Bill various: legs short, or of moderate length: feet adapted for perching: toes four, varying in position, flat underneath; hind toe articulated on the same plane with the fore toes : claws slender, somewhat retractile, curved and acute.

I. Dentirostres

Bill moderate, more or less weak, furnished with a notch or tooth on each side towards the tip: rictus armed with bristles : feet generally slender; toes three before and one behind.

(Laniadae).

12. Lanius

Bill robust, convex above, much compressed at the sides, furnished at the base with hairy feathers directed forwards; upper mandible hooked at the extremity, and strongly notched: nostrils basal, lateral, nearly round, partly closed by a membrane: wings with the first quill short; the second shorter than the third and fourth, which are longest.

(MUSCICAPIDAe).

13. Muscicapa

Bill moderate, somewhat triangular, depressed at the base, compressed towards the tip, which is deflected; the upper mandible emarginated : rictus armed with long stiff bristles: tarsus a little longer than the middle toe: side toes of equal length: wings with the first quill very short; third and fourth longest.

(MERULIDAe).

14. Cinclus

Bill rather slender, straight, rounded, compressed at the sides; upper mandible emarginated at the tip, slightly bending over the lower one: nostrils longitudinally cleft, and partly covered by a membrane: tarsus longer than the middle toe: wings and tail short; the former with the first quill very short, the third and fourth longest.

15. Turdus

Bill moderate, convex above, slightly bending towards the point, which is rather compressed; upper mandible emarginated: rictus furnished with a few bristles: nostrils oval; partly covered by a naked membrane: tarsus longer than the middle toe: wings and tail moderate; the former with the first quill extremely short, almost abortive; the second somewhat shorter than the third and fourth, which are longest.

16. Oriolus

Bill subconic, depressed at the base; upper mandible carinated above, slightly emarginated, inclining over the lower one: nostrils opening longitudinally in a large membrane : tarsus not longer than the middle toe: wings moderate; first quill very short; third longest.

(SYLVIADAE).

17. Accentor

Bill rather strong, subconic, straight, acute, broader than high at the base, very much compressed in front; upper mandible emarginated at the tip; the tomia of both mandibles inflected: nostrils basal, naked, pierced in a large membrane: tarsi strong: wings moderate; first quill very short; third and fourth longest.

18. Sylvia

Bill slender, depressed at the base, compressed in front; upper mandible bending over the lower one, and slightly emarginated at the tip; lower mandible straight: nostrils basal, pierced in a membrane, more or less exposed: wings short, or moderate; first quill very short, sometimes almost abortive; third, or third and fourth, generally the longest.

(1. Erithaca). Bill rather strong, as broad as high at the base; gonys slightly ascending: rictus with long weak diverging bristles : tarsi slender, somewhat elongated: wings moderate; fourth and fifth quills longest: tail divaricated; the tips of the feathers pointed.

(2. Phcenicura). Bill slender, as broad as high at the base: rictus nearly smooth: tarsi moderate: wings rather long; third and fourth quills longest: tail even; the feathers obtuse, and generally rufous.

(3. Salicaria). Bill very slender, broader than high at the base: rictus with long diverging bristles : tarsi moderate: wings short, and somewhat rounded; first quill nearly abortive; third long-. est: tail cuneiform; the tips of the feathers rounded.

(4. Philomela). Bill rather strong, as broad as high at the base; gonys slightly ascending: rictus with a few short bristles : tarsi elongated : wings moderate; third and fourth quills longest : tail with the two middle feathers longest; the tips of all rounded.

(5. Curruca). Bill rather strong, broader than high at the base; gonys slightly ascending: rictus nearly smooth: tarsi moderate : wings moderate; first quill nearly abortive; third longest: tail slightly forked.

(6. Sylvia). Bill very slender, broader than high at the base : rictus with a few longish bristles: tarsi rather elongated: wings moderate; third and fourth quills longest: tail slightly forked; the tips of the feathers rounded.

19. Melizophilus

Bill very slender, short, slightly arched from the base, compressed, with the tip finely emarginated; tomia of both mandibles inflected towards the middle: rictus with a few bristles: tarsi strong, longer than the middle toe: wings short; first quill very small; third, fourth, and fifth, equal and longest: tail much elongated, cuneiform.

20. Regulus

Bill very slender, subulate, straight, compressed throughout its whole length; the tomia inflected inwards: nostrils concealed by small bristly feathers directed forwards: tarsi rather long: wings with the first quill very short; second much shorter than the third; fourth and fifth longest: tail moderate; divaricated, the tips of the feathers pointed.

21. Motacilla

Bill slender, subulate, straight, carinated, angulated between the nostrils, emarginated at the tip; the tomia of both mandibles slightly compressed inwards : tarsus considerably longer than the middle toe : wings with the first quill extremely short; second and third longest; one of the scapulars as long as the quills: tail elongated, even.

22. Anthus

Bill slender, straight, subulate towards the extremity, with the tomia compressed inwards about the middle; upper mandible carinated at the base, bending downwards at the tip, and slightly emarginated : tarsus generally longer than the middle toe; hind claw more or less produced: wings with the first quill abortive; second shorter than the third and fourth, which are longest: two of the scapulars as long as the quills.