(1. Zeus, Cuv).
Z. Faber, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 454. Block, Ichth. pl. 41. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. I. pl. 8. Flem. Brit. An. p. 218. Doree, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 294. tab. S. 16. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 221. pl. 41. Dory or Doree, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 162. Le Doree, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 211.
From twelve to eighteen inches.
(Form). Oval, very much compressed; tail suddenly contracting immediately before the caudal: greatest depth half the entire length; thickness four times and a half in the depth: head very large, but greatly compressed, one-third of the entire length: profile falling regularly from the nape in nearly a straight line, and making a right angle with the lower jaw, when the mouth is closed: this last very protractile; gape large; upper lip reflexed: lower jaw a little longer than the upper, bifurcated behind, and terminating in two small sharp spines: both jaws with fine velvet-like teeth: eyes large, very high on the cheeks: opercle small, triangular, without spines: clavicular bone behind the opercle terminating in a sharp spine: two spines behind the eye directed backwards, and one on each side of the occiput: a row of spines on each side of the base of the dorsal and anal fins, at first simple, afterwards forked; between the ventrals and anal, a double row of large strongly serrated scales, the serratures directed backwards; pectoral ridge before the ventrals with three rows of the same serratures: scales on the cheeks and body, small, deeply impressed: lateral line continually descending from the supra-scapulars for two-thirds of its course, then suddenly passing off straight to the caudal: dorsal commencing in a line with the posterior angle of the opercle; the spinous and soft portions divided by a deep notch; third spine longest, equalling half the depth; all except the last attended by filamentous prolongations of the membrane nearly as long as themselves*; soft portion only half as high as the spinous; all the rays simple: anal with the first four rays strongly spinous; the soft portion separate as in the dorsal, and answering to the same part in that fin: caudal oblong, even at the end: pectorals small, rather less than one-third the length of the head, of an oblong rounded form, the middle rays a little the longest; all simple: ventrals a little before the pectorals, more than twice their length; first ray strongly spinous; third and fourth longest; all the soft rays except the last branched:
* Judging from the descriptions of other authors, it would appear that these filaments vary very much m length, and that they are sometimes found twice or thrice the length of the spines themselves.
B. 6; D. 10/24; A. 4/23; C. 12, and 2 short; P. 13; V. 1/7.
(Colours). Yellowish, varied with olive and lead-gray; in the middle of each side an oval black spot: the whole tinged with a golden lustre.
Not uncommon on some parts of the southern and western coasts. Occasionally attains a considerable size. Pennant speaks of one which weighed twelve pounds. According to Bloch, is very voracious, and keeps near the shore in order to prey on the fish which come there to spawn.
(2. Capros, Lacep).