the articulation of the limb known as the scapula and a portion ventral to it, the coracoid. A clavicular process grows forwards from the junction of th...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 5
The ventricles of the olfactory lobes are sometimes obliterated; those of the cerebral hemispheres only in some Pisces. The spinal cord extends primitively throughout the whole length of the spinal ca...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 6
Sensory ectodermic cells are found on the surface of the body in Ichthyopsida as branchial sense organs or organs of the lateral line (infra under Ichthyopsida), and in Pisces of end-buds. End-buds in...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 7
An external meatus is formed in higher Vertebrata by the growth of the parts around the tympanic membrane, but a concha of the ear is well developed only in Mammalia. The alimentary tract consists of...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 8
The gland tubes develope into a network surrounded by a vascular network, and their tubular character, retained in Amphibia and Reptilia, is lost in Aves and Mammalia by the growth of the lining epith...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 9
The primitive condition of the arterial system is retained in Pisces, but in Amphibia, and especially in Amniota, changes take place, more particularly affecting the aortic arches. The third aortic ar...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 10
A lymphatic tissue, known as adenoid or reticular tissue, consisting of a net-work of cells, which bud and form lymph or white corpuscles, is greatly developed in the submucous coat of the intestine, ...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 11
It has a wide coelomic aperture, and its walls for part of its course may become richly glandular, secreting albumen and sometimes an egg-shell, whilst its lower section may be dilated and as uterus1 ...
-Sub-Phylum Vertebrata. Part 12
The majority of Vertebrata are oviparous. Mammalia except Proto-theria are viviparous, and instances of viviparity occur among Lacertilia, Ophidia, Urodele Amphibia, Teleostei and Elasmobranchii. The...
-Class Mammalia
Air-breathing warm-blooded Vertebrata in which the epidermis de-velopes hairs over a greater or less extent of the surface of the body: which are viviparous with the exception of Prototheria, and alwa...
-Class Mammalia. Part 2
A sacral region is not defined in Cetacea and Sirenia where the ilia either fail to reach the backbone, or else are absent. The caudal series may be reduced to 3-5. vertebrae in Man and the higher Ape...
-Class Mammalia. Part 3
It is probable that the single set of teeth of Monophyodonts corresponds to the permanent set in Diphyodonts. The milk dentition includes incisors, canines, and deciduous (prae)molars which are replac...
-Sub-Class Eutheria
This sub-class contains all the orders of existing Mammalia except two. Its general characters are those typical of Mammalia, from which the two other sub-classes deviate in certain respects. The dist...
-Sub-Class Metatheria
This sub-class contains the single order Marsupialia with a large number of families, one the Didelphidae, confined to America, the remainder to the Australian and Austro-Malayan sub-regions. The audi...
-Sub-Class Prototherta
This sub-class is represented by the single order Monotremata with two families Ornithorhynchidae and Echidnidae. The former contains the single genus Ornithorhynckus found in the rivers of Australia ...
-Sauropsida
Air-breathing Vertebrata, with a skin remarkably deficient in glands and an epidermic skeleton in the shape of feathers, scales, or scutes. The skull articulates with the vertebral column by means of ...
-Class Aves
Warm-blooded Sauropsida in which the epidermis developes feathers clothing the head, neck, body, fore-limbs and the upper part of the hind-limbs (cf. pp. 51-2). The fore-limbs are modified into wings....
-Class Aves. Part 2
The movements of the third eyelid are governed by two special muscles, the quadratus and pyramidalis, and its gland, the Harderian gland, is large. The stapes or columella auris is well-developed, pro...
-Class Aves. Part 3
In addition to the points already noted in the heart, the right auricle is larger than the left: the left ventricle is of great size, with strong muscular walls, whilst the right has thin walls and em...
-Class Aves. Part 4
The sexes differ much externally in colour, development of peculiar feathers, etc, and in Accipitrine birds the females, as is so commonly the case in Arthropoda, are larger than the males. The testes...
-Class Reptilia
Cold-blooded Sauropsida with epidermal scales, sometimes combined with underlying dermal bones and then forming scutes; and not developed as are hairs and feathers in saccular involutions of the integ...
-Class Reptilia. Part 2
There are in living Reptilia two sacrals, but the number may be greater among extinct forms, e.g. 3-6 in Pterodactyles, 4-6 in some Deinosauria. In the Ichthyosauria the atlas and axis resemble the re...
-Class Reptilia. Part 3
There is said to be an indication of a sixth digit in Chelonia and Lacertilia. The cerebral hemispheres are smaller relatively to the rest of the brain, and to the spinal cord than in Aves, and the D...
-Class Reptilia. Part 4
It is lengthened out and unilobed in the Ophidia and the Amphisbaenoidea. There is always a gall-bladder which lies removed at some distance from the liver in the two groups just named. The pancreas h...
-Class Reptilia. Part 5
The kidneys are usually more or less lobed and placed posteriorly in the body cavity, especially in the Lacertilia, an order in which the two glands are sometimes united at their hinder ends. In serpe...
-Class Reptilia. Part 6
In addition to the four groups of living Reptilia, there are a number of extinct groups. The Plesiosauria and Ichthyosauria are marine forms ranging, the former from the Trias, the latter from the Lia...
-Ichthyopsida S. Anamniota S. Anallantoidea
The amnion is absent altogether, and the allantois, when represented, never extends beyond the body-walls as a foetal membrane. Other important characters are the following. The epidermic exoskeleton...
-Class Amphibia
Ichthyopsida with an integument rich in glands or glandular cells and devoid of an epidermic exo-skeleton. The azygos system of fins is always present in the larva and in the adult of certain sub-grou...
-Class Amphibia. Part 2
In Urodela it is invested by a dentary, splenial and articular bone. A splenial is absent in Anura, most of which have a pair of ossified lower labials ( = Mento-Meckelians)at the symphysis. The exten...
-Class Amphibia. Part 3
The sternum or hyposternum (see p. 82) in Urodela consists of a shovel-shaped plate of cartilage formed by the union of two cartilaginous rods lying in tendinous intersections of the recti abdominis m...
-Class Amphibia. Part 4
The membranes of the brain and spinal cord have an abundance of pigment cells in their visceral laminae, and deposits of crystalline calcium carbonate are observable on the exterior of these membranes...
-Class Amphibia. Part 5
The pancreas is flattened and lobed (? absent in Siren and Proteus). The heart lies anteriorly, as in Fishes, except in Gyninophiona. It consists of a sinus venosus divided into a larger right moiety...
-Class Amphibia. Part 6
A pronephros connected with the anterior end of the segmental duct forms the excretory apparatus of the Tadpole. It atrophies after a time, and the segmental duct becomes split into the Wolffian duct ...
-Class Amphibia. Part 7
The ova are shed into the coelome, whence they are taken up by the abdominal apertures of the Miillerian ducts, which are close to the anterior ends of the kidneys in Gymnophiona, at the roots of the ...
-Class Pisces
Ichthyopsida in which the epidermis may develope glandular ce/ls, but not glands in the ordinary sense of the term, and the cutis is devoid of muscular elements. The exoskeleton is greatly developed, ...
-Class Pisces. Part 2
They are cycloid or ctenoid according as their projecting margin is entire or denticulated. Among Plectognathi (Teleostei) the Ostraciontidae are covered with a mail of large polygonal plates; and the...
-Class Pisces. Part 3
As to opercular bones, Acipenser has a large operculum: the Dipnoi have opercular and interopercular bones; the inter-operculum is absent in Polypterus and the prae-opercular fused with the squamosal:...
-Class Pisces. Part 4
There are two investing bones also in Dipnoi, which ensheath the cartilage in Protopterus and Lepidosiren. The girdle is deeply imbedded in the muscles in the two last-named Fish, and the limb is arti...
-Class Pisces. Part 5
On the contrary, the division into two lobes is scarcely indicated in Elasmobranchii. The region of the thalami optici is always small, and is hidden dorsally by the hemispheres and optic lobes in Tel...
-Class Pisces. Part 6
Fish are very rarely edentulous, e. g. Acipenser, some Lophobranchii, but the former has larval teeth afterwards lost. Protopterus among Dipnoi, has two conical, Ceratodus two elongate vomerine teeth,...
-Class Pisces. Part 7
It is found in Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, Acipenser, Scaphirhynchus, and Lepidosteus, among Ganoidei, where it receives the venous blood of the first branchial artery or a branch of that vein in Pro...
-Class Pisces. Part 8
It contains several rows of valves, variable in number, but most numerous in bony Ganoidei. One row is especially prominent in Dipnoi, and in Protopterus and Lepidopterus the valves in this row coales...
-Class Pisces. Part 9
The duct in Teleostei is probably an archinephric duct: in Elasmobranchii that of the mesonephric region is a true mesonephric (or Wolffian) duct, from which a Mullerian duct has been split off in dev...
-Class Pisces. Part 10
Segmentation is total but unequal in Acipenser and Lepidosteus, partial in the ova of all other Fish which are telolecithal. The embryo has a more or less prominent yolk-sac. Larval peculiarities are ...
-Class Pisces. Part 11
IV. Teleostei (Osseous Fish) Skeleton well ossified; a bony operculum with branchiostegal rays; investing bones of skull and shoulder-girdle well developed; caudal fin homocercal, rarely diphycercal;...
-Class Cyclostomi (Marsipobranchii)
Elongated Eel-like Ichthyopsida, with the mouth not supported by jaws, as in other Vertebrata; with small azygos fins, but devoid of 'paired fins1; no exo-skeleton; with a single nostril, and six or s...
-Class Cyclostomi (Marsipobranchii). Continued
The mouth of the adult Lamprey is concave, suctorial, fringed by a soft lip bearing numerous short filamentous processes, and armed with numerous epidermic teeth. In the Myxinoidei it has barbules abo...
-Sub-Phylum And Class Cephalochorda. (Acrania; Pharyngobranchii)
Marine Chordata, with a body pointed at each end, and provided with a continuous dorsal, anal, and caudal cuticular fin. There are no paired limbs: no skull, vertebral arches and centra: no jaw-arches...
-Sub-Phylum And Class Urochorda (= Tunicata)
Degenerate Chordata, which are either simple or compound (colonial), fixed or free, with a test usually containing cellulose, and secreted by the ectoderm. The nervous system is reduced to a single ga...
-Sub-Phylum And Class Urochorda (= Tunicata). Part 2
An otolith borne on a stalk is found in the same position in the larva. The Larvacea have a large vesicular otocyst containing an otolith on the left side of the anterior ganglion, and the 'nurse' in ...
-Sub-Phylum And Class Urochorda (= Tunicata). Part 3
Both dorsal and ventral cardiac vessels give off branches to the test. The blood has a clear plasma with nucleated and usually rounded corpuscles, many of which are sometimes pigmented (opaque white, ...
-Phylum Mollusca
Coelomate Metazoa, which are primitively bilaterally symmetrical: with a soft integument, generally ciliated and richly supplied with glands: with an in tegumental fold forming a mantle or pallium, an...
-Phylum Mollusca. Part 2
The respiratory organs are ctenidia, or gills, external processes of the body. In some instances, Pteropoda, a few Gastropoda, respiration is carried on entirely by the surface of the skin. There can ...
-Phylum Mollusca. Part 3
Ferment-cells are said to be absent in Pteropoda, whilst the last-named are absent in Lamellibranchiata and Pteropoda, and some Gastropoda (see pp. II 6-7). The anus opens into the sub-pallial space. ...
-Phylum Mollusca. Part 4
These accessory organs are most complicated in Pteropoda and hermaphrodite Gastropoda. Impregnation of the ovum may take place externally to the organism, as in Cephalopoda (? all), Scaphopoda, Chiton...
-Branch I. Glossophora
Mollusca in which the head region is more or less developed, and is always provided with an odontophoral apparatus and radula. Class Cephalopoda Bilaterally symmetrical Glossophora, with the head su...
-Branch I. Glossophora. Part 2
The shell of Tetrabranchiata, the living Nautilus and the extinct Nautiloidea and Ammonoidea, is external and is secreted by the mantle: but nothing is known as to the initial phase of its development...
-Branch I. Glossophora. Part 3
The eye is a prominent stalked cone in Nautilus, with a flattened end, which is pierced by a small central hole. This hole leads into the cup-shaped interior of the eye, which is lined by the retina. ...
-Branch I. Glossophora. Part 4
Attached to the base of each branchial heart, and depending into the viscero-pericardial sac, is an appendage, the pericardial gland of Grobben, or so-called fleshy appendage. It corresponds in Nautil...
-Branch I. Glossophora. Part 5
The Cephalopoda are marine, some littoral like Octopus, others pelagic like Spirula, Sepia, etc. All are carnivorous, and some, e.g. Architeuthis, attain a gigantic size. The oldest Cephalopoda belong...
-Class Scaphopoda. (Solenoconcha; Prosopocephala)
Glossophorous Mollusca, with a shell shaped like an Elephant's tusk, and open at both ends, the small as well as the large. Its concave side is dorsal, the convex ventral. The mantle, which lines the ...
-Class Pteropoda
Pelagic Glossophora with the median foot much reduced, bat with two large lateral pedal lobes (epipodia ?) developed into swimming organs. Visceral dome elongated and secondarily symmetrical, rarely c...
-Class Gastropoda
Glossophora, with a foot, which, except in certain swimming forms, is simple, median, and flattened into a broad, sole-like surface by the contractions of which the animal crawls. It is often divided ...
-Sub-Class 2. Gastropoda Anisopleura
Gastropoda, in which the primitive bilateral symmetry is retained in the head and foot, whilst the visceral dome with the mantle fold is twisted from behind round the right side more or less to the fr...
-Gastropoda Anisopleura. Part 2
Conus, Nassa, Bithynia. Other special glands are the grapelike poison glands of Aplysia and Dolabella, which open near the genital aperture close to the osphradium, and the small glands on the inner s...
-Gastropoda Anisopleura. Part 3
The capsule contains ciliated cells, and in some instances, at any rate, sense-cells. The calcareous otolith is either laminated and globular, or, as is most usual, consists of a mass of crystals. 1 ...
-Gastropoda Anisopleura. Part 4
The heart is placed sometimes in front of, sometimes behind, the base of the ctenidia, and then the auricle lies either anteriorly or posteriorly in the body, with reference to the ventricle. Hence th...
-Gastropoda Anisopleura. Part 5
Accessory glands sometimes open upon it. The oviduct in the lower part of its course usually dilates into a uterus, the walls of which secrete albumen, or more rarely there is a specialised albumen gl...
-Gastropoda Anisopleura. Part 6
The Gastropoda Anisopleura are classified as follows (Ray Lankester): I. Streptoneura (Prosobranchia Minus Placophord) Visceral nerve-loop twisted; sexes separate. (1) Zygobranchia Both ctenidia p...
-Branch II. Lipocephala
Mollusca with rudimentary prostomium. Eyes absent on the prosto-mial region of the adult. No odontophore or jaws. Class Lamellibranhciata. (Conchifera; Pelecypoda; Elatobranchid) Lipocephala with ve...
-Branch II. Lipocephala. Part 2
The tentacles or papillae developed on a greater or less extent of the margin of the mantle, and at the siphonal apertures in many Lamelli-branchiata, are probably tactile. Cells ending in sensory hai...
-Branch II. Lipocephala. Part 3
The first form commencing with Area leads through Mytilus and Pecten to Ostreal where it is degenerate, 'the second commences with Unto and leads to Venus and Scrobicularia' (Grobben). Venus has also ...
-Phylum Arthropoda
Coelomate Metazoa, with a bilaterally symmetrical body, composed of a series of somites, usually disposed in dissimilar groups; with a pair of hollow-jointed limbs attached to more or fewer of the som...
-Phylum Arthropoda. Part 2
In a polymeniscous eye a single lens-facet, a vitrella, and retinula constitute an 'element/ or the two latter, i.e. vitrella and retinula, an ommatidium. The vitreous cells retain the power of formin...
-Phylum Arthropoda. Part 3
Peripatus has numerous tracheal pits; in other tracheate Arthropoda more or fewer of the somites possess each a pair of stigmata, the head alone excepted, on which they are very rarely present. It has...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.)
Tracheate Arthropoda with the body divided into three regions', a head, thorax, and abdomen. The head carries a pair of antennae and three pairs of oral appendages, the thorax three pairs of jointed l...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 2
The wings themselves are primarily thin membranous expansions composed of two membranes, an upper and lower, originally separate; narrow at the base, where they are attached and supported by veins or ...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 3
The visual (retinal) cells possess visual rods at their inner ends, and the surrounding cells are pigmented at their peripheral ends, hyaline at their inner ends, which bend inwards horizontally over ...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 4
This last-named structure is perhaps more or less characteristic of nocturnal Insecta. The red light which is reflected outwards from it, is especially well seen in Moths. It is evident that Grenadier...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 5
The sexes are separate. Hermaphroditism when it occurs is due only to malformation. The male differs in size, shape, etc. from the female. The genital rudiments develope into a series of ovarial tubes...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 6
The parthenogenetic Aphidae except Chermes and Phylloxera are viviparous. In the Cynipidae there is as a rule only one such generation, but many in Aphidae, Coccidae, Psyche and Solenobia. Paedogenesi...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 7
The following classification is taken from Brauer (Systematisch Zool. Studien, SB. Akad. Wien, xci. Abth. 1, 1885). It is based upon recent advances in anatomy and embryology. Italics, etc. have been ...
-Class Insecta. (Hexapoda.). Part 8
Neuroptera: larvae of Ant-lion, Redtenbacher, Dk. Akad. Wien, xlviii. 1884; structure of mouth-parts, Dewitz, Berlin Entom. Zeitung, xxvi. 1882, p. 61. Sialidae: Corydalis, Haldeman and Leidy, Mem. Am...
-Class Myriapoda
Terrestrial tracheate Arthropoda, zvith a head, followed by a series, usually numerous, of similar somites: with a pair of antennae, mandibles, and maxillae. Limbs 6-7 jointed, ending with a claw. Th...
-Class Myriapoda. Continued
The stigma in Diplopoda and in Scutigera leads into a chamber or 'tracheal sac,' from which originate bundles of simple tracheal tubes. Glomeris, however, is an exception. Each of its tracheal sacs gi...
-Class Protracheata. (Onychophora, Peripatidea)
Tracheate Arthropoda with soft, worm-like bodies, a pair of antennae, and a series of paired imperfectly jointed limbs. Tracheal stigmata nnmeroiis and scattered; nephridia or segmental organs present...
-Class Arachnida
Tracheate or branchiate Arthropoda with a cephalothorax bearing 4-6 pairs of ambulatory limbs, and an abdomen either segmented or unsegmented and sometimes divisible into two distinct regions, an ante...
-Class Arachnida. Part 2
The supra-oesophageal nervous centre supplies the eyes and integument: it is connected at the sides and behind the oesophagus to a single nerve mass in Linguatulina, Acarina, Araneidae, Pedipalpi, and...
-Class Arachnida. Part 3
Lankester and Bourne figure the hypodermic basement membrane as passing beneath the lateral eyes of Limulus and Scorpions. In Spiders a membrane also extends in a similar way beneath the eye, and is s...
-Class Arachnida. Part 4
Phrynus (Pedipalpi) and the Scorpionidae are viviparous 1. The Tardigrada lay their ova in their cast-off skin; the Araneidae as a rule and the Psendoscorpionidae carry their ova about attached to the...
-Class Crustacea
Aquatic Arthropoda with cutaneous or branchiate respiration: with two pairs of antennae, a limb-bearing thorax, either free or united more or less to the head, and as a rule a segmented abdomen which ...
-Class Crustacea. Part 2
Eyes are absent in some Crustaceans which live subterraneanly. They are confined to the head, but in the Enphausidae (Schizopoda) accessory eyes or luminous organs (?) occur on the coxae of the second...
-Class Crustacea. Part 3
Patten has examined the eyes of certain Decapoda, (Penaeus, Palaemon, Galathea, Pagurus), especially those of the first-named, in great detail. They have the typical structure given in note p. 452, an...
-Class Crustacea. Part 4
The spermatozoa are vibratile in Cirripedia: so too in Ostracoda after they have entered the female ducts3. In other Crustacea they are non-motile and are in Decapoda furnished with processes. They ar...
-Class Crustacea. Part 5
The Crustacea may be classified as follows (Claus): A. Entomostraca: small, simply organised; number of somites and of appendages very variable. 1. Phyllopoda: body elongated, generally well segmente...
-Pycnogonidae. (Pantoftoda)
Marine Arthropoda with a body composed of a cephalothorax, three free thoracic somites, and a rudimentary abdomen. The cephalothorax consists of a tubular proboscis with a terminal mouth, a prae-oral,...
-Phylum Echinodermata
Coelomate Metazoa in zvhich the bilateral symmetry of the larva is more or less completely replaced by a radial symmetry. Calcifications of the integument form a mesodermic skeleton generally of great...
-Phylum Echinodermata. Part 2
In Thyonella gemmatal (Holothnrioidea) and Ophiactis virens (Ophiuroidea), there are corpuscles tinted with haemoglobin 1. The organ cannot be considered as excretory. It is connected with an aboral v...
-Phylum Echinodermata. Part 3
A sexual difference in colour has been noticed in the Asteroid Oreaster (Pentaceros) turritus and Ophiuroid Ophiothrix Petersi. Otherwise the sexes are alike. Among the Holothurioidea the majority mu...
-Class Holothurioidea S. Scytodermata
Echinodermata with elongated bodies, and a tough integument with well developed muscular coats, and as a rule a feebly developed calcareous skeleton. There is a circle of circumoral tentacles borne by...
-Class Holothurioidea S. Scytodermata. Continued
Cucumaria, or the second alone, e. g. many Holothuriae. Among the Elasipoda the median ambulacrum of the trivium has rarely any feet, and the lateral ambulacra carry cylindrical feet, as a rule few an...
-Echinozoa
Echinodermata in which the calcareous skeleton attains great perfection and bears spines fixed or free, whilst the muscular system is much reduced. The apical system, always present in development, ma...
-Echinozoa. Part 2
The oral system of plates is represented in Palaeostoma mirabilis, one of the Spatangidae, by five large interradial plates surrounding the mouth, but it is doubtful if this system exists in other Urc...
-Echinozoa. Part 3
To the plates of the corona are attached various structures - spines, clavulae, pedicellariae, and sphaeridia. The spines are generally restricted to the interambulacra in Palaeo-echinidae. They are a...
-Echinozoa. Part 4
Similar pinnate feet proceed from the pores of the petala in Petalosticha, a group in which there are locomotive feet both with and without terminal discs. It is a rule that the feet within an area in...
-Echinozoa. Part 5
Echinozoa with bodies flattened dorso-ventr ally, pentagonal in outline or prolonged into arm-like extensions, usually five in number. Arms with a ventral ambidacral furrow lodging the tube-feet which...
-Echinozoa. Part 6
The dorsal perisoma, except in Brisinga, developes numerous minute and delicate processes. These are tubular and contractile. They contain an extension of the coelome, and are known as dermal branchia...
-Class Ophiuroidea
Echinozoa with a disc-like body and slender arms sharply marked off from it; arms plated; no ambulacral groove; madreporite on actinal surface; usually fused to an oral plate; tube-feet pointed, later...
-Pelmatozoa
Echinodermata which are fixed permanently or temporarily by an aboral stem, generally jointed and containing a neuro-vascular apparatus. The apical system incloses or supports the visceral mass. The o...
-Pelmatozoa. Part 2
In Thaumatocrinus the arms like the radials are five in number, but in other Comatididae and stalked living Crinoids they are ten or more, owing to the branching of the five rays. The arms themselves,...
-Pelmatozoa. Part 3
The cords give off branches in each joint, one pair to the thin aboral integument, two other pairs to the lateral and oral surfaces. Bipolar cells have, in some instances, been seen in the course of t...
-Class Cystoidea
Extinct Pelmatozoa, either sessile, or furnished with a short stalk. The body is ovate or globular, and covered with polygonal plates rarely arranged with regularity. The stem-joints are round and rin...
-Class Blastoidea
Extinct Pelmatozoa with a short stem, an ovate body, and five-rayed ambulacral area. The calyx consists of three basals, five radials and five (interradial) orals. Each radial is forked, inclosing a s...
-Vermes
The classes and minor groups collectively termed Vermes do not constitute a phylum in any way comparable for example to the phyla Mollusca or Echinodermata. It is easy to show that the various Mollusc...
-Vermes. Part 2
A vascular system is developed in Enteropneusta, most Chaetopoda, the Polygordiidae among Archi-Annelida and the Gephyrea, with the exception of Priaptdidae1. It consists of a system of tubes, some po...
-Vermes. Part 3
Hermaphroditism is characteristic of Chaetopoda Oligochaeta, Hirndinea, Trematoda, Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Chaetognatha. It generally takes the form of successive hermaphroditism, i.e. one of the tw...
-Vermes. Part 4
Hatschek, whose observations on Polygordius and Echiurus are followed in the text, doubts this fact. At any rate such an origin is not primitive. The division of the digestive tract into stomodaeum, a...
-Vermes. Part 5
There are several interesting Vermian genera or groups, which do not fall under any of the thirteen above-mentioned classes, and which can only be briefly touched upon here. They are as follows: 1.Th...
-Class Enteropneusta
Marine Vermes with a ciliated epidermis, and a body divided into three regions, viz. a prae-oral contractile proboscis, a 'collar surrounding the narrow base of the proboscis, and a long worm-like tr...
-Class Enteropneusta. Continued
The sexes are separate, and the sexual glands consist of simple or branched sacs derived from the epidermis (?), opening by external pores, and placed in lobes of the body-walls, which are arranged in...
-Class Chaetopoda
Multisegmental Vermes, with a more or less prominent prostomial lobe; with locomotor organs in the shape of chitinoid setae, implanted either in the body-zvall or in special elevations, the parapodia;...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 2
The first ventral or sub-oesophageal ganglion is contained in the peristomial somite. It may give off one, or two (Eunice), or three (Phyllodoce) pairs of nerves indicating a fusion of somites. Actual...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 3
The septa are well-developed in Oligochaeta (except Aeolosoma), Errantia, and many Tubicola, whilst in other Tubicola only one or two may be present in the anterior region of the body. The chambers th...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 4
They may be absent also in some Polychaeta and rudimentary in others, and lodged either within, or in close apposition with, the cerebral ganglia. As a rule they are confined to the prostomium, but am...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 5
The vascular or so-called pseud-haemal system is absent in some Polychaeta, i. e. Glyceridae, Capitellidae, Polycirrus, Tomopteris, which may hence be termed An-angian1 It constitutes in all others a ...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 6
Moreover the nephridia themselves in this instance have remarkable peculiarities. There may be 3-4 funnels to a nephridium; two adjacent nephridia may be connected by a tube; and the duct of each neph...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 7
Much variety exists in the disposition of these parts (pp. 205-8). Though strong structural resemblances exist between the genital ducts and nephridia in Oligochaeta, it is by no means certain that th...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 8
The ventral nerve-cord is usually said to be derived from two epiblastic thickenings which unite at a later period with the cerebral ganglia, epiblastic thickenings of the prae-oral lobe; cf. note, p....
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 9
The Chaetopoda appear to have considerable powers of reparation after injury, and the formation of a new head with anterior somites, and of new posterior somites has been observed. Phosphorescence occ...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 10. Archi-Chaetopoda = Saccocirridae
This order is represented by the marine Saccocirrus papillocercus from the bays of Sebastopol and Marseilles. It has a small prostomium, a large peristomium, a segmented body, which terminates in two ...
-Class Chaetopoda. Part 11
There are two pairs of nephridia, one posterior, the other anterior; and the members of the latter pair belong to different but successive somites. Testes and ovaries appear to be derived from periton...
-Archi-Annelida
The name Archi-Annelida was employed originally by Hatschek as an ordinal name for the Polygordiidae, a family with a single genus, Polygordius, to which he added subsequently the genus Protodrilus. F...
-Class Gephyrea
Vermes with a sub-cylindrical non-segmented body, usually brightly coloured. The fore-part of the body is either invaginable, and provided with tentacles, or prolonged into an extensile prostomium, wh...
-Class Gephyrea. Part 2
The integumental spines of the Priapididae are cuticular elevations lined with elongated hypodermis cells, and in Priapulus caudatus, according to Scharff, some or all of the cells end in projecting s...
-Class Gephyrea. Part 3
Here it bifurcates; a branch lies on either side of the prostomium, surrounds the pharynx, and then the two fuse and form a ventral supra-neural vessel which ends blindly at the posterior end of the n...
-Class Gephyrea. Part 4
In Aspidosiphon fuscus both ovaries and testes have the form of mesenterial folds attached behind the ventral retractors of the pharynx on either side the nerve cord, between two bundles of circular m...
-Class Gephyrea. Part 5
The larva of Bonellia viridis possesses two rings of cilia: it also becomes ciliated all over. The mouth probably appears behind the first ring, but is formed after its disappearance. The ventral cord...
-Class Hirudinea. (Discophora)
Multisegmental Vermes, in which the original somites are masked by the development of secondary annuli. The posterior somites are always fused to form a terminal sucker. The original coelome is oblite...
-Class Hirudinea. (Discophora). Continued
The stomach is a relatively short tube: its calibre varies and is sometimes very small. In Clepsine it has four pairs of lateral caeca. It is followed by a short intestine and a rectum which ends in a...
-Class Rotifera
Unisegmental Vermes with a retractile trochal apparatus at the anterior end of the body, and a posterior foot which is a ventral process of the body. There is a single ganglion dorsally placed, a pair...
-Class Nemertea (Nentertini. Turbellaria Rkynckocoela)
Unisegmental Vermes, with a ciliated ectoderm; a pair of cephalic ciliated pits or grooves; a protrnsible proboscis, placed dor sally to the oesophagus, opening above the mouth, and surrounded by nerv...
-Class Nemertea (Nentertini. Turbellaria Rkynckocoela). Part 2
The lateral cords are placed towards the dorsal aspect of the body in Langia (Schizonemertea), towards its ventral aspect in Drepanophorus (Hoplonemertea). The supra-anal commissure is found in Hoplon...
-Class Nemertea (Nentertini. Turbellaria Rkynckocoela). Part 3
There are two principal longitudinal and lateral spaces in Carinella, Cephalothrix, and Carinoma; there is added to these in Polia, Valeneinia, and Schizonemertea, a median vessel placed above the dig...
-Class Trematoda
Unisegmental Vermes, with a flattish leaflike or more or less cylindrical body provided with organs of adhesion in the shape of suckers, and sometimes of chitinoid hooks. The cuticle so-called appears...
-Class Trematoda. Part 2
Large cells furnished with processes are scattered among the bundles of muscular fibres. In Tristomum nerve-fibrils were traced by Lang into continuity with these cells, but Looss was unable to demons...
-Class Trematoda. Part 3
Ciliated funnels have been detected in several monogenetic Tre-matoda, e. g. Polystomum integerrimum. There is generally a system of canals corresponding to the two sides of the body which branch and ...
-Class Trematoda. Part 4
Self-impregnation appears to occur as well as reciprocal impregnation2. The ovum has a shell at first clear, then becoming coloured, furnished at one end, except in Bilharzia, with a cover or operculu...
-Class Trematoda. Part 5
The monogenetic Trematoda frequent a single host and are ecto-parasitic, i. e. do not as a rule inhabit the internal organs of this host. The exceptions are Calicotyle, which has been found in the clo...
-Class Trematoda. Part 6
The Cercaria has a body shaped like that of a sexual Trematode, though its proportions may undergo change in subsequent growth. It possesses the rudiments of suckers, digestive tract, and the excretor...
-Class Trematoda. Part 7
Four sub-families: Octobothriidae, with Octobothrium, Diplozoon, etc.; Poly-stomidae, with Polystomum, Onchocotyle, etc.; Microcotylidae, with Axine, Microcotyle, etc., Aspidogaster, Coty/aspis; Gyrod...
-Class Cestoda
Unisegmental or spuriously (?) segmented Vermes, devoid of organs of special sense and of a digestive tract. There are organs of adhesion in the shape of chitinoid hooks, suckers or grooves. The nervo...
-Class Cestoda. Part 2
The neck and body of the worm are more or less flattened. One surface, that beneath which the testes lie, is, judging from the analogy of the Trematoda, considered to be dorsal; the other, to which th...
-Class Cestoda. Part 3
The excretory vessels of the scolex are continuous with those of the proscolex. The latter appear to form a network, and open posteriorly by a pulsatile vesicle. The contents of the excretory canals, ...
-Class Cestoda. Part 4
The uterus of Bothriocephahus opens posteriorly to the genital sinus, of Triaenophorus anteriorly, and, unlike its genital ducts, on the surface of the joints. 1Quoted by Kiessling, A. N. 48, (I), 18...
-Class Cestoda. Part 5
The scolex of Ligula and Schistocephalus developes joints and immature sexual organs while still within the first host, a Stickleback; that of T. crassicollis (= Cysticercus fasciolaris of the Mouse) ...
-Class Cestoda. Part 6
The family Amphilinidae contains two genera, Amphilina from the coelome of the Sturgeon, Amphiptyches from the intestine of Chimaera. The body is flat, and like that of a Distome, with a sucker at its...
-Class Turbellaria
Unisegmental Vermes1 with a ciliated ectoderm in which are found rhabdites, pseudo-rhqbdites, or nematocysts; with two cerebral ganglia connected transversely, each of which is continued backwards int...
-Class Turbellaria. Part 2
There are usually two or four in this group, and in the Tricladida, but in the latter they are sometimes more numerous, and in a terrestrial form from Brazil extend along the lateral margins. They are...
-Class Turbellaria. Part 3
The ovaries are two and simple (Acoela, Rhabdocoele Macrostomidae); they are numerous and simple in Polycladida. In some Rhabdocoela, e. g. Prorhynchus, the two glands, though simple externally, are f...
-Class Turbellaria. Part 4
Both genera appear not to have, unlike both Polyclads and Ctenophores, anything homologous with the ectodermal pharyngeal pouch of the former or stomach of the latter. 1 See Silliman, Z. W. Z. xli. 1...
-Class Chaetognatha
This class of Vermes contains two genera, Sagitta and Spadella; pelagic with the exception of Sp. cephaloptera, which is littoral. They occur in all seas. The organism is divided by two septa into thr...
-Class Nematoda
Unisegmental Vermes, with a narrow elongated body of more or less cylindrical shape and tapering to each end. There is a well-developed cuticida, derived from a subcuticida or hypodermis; a peripharyn...
-Class Nematoda. Part 2
Two similar ventral nerves have been also met with in the young Ascaris (Joseph). Ganglion cells are found in the oesophageal ring, chiefly at the origins of the nerves; in the circumoral plexus into ...
-Class Nematoda. Part 3
It consists of an internal cuticle, a well-developed subcuticula, and a circular muscular coat, the latter derived from the radial bands which originate from the body-walls, and act as divaricators. T...
-Class Nematoda. Part 4
The female aperture is usually on the ventral aspect and near the middle of the body, but it may be close to the mouth, or just in front of the anus, as in some Strongyli. It is generally a cross slit...
-Class Nematoda. Part 5
The mode of life in the Nematoda is very variable, and no less than thirteen distinct modifications of development are enumerated by von Linstow as follows1: - (I) The embryo developes directly into t...
-Class Nematoda. Part 6
F. sanguinis hominis, found in Australia, China, India, Egypt, and Brazil, the sexual female of which inhabits the lymphatic glands, is the cause of elephantiasis, lymph scrotum, etc. and produces liv...
-Class Nematoda. Part 7
There are two larval forms, both annulated. The first has a distinct head, body, and tail. The head is in- and e-vaginable, armed at its base with three circles of spines, and at its apex with three s...
-Class Acanthocephala
This small class of entoparasitic Vermes contains the single genus Echinorhynchus with many species very variable in size. The adult worm is found in the alimentary canal of some Vertebrate, the immat...
-Brachiopoda, Vermiformia, Polyzoa, Pterobranchia
The systematic position and relations of these four classes still remains, in spite of much research, a matter of complete uncertainty. They are often grouped together as Molluscoidea. The term is not...
-Class Brachiopoda
Coelomate Metazoa fixed to some foreign object usually by a peduncle, and provided with a bivalved calcareous shell. This shell is inequivalve, but each valve is equilateral (see p. 124). Its v...
-Class Brachiopoda. Part 2
The body of the Brachiopod lies at the base or peduncular end of the 'shell, more on the side of the dorsal valve than of the ventral, a position most marked in Testicardines. Two 'mantle' folds, one ...
-Class Brachiopoda. Part 3
They form, however, at the base of the peduncle distinct bundles (adjustor muscles of Hancock) which are inserted on the valves of the shell where they cause impressions. 1 The preceding description ...
-Class Brachiopoda. Part 4
A circumpallial sinus uniting the terminations of the pallial sinuses is figured by Joubin in Discina; and is said by Hancock, but with some doubt, to exist in Waldheimia australis, etc. Other extensi...
-Class Brachiopoda. Part 5
The Brachiopoda are found in all seas. The greatest number live at moderate depths down to i oo fathoms; few range to 500 fathoms; but Discina atlantica occurs between 690-2400, and Terebratula Wyvill...
-Vermiformia
This group contains only a single marine genus, Phoronis, with several species. It occurs on our own coasts in societies of separate individuals. The animal inhabits a fixed leathery tube within which...
-Class Polyzoa (Bryozod)
Coelomate Metazoa, small in size, and, with one exception, forming colonies, or zoaria, which are, as a rule, fixed. There is a cuticle, secreted by the ectoderm, usually thickened and rigid on the po...
-Class Polyzoa (Bryozod). Part 2. Ectoprocta
The zooids, or polypides, form a colony, or zoarium, which is sometimes erect and either lamellate, or branching, and plant-like, or else adherent to some foreign object, either living, e.g. crab, sea...
-Class Polyzoa (Bryozod). Part 3
There are three forms of larva among Gymnolaemata, the bivalved larva of Flustrella and of Membranipora, the latter known as Cyphonautes: the larva of other Cheilostomata, and Ctenostomata, and that o...
-Pterobranchia
The two marine genera Rhabdopleura and Cephalodiscus are contained in this group; the former found near the Shetland and Lofoten Islands, and on the Norwegian coast at depths of 90, 200, and 40 fathom...
-Coelenterata
Metazoa in which a gelatinoid substance, the supporting lamina or mesoglaea 1, intervenes between the epi- and hypo-blast of the embryo or larva, and persists throughout life, holding the position of ...
-Coelenterata. Continued
A sense-cell is long, slender, provided with a cilium or stiff hair at the external end, and prolonged basally into 2-3 fine filaments which are connected to nerve fibres or processes of ganglion cell...
-Class Ctenophora
Non-colonial, free-swimming and pelagic Coelenterata, globular, cylindrical, rarely band-like in shape. The month is at one pole of the principal axis, a sensory organ and otolithic mass with two excr...
-Class Ctenophora. Part 2
The tentacles are two in number, and originate from a thickened basis which is sunk in a deep pit or tentacle sheath, the aperture of which is turned aborally. Consequently, the basis lies more or les...
-Class Ctenophora. Part 3
The branches of the sub-tentacular and sub-ventral vessels of the anterior half of the body unite inter se as well as with the paragastric branches: so too the corresponding branches of the posterior ...
-Class Ctenophora. Part 4
A sub-ectodermic plexus of nerve fibrils, with nodal ganglion cells, has been found in some Ctenophora. Sub-ectodermic muscle cells occur on the body of Hormiphora, of Eucha?is, on its broad aspect in...
-Class Anthozoa
Marine Coelenterata either free or fixed, simple or colonial. The mouth is an elongated slit in the centre of an oval disc or peristome which bears one or more circles of hollow tentacles. It leads in...
-Sub-Class I, Alcyonaria ( = Oclactiniae)
Anthozoa which are colonial with the exception of a single family. The colony is sometimes free. The tentacles are eight in number, similar and pinnate, the mesenteries also eight and complete. The re...
-Sub-Class I, Alcyonaria ( = Oclactiniae). Part 2
The surface of the skeleton is covered superficially by a layer of cells or calycoblasts from which the hard structures are derived 1. 1Alcyonium digitatum sometimes occurs in free ball-like colonies...
-Sub-Class I, Alcyonaria ( = Oclactiniae). Part 3
The autozooid always has the typical structure above given. The si-phonozooid differs from it in the absence of tentacles and retractor muscles; in the great development of the siphonoglyphe; in havin...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla)
Anthozoa which may be simple or colonial, and in the latter case furnished as a rule with either an organic or calcareous contimwus skeleton derived from the basal ectoderm. The tentacles are usually ...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla). Part 2
It Consists of two macrosepta, the other of two microsepta. The former is termed ventral and to it corresponds the single siphonoglyphe. The remaining pairs of mesenteries are disposed so as to consti...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla). Part 3
Two mesenteries only-are complete, and they correspond to the long axis of the body: they have mesenterial filaments, and carry the sexual products. Two short mesenteries correspond to each end of the...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla). Part 4
Mr. G. C. Bourne informs me that in species are in the young condition very closely alike, and sometimes indistinguishable;' and 'in the very early stages the young of even widely different species of...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla). Part 5
Of these various modes, (1) and (2) are often termed simply 'fission,' and (3) 'calycular gemmation,' very common in the extinct Rugosa. Fission may be quite imperfect; e. g. Dana states that the long...
-Sub-Class 2, Zoantharia ( = Hexacoralla). Part 6
There are large numbers of fossil Madreporaria known. The existing fauna appears to be but sparingly represented in Palaeozoic times during which flourished a series of extinct and peculiar forms (inf...
-Class Hydrozoa
Marine, rarely freshwater, Coelenterata; free or fixed; simple or colonial. There are two forms of zooids, the Hydroid and the Medusa, the former asexual except in Hydra, the latter alone, or one of i...
-Sub-Class I. Craspedota
(Cryptocarpa, Gymnophthalmata, Hydromedusae). Hydroid form, either a free and temporary larval stage, or permanent, and then either free or fixed, solitary or coloiiial either temporarily or permanen...
-Craspedota. Part 2
The tentacles are usually numerous, and may even be disposed in several rows one above the other. Eight, four radial and four interradial, occur in some instances, four radial in Petasus alone, reduce...
-Craspedota. Part 3
The segmentation of the egg in the Cunanthidae has never been observed. The life histories of several members of the family, so far as known, are most remarkable. (1) Cunoctantha (Cunina) octonaria, p...
-Craspedota. Part 4
The Trachymedusae are marine, unless the freshwater Limnocodium, of unknown habitat, and a Medusa, lately found in Lake Tanganyika (Central Africa), belong to the order2. Some of them have been dredge...
-Craspedota. Part 5
The hydranths are usually very small in size; the largest known, a Monocaulus, does not exceed 1 1/2 in. in length. When they are attached to a branched stem, they are disposed either terminally or la...
-Craspedota. Part 6
(ii) The highly extensile tentacle-like and apparently solid zooids of the Campanularian Ophiodes, attached singly to the hydrocope or in numbers to the hydrorhiza. They are capitate, and the terminal...
-Craspedota. Part 7
The bell of the Anthomedusae is, as a rule, of greater depth than breadth, conical or a four-sided pyramid in shape, and of a firm consistence 1. Meridional ridges or a network composed chiefly of cni...
-Craspedota. Part 8
The sexual zooid is very commonly degenerate, and is always so in the two Campanularian families Plumularidae and Serhilaridae1, and the following stages may be enumerated (Weissman): (i) Medusoid. Th...
-Craspedota. Part 9
The Medusae Bougainvillea superciliaris and Ametrangia hemisphaerica are viviparous1. Segmentation is total, rarely very unequal as in Clava squamata, where the hypoblast is represented by two cells f...
-Craspedota. Part 10
The freshwater Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite in its first observed stage in the ova of the Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus). It is then a cylindrical tube or stolon which gives origin to 16 buds, ea...
-Craspedota. Part 11
With the degeneration in development of the sexual zooid (p. 762, ante) the place in which the sexual cells first originate is altered. They may arise in the entocodon, e. g. in Tubularia (2), male Cl...
-Craspedota. Part 12
Oval or bell-shaped capsules - Dawsonia - are often found mingled with the Graptolites, and have been supposed to be detached ovarial capsules (Nicholson). In the Retioloidea, the second section of Gr...
-Craspedota. Part 13
They contain a central endodermic canal from which, as in Crystallodes (Agalma) rigidum, a process may extend to the lateral angles. (6) Necto-calyces absent in Discoideae, Physalia, Athorybia, and Rh...
-Craspedota. Part 14
Its ectoderm developes a circular and a longitudinal layer of muscle cells, its endoderm a circular. The colonies of Physophoridae are mostly of moderate size, but Agalma elegans attains a length of ...
-Craspedota. Part 15
As to the special character of the colony two views have found acceptance. One is, that the coenosarc, as it is called, is the homologue of the manubrium of a Medusa, the primitive hydrophyllium, pres...
-Craspedota. Part 16
The Craspedota are classified as follows I. Order Trachy Medusae, Trachylinae (Haeckel) Tentacles solid, sometimes replaced in part in the adult by hollow; tentaculocysts or auditory organs with end...
-Craspedota. Part 17
I. Trachymedusae, Haeckel, System der Medusen, Jena, 1879, pp. 234-359; Id. Deep-sea Medusae, Challenger Reports, iv. 1882, pp. 9-48; anatomy of various species, see in O. and R. Hertwig, Das Nervensy...
-Sub-Class 2. Acraspeda. (Acalephae, Phanerocarpa, Steganopthalmata, Scyphomedusae)
Hydroid form known in a few instances only; small and fixed, protected partially in some instances by a perisarcal tube; with a peristomial disc bordered by sixteen (or more) solid tentacles; mouth sq...
-Acraspeda. (Acalephae, Phanerocarpa, Steganopthalmata, Scyphomedusae). Part 2
The same eight bifid lobes and the rhopalia appear in each of the remaining segments of the Strobila. The basal pyriform portion of the Scyphostoma developes, sooner or later, a set of sixteen tentacl...
-Acraspeda. (Acalephae, Phanerocarpa, Steganopthalmata, Scyphomedusae). Part 3
The exumbrellar and subumbrellar walls of the peripheral part of the gastric cavity fuse from place to place with the formation of a gastral lamella, leaving pouches, simple or branched vessels, or re...
-Acraspeda. (Acalephae, Phanerocarpa, Steganopthalmata, Scyphomedusae). Part 4
The characters above given apply to the second division of Acraspeda, the Ephyroniae of Haeckel. A large number of Medusae belong to it, and it contains three orders, the Cannostomae, Semostomae, and ...
-Acraspeda. (Acalephae, Phanerocarpa, Steganopthalmata, Scyphomedusae). Part 5
On the nature of these genital lamellae, see O. and R. Hertwig, J. Z. xiii. p. 599; Claus, Arb. Zool. Inst. Wien, i. 1878, p. 269 et seqq., and his Untersuchungen, p. 37. Their accounts differ. 2Haec...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae)
Coelenterata of very varied and often inconstant shape; frequently massive; devoid of tentacles. Concrescence between parts of the same individual or of different individuals of the same species is ve...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 2
In leaf-shaped sponges they are more or less confined to one surface, the pores to the other (Polejaefif) - a separation which is complete in the Calcarean family Teichonidae. The aperture may be supe...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 3
In the Geodidae and several Ancorinidae the pores may open each into a cortical funnel (/sops), or into narrow canals which unite, or into sub-dermal spaces, from which in either case cortical funnels...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 4
Structures may occur which fall under none of the four types, e. g. the amphidiscs of the gemmules of Spongilla (p. 250)1. 1 For the origin of the calcareous spicule within a cell, see Metschnikoff, ...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 5
Foreign inorganic bodies, such as grains of sand, spicules of other sponges, etc, commonly occur in the medulla of the fibres, either of the principal alone, or of all without distinction, in the Spon...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 6
The free larva has one of three forms, (I) It is an oval blastula with a large blastocoele. The cells are all similar, and the blastocoele is soon filled by the immigration of cells at all points as i...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 7
Mesoglaea appears between the ecto- and endo-derm after fixation in both sponges alike; its cells are derived in Sycandra (Sycon) from the ectoderm, in Oscarella from the endoderm1. The attached larva...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 8
They surround in the Tetillae in question 12-20 ampullae, but in the Tethya ampullae grow out among the cells and then multiply in number. The bud-mass is gradually extruded either along a fascicle of...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 9
The mesoglaea is soft or firm, hyaline or granular; it contains cells of various kinds, and sometimes fibres. The cells are either naked or provided with a delicate membrane. They fall under the follo...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 10
The mode in which nutrition is effected has given rise to much debate. A living sponge is traversed by currents of water passing in at the pores and out of the oscula, or, if oscula are absent, out of...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 11
A small group, the Gastreadae of Haeckel, of doubtful affinities may be mentioned here. They are marine sponge-like organisms with a body-wall composed of an ectodermal syncytium (? mesoglea + ectoder...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 12
Euspongia, Hippospongia, etc.; Aplysinidae; Darwin-ellidae, Aplysilla, Dendrilla, Darwinella. See p. 253 1 1 For classification and genera, see the works of Polejaeff and von Lendenfeld cited in the ...
-Class Porifera. (Spongida, Spongiae, Spongiariae). Part 13
Gemmation. Summary, and in a Tethya, Merejkowsky, A. Z. Expt. viii. 1879-80; in Tetilla and Tethya, Salensky, Z. W. Z. xxxiii. 1880, pp. 470, 473; Lampe, A. N. 52 (1), p. 17; in Craniella, Vosmaer, 'P...
-Mesozoa (E. Van Beneden)
Multicellular animals, in which there is only an ectoderm and endoderm or epi- and hypo-blast. The ectoderm is composed of a single layer of cells, totally or partially ciliated, the endoderm of a si...
-Mesozoa (E. Van Beneden). Part 2
The Rhombozoa are defined as follows by E. van Beneden: - 'Body never an-nulated; endoderm a single cell; no muscular fibres; the germs originate and develope within an axial cell. The male has the fo...
-Mesozoa (E. Van Beneden). Part 3
The infusoriform embryo has the form of a top or pear; the broad end is the head, the conical portion the tail. The head is non-ciliated, the tail ciliated. The former consists of two dorsally-placed ...
-Protozoa
Unicellular animals, i. e. animals in which the organism is a single cell physiologically complete in itself. An apparent exception to the above given definition is met with in the fusion-plasmodium ...
-Protozoa. Part 2
Water may collect in the protoplasm rendering it vacuolate. In most Protozoa its excess is got rid of by the formation of drops or vacuoles, which either collapse slowly or are rhythmically pulsatile,...
-Protozoa. Part 3
There is a process known as conjugation which is generally if not universally connected with reproductive activity in some Protozoan classes (Acinetaria, Infusoria, many Mastigophord); whilst in other...
-Plegepoda
PROTOZOA in which the organism is provided with cilia, flagella, or vibratile membranes as organs of locomotion and ingestion of food, or for one or the other purpose/ Contour of the body stable, some...
-Class Acinetaria S. Tentaculifera
Plegepod Protozoa with cilia confined to the bud or fission-product, and to a temporarily assumed motile phase. Fixed as a rule, and provided with prehensile tentacles of one or of two kinds. Rarely n...
-Class Acinetaria S. Tentaculifera. Part 2
The nucleus is single: in Hemiophrya it is at first horseshoe-shaped, but is subsequently much branched, and resolved into thicker portions connected by slender filaments; and in Dendrocometes it bran...
-Class Acinetaria S. Tentaculifera. Part 3
The affinities of the Acinetaria are very obscure. The fact that the bud is ciliated does not necessarily attach them to Infusoria, and Stein's view that they are embryonic forms of different Infusori...
-Class Infusoria S. Ciliata
Plegepod Protozoa with a stable outline and a complete or partial investment of cilia. Compound cilia, pecti7iellae, and vibratile membranes are not uncommon. There is usually a special adoral band of...
-Class Infusoria S. Ciliata. Part 2
The Hypotricha have the dorsal aspect either naked or beset with fine setae, of which one or more are posterior in position, long, and occasionally compound. Cilia are confined to the flattened ventra...
-Class Infusoria S. Ciliata. Part 3
A few Holotricha e. g. some species of Opalina, and Hypotricha e. g. some species of Holosticha, have a number of similar globular nuclei, which multiply with mitosis in Opalina, Irregularly shaped nu...
-Class Infusoria S. Ciliata. Part 4
Two small posterior segments are produced simultaneously in Anoplophrya nodulata: a posterior region is marked off in A. prolifera and Benedenia, and is then divided into a chain of segments. Opalina ...
-Class Infusoria S. Ciliata. Part 5
The Infusoria are for the most part microscopic in size; some however are visible to the naked eye, e.g. Stentor polymorphtcs, which attains a length of 1/20 in.; so too the colonies of some Vorticell...
-Class Mastigophora
Plegepod Protozoa in which the organism during the chief part of its life is provided with one or more vibratile flagella as organs of locomotion and alimentation. A mouth and oesophagus sometimes pre...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 2
It is constant in position except in the amoeboid condition, and is frequently placed at the base of the flagellum or laterally; it is superficial except in some Euglenoids where it debouches into a r...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 3
The cyst varies in thickness and consistence; fission within it is binary, sometimes continued to 4-8 or even more, and the products of fission may grow, encyst, divide, without assuming a free state;...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 4
Small as they are, Flagellata are not exempt from the attacks of parasites, e. g. the colonies of Volvox afford shelter and food to two species of the Rotiferan Notommata and to the Proteomyxan Pseudo...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 5
The Peridinidae are rarely naked (Gymnodinium, all species(?), Hemi-diniutn). The cuticle is seldom structureless (Glenodinium), but is usually broken up into a number of plates arranged as a rule in ...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 6
Some Dinoflagellata have been observed encysted in a resting condition. Examples naked or protected by a fine cuticle are occasionally met with, probably derived from such cysts. Growth, however, appe...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 7
Leptodiscus medusoides has the form of a shallow concavo-convex disc .6 - 1.5 mm. in diameter. It swims vigorously by contraction of the disc into a bell-like form, the contraction including the whole...
-Class Mastigophora. Part 8
III. Dinoflagellata: two flagella at least, one parallel to the long axis of the body, the other transverse to it: includes two orders. 1. Adinida: two flagella at anterior pole; a bivalved envelope ...
-Endoparasita
Protozoa, in which the organism is either devoid of all special organs of locomotion or is provided with slowly changeable pseudopodia; nutrition takes place solely by absorption; endoparasitic in all...
-Endoparasita. Part 2
The cycle of development is usually completed in a single host; in some instances in its faeces, as in Coccidium oviforme, the intestinal Coccidia of the Rabbit and birds and in Cyclospora from Glomer...
-Endoparasita. Part 3. (II) Amoebosporidia
This sub-class has been established by Schneider for the genus Ophryocystis, represented by two species, O. Biitschlii, from the Malpighian vessels of B/aps, and O. Francisci from Akis. The hosts are ...
-Endoparasita. Part 4. (IV) Myxosporidia
The Sporozoans known by this name are parasitic in various freshwater Fish and certain Elasmobranchii. The skin of the head and opercular cavities, the branchiae and viscera are the commonest localiti...
-Rhizopoda
PROTOZOA in which the organism is provided with pseudopodia as organs of locomotion and ingestion of food, or for the latter purpose alone. Contour of the body, whether provided with an envelope or te...
-Rhizopoda. Part 2
There are many in Actinophrys and Actinosphaerium, confined to the ectosarc in the former, in the latter small and irregular in the endosarc, large, radially arranged, and close set in the ectosarc. I...
-Rhizopoda. Part 3
Gemmation appears to occur in Acanthocystis and Clathridina. A. viridis has been seen with a small uni-nucleate sphere, possessed of a contractile vacuole and one or two chlorophyl bodies lying beneat...
-Rhizopoda. Part 4
Two organisms, Microcometes paludosa and Wagnerella borealis, are regarded by some authorities as Heliozoans. The former was found under freshwater gelatinous algae in North and South Russia by Cienko...
-Class Radiolaria
Rhizopod Protozoa, with the body divided into a central part or capside lodging the nucleus, and an extra-capsular region, by a membranous capsule only exceptionally absent. Capsular membrane pierced ...
-Class Radiolaria. Part 2
The parapylae are perforations symmetrically placed near the main axis of the capsule, but at the opposite end to the astropyle. Two are commonly present, rarely one three, six, or more (Circoporida, ...
-Class Radiolaria. Part 3
These structures vary in length and number; they are radiant, but may anastomose, especially in Nassellaria and Phaeodaria, two groups in which the sarcoplegma and pseudopodia are chiefly derived from...
-Class Radiolaria. Part 4
The formation of anisospores in Collozoum and Sphaerozoum contrasts with the above (i) in the grouping of 2-3 nuclei together, and the more refractile and homogeneous character of the protoplasm direc...
-Class Radiolaria. Part 5
The Radiolaria are found in all seas and in every latitude; their wide distribution is due to oceanic currents. The variety of species is greatest in tropical regions. The Pacific Ocean has an extreme...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora)
Rhizopod Protozoa with long branching and anastomosing psendopodia which show well-marked granule-streams. The protoplasm is of a uniform character throughout the body; the nucleus single; contractile...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 2
The imperforate Keramosphaera is spherical, and consists of chambers arranged in concentric layers; there is no corresponding form known in the perforate series. An altogether irregular arrangement of...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 3
They may in some instances be subdivided into chamberlets by vertical partitions, imperfect in the imperforate Orbiadina, Orbitolites, Alveolina, perfect in the perforate Cycloclypeinae. In recent spe...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 4
Rhizatnmina has a free branching tube open at the ends; so too Sagenella, but the branches anastomose and the test creeps over some foreign object. The two genera Botellina and Haliphysema stand by th...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 5
Binary fission has been observed only in Lieberkiihnia and Micro-gromia2. In the former it is transverse, and the delicate test undergoes division with the body; in the latter it is either transverse ...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 6
Three theories have been proposed to account for the phenomenon: (1) that Orbulina is the terminal chamber of a Globigerina which has undergone complete involution, and is gradually absorbed; (2) that...
-Class Foraminifera (Reticularia; Thalamophora). Part 7
Brady classifies the Foraminifera as follows: Fam. I. Gromidae Test chitinous; smooth or encrusted with foreign bodies; imperforate; with a pseudopodial aperture at one or both extremities; pseudopo...
-Class Amoebina
Rhizopod Protozoa with lobose, digitiform or filose pseudopodia, sometimes branched, rarely anastomosing, either locomotor and alimentative in ftmction or the latter alone, sometimes perhaps tactile. ...
-Class Amoebina. Part 2
They are short and digitiform in A. actinophora, and put forth at one spot or near together; hence the Amoeba has the look of a Cochliopodium. In Trichosphaerium they are elongated, cylindrical, and i...
-Class Amoebina. Part 3
Rod-like bodies, probably of fungoid nature, are very common in Amoebae and Pelomyxa; see especially Gruber, Z. W. Z. xli. p. 210. The 'Glanz-korper' or 'glittering bodies' of P. palustris, are probab...
-Class Amoebina. Part 4
In the double cyst of Euglypha the outer cyst is ovate and composed of hexagonal plates, the inner globular and tuberculate. Platoum may quit the test to undergo encystation, and a number of individua...
-Class Amoebina. Part 5
Amoeba (with Lithamoeba, Ouramoeba, and Endamoeba); Deinamoeba s. Chaetoproteus, covered by minute spicule-like processes; Hyalodiscus, no pseudopodia, but the disc flows onwards without change of sha...
-Class Amoebina. Part 6
Pelomyxa villosa, Amoebae, 'Studien uber Amoeben,' Griiber, Z. W. Z. xli. 1884; Amoeba tentaculata, A. actinophora; 'Beitrage,' etc, Id. ibid, xxxvi. 1882, cf. A. N. H. (5), ix., and Wallich, 'Critica...
-Class Mycetozoa
Rhizopod Protozoa (?) with coated spores s. chlamydospores, giving origin to amoebulae, which may or may not become temporarily zoospores or Jlagellulae. The amoebulae grow and multiply by binary fiss...
-Class Mycetozoa. Continued
In Ceratium, the sole genus of Exosporea, the plasmodium first collects into a mass, and then grows up into a number of processes or conidio-phores. Mass and processes alike are formed of a watery jel...
-Class Labyrinthulidea
Rhizopod Protozoa (?) with filamentary tracks and travelling spindles. A group Labyrinthnleae was established, in 1867, by Cienkowski for the reception of Labyrinthula, an organism discovered by him ...
-Proteomyxa
The assemblage of forms, for the most part inhabitants of the fresh-waters, gathered together under the designation Proteomyxa (Ray Lankester), are characterised mainly by the negative feature that th...
-Proteomyxa. Part 2. Monadineae
Forms typically characterised by having two kinds of cysts, a zoocyst in which the organism undergoes division into spores either flagellulae or amoebulae, a sporocyst in which it becomes a resting-sp...
-Proteomyxa. Part 3
The chlorophyl of the Algae is partly dissolved and changed, colouring the protoplasm red, rosy, orange, yellow, or brown. V. polyblasta feeds on Euglenae. The Amoeba is large, more or less Actinophry...
-Proteomyxa. Part 4
The protoplasm has the form of a sticky network, which shows amoeboid motion, and takes up foreign bodies. A similar organism, known by the name of Bathybius Haeckelii, was supposed by several authori...









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