35. Corvus

Bill strong, thick, convex above, compressed at the sides, with the tomia sharp and cutting; upper mandible slightly bending towards the tip; lower one nearly straight: nostrils basal, oval, generally concealed by setaceous feathers directed forwards: wings acuminated ; first quill much shorter than the second and third; fourth longest.

(1. Corvus). Tail moderate, rounded. (2. Pica). Tail long, cuneiform.

36. Garrulus

Bill rather short, strong, compressed, clothed at the base with feathers directed forwards; both mandibles inclining equally towards the tip, the upper one slightly emarginated : crown feathers long, and capable of erection : wings rounded; fifth and sixth quills longest: tail moderate, square, or slightly rounded.

37. Nucifraga

Bill long, and straight; upper mandible rounded, and longer than the lower one; both of them terminating in a slightly obtuse and depressed point: nostrils basal, round, covered by reflected feathers: wings rather acuminated; first quill shorter than the second and third ; fourth longest : tail rounded.

III. Scansores

Bill various: feet short; adapted for climbing; toes four, two each way, or three in front and one behind.

* Bill straight, robust: feet zygodactyly.

(PICIDAE).

38. Picus

Bill robust, long, straight, angular, compressed, cuneated at the tip: tongue long and extensile, lumbriciform, the tip barbed: nostrils concealed by reflected bristly feathers : wings with the first quill very short; fourth and fifth longest: feet robust: tail feathers stiff, and pointed at the extremity.

39. Yunx

Bill short, straight, somewhat conical, depressed, rounded above, the tip sharp and pointed; tongue long and extensile, lumbriciform : nostrils naked, partly closed by a membrane: wings moderate; first quill a little shorter than the second, which is longest: tail feathers soft and flexible.

** Bill generally slender : feet anisodactyle.

(CERTHIID.AE).

40. Certhia

Bill moderate, slender, arcuate, compressed, angulated above, sharp-pointed : tongue short: nostrils naked, partly covered by an arched membrane: wings with the first quill very short; fourth longest: hind toe strong, and longer than the others: tail feathers stiff and pointed at the extremity, deflected.

41. Troglodytes

Bill slender, slightly compressed, a little arcuate: nostrils basal, oval, partly covered by an arched naked membrane : wings short, and rounded ; first quill very short; second shorter than the third ; fourth and fifth equal and longest: tail short, rounded, carried erect.

42. Upupa

Bill long and slender, arcuate, compressed, convex above, sharp-pointed: nostrils oval, open: crown furnished with a crest: wings rather long; the first quill very short; fourth and fifth longest: claws short, and not much hooked: tail square at the extremity.

43. Sitta

Bill moderate, rather strong, straight, compressed; both mandibles equally inclining to the tip which is somewhat cuneated: nostrils oval, open, covered by setaceous feathers directed forwards: wings rather short; third and fourth quills longest: hind toe strong, and lengthened: tail short, nearly even.

*** Bill more or less curved: feet zygodactyle.

(CUCULIDAE).

44. Cuculus

Bill as long as the head, rather compressed, moderately curved, and a little hooked at the tip: gape wide: nostrils round, surrounded by a naked and prominent membrane: wings long, acuminated: first quill short; third longest; tarsi short, feathered a little below the knee: outer hind toe partly reversible: tail long, more or less cuneated.

45. Coccyzus

Bill strong, arched, the culmen convex, triangular at the base, compressed at the sides and tip: nostrils basal, longitudinally cleft in a membrane: orbits naked: wings short, and concave: tarsi very long: tail long, and cuneated.

IV. Fissirostres

Bill broad at the base; gape wide: wings long: feet short, and weak.

* Bill strong, more or less elongated.

(MEROPIDAE).

46. Coracias

Bill moderate, robust, higher than broad, compressed, straight; upper mandible bending at the tip: nostrils basal, linear, pierced diagonally, half closed by a plumose membrane: toes three before and one behind, entirely divided: wings long, and acuminated; first quill shorter than the second, which is longest.

47. Merops

Bill longer than the head, triangular at the base, slightly curved, carinated above, sharp-pointed: nostrils basal, oval, open: toes three before and one behind; the outer toe connected with the middle one as far as the second joint, the middle with the inner one as far as the first: wings long, and pointed; first quill very short, the second longest.

(HALCYONIDAE).

48. Alcedo

Bill very long, straight, quadrangular, thick and pointed: nostrils basal, pierced obliquely, linear, almost closed by a naked membrane: toes three before and one behind; the outer toe connected with the middle one as far as the second joint, the middle with the inner one as far as the first: wings moderate; the second and third quills equal and longest: tail short.

** Bill short and weak: gape extremely large.

(HIRUNDlNIDAE).

49. Hirundo

Bill short, and much depressed; upper mandible carinated, deflected at the tip; gape extending nearly to the eyes: toes three before and one behind; the outer toe connected with the middle one as far as the first joint: wings very long; first quill longest: tail forked.

50. Cypselus

Bill very short, triangular, depressed at the base; the upper mandible deflected at the tip; gape extending to the posterior angle of the eye: toes divided to their origin; all directed forwards: wings extremely long; first quill a little shorter than the second: tail forked.

(CAPRIMULGIDAE )

51. Caprimulgus

Bill very short, rather curved, broad and depressed at the base; the upper mandible defleeted at the tip, furnished at the basal edge with strong vibrissae directed forwards; gape extending beyond the eyes: anterior toes connected by a membrane as far as the first joint; hind toe reversible: wings long; first quill shorter than the second, which is longest: tail rounded, or forked.

§ ii. Feet not formed for grasping.