Two erect spines before the eyes: preopercle with four spines; the first one-third the length of the head.
C. Bubalis, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. iv. p. 120. pl. 78. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 163. Yarr. in Zool. Journ. vol. iv. p. 470. Father-lasher, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 138. tab. H. 4. f. 3. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 218. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 294. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 63.
From seven to nine inches.
(Form). Very similar to the last species, but differs in the following points. The head is rougher; the space between the eyes narrower, and more concave: the occipital ridges are closer together, more prominent, and very finely denticulated; behind, they terminate each in a sharp, strong, and well-defined point; the space included between the ridges is twice as long as it is broad: the great spine on the preopercle is nearly one-third the length of the head; beneath it are three, instead of only two, smaller ones: spine on the opercle, as well as the tubercles which form the lateral line, rough and granulated, in some cases finely denticulated: second dorsal with only eleven or twelve, very rarely thirteen rays: anal with only nine; terminating before the second dorsal, instead of after it, as in the last species.
D. 8 - 11 to 13; A. 9; C. 10; P. 16; V. 1/3. (Colours). Similar to those of the C. Scorpio, but the belly, lower part of the sides, and membranes of the anal and pectoral fins, with a bright red tinge, rarely observed in the other species.
First distinguished as British by Mr. Yarrell. Common on many parts of the coast, and having the same habits as those of the last species. Is evidently the one described by Willughby as well as Pennant, though the figure of this last author on the whole more resembles the C. Scorpio. Food, Crustacea and the fry of other fish. Spawns in January.