(1. Chrysophrys, Cuv).
Molars in four or five rows above, and three below: a golden spot on the preopercle, and a dark one on the opercle.
S. Aurata, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 266. Flem. Brit. An. p. 211. Chrysophrys Aurata, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. vi. p. 62. pl. 145. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 182. Gilt-head, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 307. tab. V. 5. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 97. Lunulated Gilt-head, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 240. but not pl. 42. Id. (Edit, 1812). vol. iii. p. 327. but not pl. 46.
* Proceedings ofComm. of Zool. Soc. 1831. p, 112.
(Form). Body oval, larger before than behind: depth nearly one-third of the entire length; thickness two-fifths of the depth: snout obtuse: eyes moderate, situate on the upper part of the cheek, at the distance of twice the length of their diameter from the end of the snout: opercle narrow, almost three times as high as broad; the scales which cover it larger than those on the preopercle: lower jaw a little the shortest; in each jaw six strong, hooked, conical, rather blunt, incisors; tubercular teeth in five rows above, in three below; the anterior ones small and rounded; at the back of the mouth, always one, often two, oval ones larger than the others, their longest diameter measuring sometimes four lines: (in young individuals the teeth are smaller and in only four rows:) lateral line nearly straight; its course a little above one-third of the depth: number of scales in a longitudinal line nearly eighty, in the depth about twenty-four: dorsal commencing at a distance from the end of the snout equalling nearly one-third of the whole length; spinous, higher than the soft, portion: anal in a line with the third soft ray of the dorsal, and not extending beyond that fin; its spinous rays shorter than those of the dorsal; second stoutest: caudal moderately forked: pectorals long, reaching beyond the vent, equalling nearly one-fourth of the whole length; their point of attachment a little before the dorsal: ventrals rather behind the pectorals, moderately broad:
B. 6; D. 11/13; A. 3/11; C. 17; P. 16; V. 1/5.
Number of vertebrae twenty-four. (Colours). Back silvery gray; belly like polished silver; sides with from eighteen to twenty longitudinal golden bands; on the forehead, between the eyes, a crescent-shaped band of golden yellow; a large spot on the shoulder; opercle also dusky or violet. Cuv.
This species must be considered as very rare in the British seas, if it have really any claim at all to a place in the Fauna. The descriptions of Pennant and Fleming apply with tolerable correctness, but the Gilt-head of Donovan and other English authors is only the Pagellus centrodontus of Cuvier hereafter described. Found in the Mediterranean along with another nearly allied species, and said, by Cuvier, to feed on the con-chiferous mollusca.
(2. Pagrus, Cuv).