Teeth obsolete: infra-orbitals and opercular pieces strongly veined: subopercle square at bottom: dorsal exactly in the centre of gravity: ventrals beneath the posterior half of the dorsal.
* Loudon's Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 315.
† Cuvier says plus avancie, but I have not found it so in our English specimens, at least in those which I have examined.
‡ The White-Bait represented in Donovan's British Fishes (vol. v. pl. 98). are really young Shads, and not the above species.
C. Pilchardus, Block, Ichth. pl. 406. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 69. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 106. Flem. Brit. An. p. 183. Harengus minor, sive Pilchardus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 223. tab. P. 1. f. 1. Pilchard, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 343. pl. 68. no. 161. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 453. Le Pilchard, ou le C61an, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 319.
Nine to eleven, rarely twelve, inches.
General form resembling that of the Herring: the body, however, somewhat thicker and rounder; the depth greater, the dorsal line being more curved: belly not so sharp as in that species, although the abdominal serratures, more especially those in front of the ventrals, are rather more produced: head shorter: lower jaw not so long with respect to the upper: scarcely any perceptible teeth; the maxillaries simply with a few very fine denticulations quite at their lower extremity:. diameter of the eye about one-fourth the length of the head: subopercle cut square at bottom, and forming with the preopercle an oblong (not a semicircle as in the Herring)', both opercle and preopercle, but the last especially, with strongly-marked radiating striae: scales larger than in the Herring: dorsal more forward, and placed exactly in the centre of gravity; the distance from the end of the snout to the first ray, equalling the distance from the last ray to the base of the caudal: caudal deeply forked: pectorals two-thirds the length of the head, attached low down, beneath the subopercle: ventrals rather behind a vertical line from the middle of the dorsal:
B.6; D. 18; A. 18; C. 19, etc.; P. 16; V. 8.
Principally taken off the coast of Cornwall, where they appear in large shoals towards the end of Summer. The fishery for them commences (according to Mr. Couch) towards the end of July, and terminates about the time of the autumnal equinox. Food undetermined, but thought by Mr. Couch to be the seeds of fuci.
(2. Alosa, Cuv).