(1. Machetes, Cuv).

Tail rounded; the two middle feathers barred; the three outer ones on each side always of one colour.

T. pugnax, Temm. Man. d'0rn. torn. ii. p. 631. Ruff, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew Brit. Birds, vol. II. p. 75. Selb. Must. vol. ii. p. 130. pl. 25.

Dimensions

Entire length twelve inches five lines: length of the bill (from the forehead) one inch six lines, (from the gape) one inch six lines; of the tarsus one inch ten lines; of the tail two inches eight lines; from the carpus to the end of the wing seven inches five lines.

Description

(Male, during the breeding season). Face naked, covered with warty pimples of a reddish yellow colour: sides of the occiput adorned with two tufts of elongated feathers: beneath the throat a large frill or ruff of similar feathers standing out in a very conspicuous manner; colours of the ruff extremely variable, changing occasionally even in the same individual in different seasons; yellowish white, barred with black; or entirely black, glossed with purple; in some, of a uniform yellowish brown; in others, pure white; or varied with black, white, and yellow: upper parts of the body likewise variable, in general presenting a mixture of cinereous brown, yellowish white, reddish brown, and black: sides of the breast and Hanks pale reddish brown, with transverse black bars, sometimes entirely black; middle of the belly, abdomen, and under tail-coverts, white: quills dusky: the four middle tail-feathers barred with black; the rest of a uniform colour: bill yellowish orange: legs yellow. (Male in autumn and urinter). Face feathered: no elongated tufts on the occiput, or frill on the neck: throat, fore part of the neck, belly, and other under parts, pure white; or stained and mottled with black; sometimes black, with transverse undulating white lines: breast reddish brown, with spots of a deeper tint: upper plumage variable, generally brown with black spots, the feathers edged with reddish; greater coverts,, and middle tail-feathers, barred with black and reddish brown: bill brownish: legs yellowish brown. (Female or Reeve). Smaller: at all times without the ruff and occipital tufts: upper parts of the body cinereous brown, mixed with black, the black glossed with steel blue; neck and breast the same, but paler; belly and abdomen white: bill black: legs yellowish. (Young of the year). Very much resembling the female in winter plumage, but with the fore part of the neck and breast of a dull reddish ash; the feathers on the head, back, scapulars, and greater wing-coverts, dusky brown, broadly edged with reddish yellow; lesser coverts edged with reddish white: throat, belly, and abdomen, pure white: bill black: feet greenish. (Egg). Olive, blotched and spotted with clove and liver-brown: long. diam. one inch seven lines; trans, diam. one inch one line and a half.

A migratory species, arriving early in the Spring, and departing in September. Rather locally distributed. Principally confined to the marshes of Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and the Isle of Ely. Males very pugnacious during the breeding season. Nest usually placed on a hassock of grass, in the most swampy situations. Eggs four in number, laid in the first or second week of May. Towards the end of June, or beginning of July, the ruff on the neck of the male bird begins to fall. Food, insects and worms. Obs. The Shore Sandpiper, Greenwich Sandpiper, and Equestrian Sandpiper of Latham, are all referable to this species in different states of plumage.

(2. Tringa, Selb).