23. Saxicola

Bill rather strong, straight, carinated above, dilated at the base, advancing on the forehead ; upper mandible emarginated, slightly bending at the tip: rictus with some stiff longish bristles : tarsi elevated ; hind claw shorter than the toe: wings with the first quill not half the length of the second; third and fourth longest : coverts and scapulars short.

24. Parus

Bill strong, short, straight, subconical, slightly compressed, sharp-pointed, without any notch: nostrils basal, round, concealed by some short bristly feathers reflected over them: tarsi robust: hind claw strongest, and most hooked: wings with the first quill of moderate length ; second shorter than the third; fourth and fifth longest.

(1. Parus). Bill moderate: tail slightly forked.

(2. Mecistura). Bill very short: tail elongated, cuneiform.

25. Calamophilus

Bill short, subconical, very slightly compressed; the upper mandible convex above, curved at the extremity, and projecting over the lower one, which is nearly straight: nostrils covered by reflected bristles: tarsi slender: wings with the first quill very short, almost abortive; fourth and fifth longest: tail elongated, cuneiform.

(AMPELIDAE).

26. Bombycilla

Bill strong, short, and straight, broad at the base; upper mandible convex above, slightly bending at the tip, and emarginated: nostrils oval, covered by small hairy feathers directed forwards : tarsus shorter than the middle toe: wings long, and pointed; first and second quills longest; secondaries tipped with wax-like appendages.

II. Conirostres

Bill moderate or elongated, strong, more or less conic, entire or slightly emarginated: feet robust; toes three before and one behind, (fringilliDAE).

27. Alauda

Bill short, subconic; mandibles of equal length; the upper one convex, and slightly curved : nostrils basal, oval, covered by small bristly feathers directed forwards: hind claw nearly straight, longer than the toe: wings long; first quill almost abortive; second a little shorter than the third, which is longest: wing-coverts shorter than the quills.

28. Emberiza

Bill short, strong, conic, sharp-pointed ; the mandibles a little distant from each other, and forming an angle at the gape, compressed in front, with the tomia bending inwards; upper mandible smaller and narrower than the lower; palate furnished with a hard bony knob.

(1. Plectrophanes). Wings long, and acuminated; first and second quills longest, and nearly equal: hind claw produced, and nearly straight.

(2. Emberiza). Wings moderate; first quill shorter than the second and third, which are longest: hind claw short and hooked.

29. Fringilla

Bill thick, strong, more or less perfectly conic: nostrils basal, lateral, partly concealed by short bristly feathers directed forwards: tarsi short, or moderate: wings with the first three quills nearly equal; second and third generally a little the longest: tail more or less forked.

(1. Fringilla). Bill straight, perfectly conic, the cone rather elongated, sharp-pointed; mandibles nearly equal, with the tomia of the lower one a little inflected: first quill a little shorter than the second and third, which are longest and equal.

(2. Pyrgita). Bill strong, conic; the culmen somewhat arched, and the tip a little obtuse; lower mandible rather smaller than the upper: three first quills nearly equal, longer than the fourth.

(3. Coccothraustes). Bill conic, very thick and strong; the sides bulging, and the culmen much rounded; lower mandible nearly equal to the upper, with the tomia inflected : wings rather long, acuminated; first and fourth quills equal, shorter than the second and third, which are longest.

(4. Carduelis). Bill straight, perfectly conic, the cone rather elongated, much compressed at the tip, and sharp-pointed; upper mandible angulated at the base, and slightly sinuated: wings moderate; first quill a little shorter than the second and third, which are nearly equal and longest.

(5. Linaria). Bill straight, perfectly conic, short, compressed anteriorly, sharp-pointed; commissure straight; wings long, and acuminated; first three quills equal, longer than the fourth.

30. Pyrrhula

Bill short and thick, the sides inflated and bulging; upper mandible convex above, advancing on the forehead at the base, deflected at the tip and overhanging the lower one: nostrils concealed by hairy feathers directed forwards : wings rather short; first quill shorter than the second, which is longest; third and fourth nearly equal to the second.

31. Loxia

Bill moderate, strong, thick at the base, much compressed anteriorly ; both mandibles equally convex, hooked at the tips, and crossing each other when at rest; the tomia bending inwards : nostrils round, concealed by bristly feathers directed forwards : wings with the first and second quills equal, shorter than the third, which is longest.

(STURNIDAE).

32. Sturnus

Bill moderate, straight, subconic; depressed, especially at the tip, which is rather blunt; upper mandible advancing on the forehead, the edges rather dilated and extending beyond those of the lower: nostrils basal, half closed by an arched membrane: tarsus longer than the middle toe: wings long; first quill very short; second longest; the rest gradually decreasing.

33. Pastor

Bill subconic, compressed, slightly arched, the tip somewhat emarginated: nostrils basal, oval, partly covered by a plumose membrane: feet robust; tarsus much longer than the middle toe: wings with the first quill very short, almost abortive; second and third longest.

(CORVIDAE).

34. Fregilus

Bill long, rather slender, arched from the base, a little compressed, subulate and pointed at the extremity : nostrils basal, oval, concealed by reflected bristles : feet robust; tarsus longer than the middle toe: wings long; the fourth and fifth quills longest: tail square.