Bill short, or moderate, convex, often furnished with a cere at the base; upper mandible arched: wings short: legs strong and muscular, adapted for walking: hind toe sometimes wanting; when present, generally articulated high on the tarsus: claws robust, short, slightly curved, somewhat blunt.
Hind toe present, articulated nearly on the same plane with the others: tarsi without spurs: tail of twelve feathers.
Bill moderate, straight, compressed, deflected at the tip; upper mandible covered at the base with a soft tumid membrane, in which the nostrils are situate: tarsi short, reticulated; toes entirely divided.
(1. Columba). Wings with the first quill shorter than the second, which is longest: tail even: side toes equal.
(2. Ectopistes). Wings pointed; two first quills equal, longer than the third: tail long, and cuneated: side toes unequal; the inner one longest.
Hind toe present, elevated above the others: tarsi generally armed with spurs: tail of more than twelve feathers: head more or less-naked.
Bill short and thick, furnished at the base with an elongated, pendulous, fleshy appendage: head and neck naked; throat with a pendulous carunculated wattle: tarsi of the male armed with spurs: tail broad, expansile, consisting of from fourteen to eighteen feathers.
Bill naked at the base, thick, convex above, deflected at the tip: cheeks partially naked: head ornamented with a crest: tarsi of the male spurred: tail of eighteen feathers: upper tail-coverts longer than the tail, broad and expansile, ocellated.
Bill smooth at the base, thick, slightly curved: nostrils covered by an arched scale: generally an erect fleshy crest on the head; throat with fleshy wattles on each side of the lower mandible: ears naked: tarsi with strong spurs: anterior toes united by a membrane as far as the first joint: tail of fourteen feathers, compressed, more or less arched, ascending.
Bill short and thick, naked at the base; upper mandible very convex, with the tip deflected: nostrils basal, lateral, covered by an arched membrane: cheeks naked, adorned with scarlet papillae: ears covered: tarsi of the male spurred: anterior toes united by a membrane as far as the first joint: wings short; fourth and fifth quills longest: tail very long, cuneated, of eighteen feathers.
Bill thick, covered at the base with a warty membrane, in which the nostrils are placed: head naked, the crown with a callous horny protuberance; beneath the cheeks pendulous carunculated wattles: tarsi without spurs: anterior toes united by a membrane as far as the first joint: tail short, bent down, of fourteen or sixteen feathers.
Hind toe short, and weak; sometimes altogether wanting: tarsi generally armed with spurs: tail short.
Bill short and strong, convex above, bending towards the tip: nostrils partly closed by an arched scale, concealed by the frontal feathers: eyebrows naked, adorned with scarlet papillae: tarsi feathered; without spurs: wings with the first quill much shorter than the second; third and fourth longest: tail of sixteen or eighteen feathers.
(1. Tetrao). Anterior toes naked, with pectinated margins: hind toe longer than the nail: tail broad, and slightly rounded, or lyrate.
(2. Lagopus). Anterior toes feathered, the margins not pectinated: hind toe shorter than the nail: tail nearly even.
Bill short, strong, naked at the base, convex above, deflected towards the tip: nostrils basal, half closed by an arched naked scale: tarsi naked: feet with four toes, naked: wings short, and concave; the fourth and fifth quills generally longest: tail short, of from twelve to eighteen feathers.
(1. Perdix). Bill short, and strong: orbits naked: tarsus in the male armed with a blunt tubercle: tail short, and bent down.
*(2. Ortyx). Bill thick, strong, higher than broad: orbits feathered: tarsi unarmed: wings with the first quill very short; fifth longest: tail short or moderate, of twelve feathers.
(3. Coturnix). Bill short, and slender: orbits feathered: tarsi unarmed: wings with the first quill longest: tail very short, almost concealed by the upper coverts.
Hind toe wanting: tarsi without spurs: wings very short, often unfit for flight.
Bill moderate, subconic, nearly straight, compressed; the upper mandible arched towards the tip: nostrils oval, open, a little remote from the base: legs long, naked above the knee; toes connected by a membrane at the base: wings moderate; third quill longest.