(* 1. Cyprinus, Cuv).
* With barbules.
Mouth with two barbules on each side: caudal forked.
C. Carpio, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 525. Block, Ichth. pl. 16. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 107. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 110. Flem. Brit. An. p. 185. Carp, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 245. tab. Q. 1. f. 2. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 353. pl. 70. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 467. pl. 81. Bowd. Brit. fr. wat. Fish. Draw. no. 2. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 305. La Carpe vulgaire, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. iii. p. 271.
* Linn. Trans, vol. Till. p. 358.
From one to one and a half, or even two, feet.
(Form). Oval; body thick anteriorly; back moderately elevated; dorsal line more convex than the ventral, falling with the profile in one continuous curve, without any depression at the nape: greatest depth beneath the commencement of the dorsal fin, measuring rather more than one-third of the entire length: greatest thickness in the region of the gills, equalling half the depth: head large: jaws equal; lips thick, furnished with two barbules at the corners of the mouth, and two shorter ones above nearer the nose: mouth small: no teeth in the jaws; pharyngeans with flat teeth striated on the crown: eyes small, and rather high on the cheeks: opercle marked with radiating striae: lateral line nearly straight; its course a very little below the middle: scales large; number, in the lateral line, thirty-eight; in the depth twelve, six and a half being above, and five and a half below, the lateral line*: dorsal commencing in a line with the end of the pectorals, and occupying a space equal to nearly one-third of the entire length; first two rays bony, and partaking of the nature of spines; the first not half the length of the second; this last very strong and serrated posteriorly; third (or first of the soft rays) longest, equalling rather more than one-third of the depth; succeeding ones gradually decreasing to the seventh or eighth, beyond which they remain even to the end; all the soft rays branched; the last two from one root †: anal short, opposite the last quarter of the dorsal, and terminating in a line with that fin; first two rays bony; the second strongly serrated; third ray longest, nearly equalling the third in the dorsal; fourth and Succeeding ones decreasing; all the soft rays branched; the last two from one root: caudal forked for half its length; all the principal rays except the outer ones branched: pectorals attached low down, in a line with the posterior margin of the opercle; their length about three-fourths that of the head: all the rays soft, and, except the first, branched: ventrals similar to the pectorals but rather shorter, situate in a line with the first three soft rays of the dorsal:
B. 3; D. 2/22; A. 2/6; C. 19, and some short; P. 17; V. 9. (Colours). General colour olive-brown, tinged with gold; darkest on the head; belly yellowish white: fins, dorsal and caudal, dusky; ventrals and anal tinged with red.
Originally from the middle of Europe. Said to have been introduced into England about the year 1514, but was certainly known before that time. Common in lakes and ponds, as well as in some rivers. Attains to the weight of nearly twenty pounds, but arrives at a still larger size on some parts of the Continent. Spawns in May and June, and is very prolific. Food, insects, worms, and aquatic plants.
** Without barbules.