Distinct teeth in both jaws: a row of dusky spots along each side of the body.

C. Finta, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 320. C. Alosa, Block, Ichth. pl. 30. f. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 57. Turt. Brit. Faun. p.. 106. Mem. Brit. An. p. 183.? Shad, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 227. tab. P. 3. f. 1. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 348. pl. 69. no. 164. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 460. pl. 80. Yarr. in Zool. Journ. vol. iv. pp. 137, and 465. pl. 5. f. 1. (Young). Thames Shad, Bowd. Brit.fr. wat. Fish. Draw.no. 19.

Length

From ten to sixteen inches; occasionally rather more.

Description

{Form). Much larger in all its dimensions than either the Herring or the Pilchard: body thicker; also somewhat deeper in proportion to its length: ventral line more convex than the dorsal: abdomen sharply carinated; the serratures much sharper and stronger than in any of the true Clupece, most developed between the ventrals and the anal: head somewhat triangular; measuring rather more than one-fifth of the entire length: snout short; under jaw relatively longer than in the Pilchard, but not so long as in the Herring: intermaxillary deeply notched: maxillaries sharply serrated with fine teeth along their whole margin; lower jaw likewise with three or four teeth, much stronger than the others, on each side near the extremity: tongue smooth, of a triangular form, free, and terminating in a blunt point: eyes placed high on the cheeks; much smaller than in the Pilchard, their diameter being scarcely more than one-fifth the length of the head; the distance from them to the edge of the maxillary just equal to their diameter: sub-opercle as in the Herring, but rounded off at bottom more obliquely; preopercle more resembling that of the Pilchard, and marked with radiating striae as in that species, though not quite so distinctly: lateral line scarcely perceptible: scales of moderate size: dorsal placed further back than in the Pilchard, but more advanced than in the Herring, the distance from the snout to its commencement, when brought behind the fin, reaching to nearly one-third of the caudal; fifth ray longest; the preceding ones gradually increasing from the first, which is very short; first three simple, the rest branched; the last two from one root: anal longer than in the Pilchard, and not approaching quite so near the caudal; the intervening space one-seventh of the entire length of the body, caudal excluded: caudal deeply forked: pectorals more than half the length of the head: ventrals beneath the middle of the dorsal.

B. 8; D. 20; A. 21; C. 19, etc.; P. 15; V. 9.

Number of vertebrae fifty-five. {Colours). Back, and upper part of the sides, dusky blue: lower part of the sides, and belly, silvery white, or yellowish, glossed with golden hues: a row of dusky spots, generally five or six in number, but varying in different individuals, along each flank. Obs. The young of this species are distinguished from White-Bait by their greater depth in proportion to their length, smaller eye, bifid snout, the presence of teeth along the whole margin of the maxillary, more forward dorsal fin, much sharper, as well as differently formed, abdominal serratures, and by the row of spots on the sides, the first of which, immediately behind the opercle, is never wanting.

A migratory species, entering rivers in May for the purpose of spawning, and returning to the sea about the end of July. Very abundant in the Thames and Severn. In the former river is found as high up as Putney and Hammersmith, where the White-Bait is unknown. Feeds, according to Bloch, on worms, insects, and small fish. Spawns about the first week in July. Flesh coarse and insipid. In the Severn is called a Twaite, the name of Shad being reserved for the next species.