72. Ibis

Bill very much elongated, slender, arcuate, broad at the base, somewhat quadrangular, the tip depressed, obtuse, and rounded; upper mandible deeply channelled throughout its whole length: nostrils nearly basal, placed in the groove, oblong, narrow, surrounded by a membrane: face and throat more or less naked: legs long, and slender; lower part of the tibia naked: wings moderate; second and third quills longest.

IV. Scolopacidae

Bill long and slender; legs moderate, or elongated: toes four in number; anterior ones entirely divided, or united by a small basal membrane; hind toe weak and elevated, very rarely altogether wanting.

73. Numenius

Bill much longer than the head, slender, arcuate, rounded, the tip rather obtuse; upper mandible projecting beyond the lower, channelled throughout three-fourths of its length: nostrils basal, oblong-linear, placed in the lateral groove: lore, and rest of the face feathered: legs slender; lower part of the tibia naked: anterior toes connected as far as the first joint: wings moderate; first quill longest.

74. Totanus

Bill long or moderate, slender, generally straight, rarely inclining a little upwards, soft at the base, solid and sharp-pointed at the extremity; upper mandible channelled through half its length or more, slightly bending over the lower one at the tip: nostrils lateral, linear, placed in the groove: legs long, slender, with the lower part of the tibia naked: anterior toes, or the outer ones only, connected by a small membrane.

75. Recurvirostra

Bill very long, slender, weak, depressed, pointed, flexible at the tip, and considerably recurved; upper mandible channelled on each side: nostrils long, linear, placed at the base of the groove: legs long and slender; lower half of the tibia naked: anterior toes connected by a membrane as far as the second joint; hind toe very small.

76. H1mantopus

Bill very long, slender, attenuated, nearly straight, rounded, a little compressed at the tip; mandibles channelled laterally for half their length: nostrils linear, elongated: legs very long and slender: nearly the whole of the tibia naked: outer and middle toes connected by a broad membrane; hind toe wanting: wings very long; first quill longest.

77. Limosa

Bill very long, slender, soft and flexible throughout, slightly recurved, depressed, the tip obtuse and somewhat dilated; upper mandible channelled for nearly its whole length: nostrils linear, pierced in the membrane of the groove: legs long and slender; lower part of the tibia naked: outer and middle toes connected by a membrane as far as the first joint: wings moderate; first quill longest.

78. Scolopax

Bill very long, straight, slender, soft, the tip obtuse and dilated; upper mandible a little longer than the lower; both mandibles channelled for nearly two-thirds of their length: nostrils lateral, basal, linear, covered by a membrane: legs moderate, slender; naked space on the tibia very small: wings with the first quill longest; second nearly equal to it.

(1. Rusticola). Tibia feathered to the joint: tarsi short: anterior toes entirely divided: hind claw shorter than the toe.

(2. Scolopax). Lower part of the tibia naked: tarsi more elongated: toes entirely divided, or united at the base by an extremely short membrane: hind claw longer than the toe.

(3. Macroramphus). Lower part of the tibia naked: tarsi rather elongated: outer toe united to the middle one as far as the first joint: hind claw longer than the toe.

79. Tringa

Bill as long as, or a little longer than the head; straight, or slightly curved, soft and flexible throughout, compressed at the base, depressed and dilated at the extremity; upper mandible longer than the lower, with the nasal channel extending nearly to the tip: nostrils lateral, short, pierced in the membrane of the groove: tarsi moderate, or elongated: wings with the first quill longest.

(1. Machetes). Tarsi elongated: outer and middle toes united by a membrane as far as the first joint: neck (in the male) with an ornamental ruff during the breeding season.

(2. Tringa). Tarsi moderate: anterior toes divided to their origin: hind toe very small.

80. Lobipes

Bill long, slender, weak, a little depressed at the base, subulate at the tip; upper mandible slightly curved, and channelled throughout: tongue slender, and pointed: nostrils basal, oblong-linear, prominent, surrounded by a membrane: tarsi somewhat elongated, and compressed: anterior toes rather long, bordered by narrow lobated membranes: wings with the first quill longest.

81. Phalaropus

Bill as long as the head, straight, strong, broad and depressed at the base, a little compressed at the extremity; upper mandible inclining over the lower, with the nasal channel extending the whole length: tongue short, broad, and rounded at the tip: nostrils basal, oval, prominent, surrounded by a membrane: tarsi short and strong, scarcely compressed: anterior toes rather short, united as far as the first joint; bordered beyond with broad and deeply scalloped membranes: wings with the first and second quills longest.

V. Rallidae

Bill short or moderate, rarely elongated; rather strong: body generally compressed: legs moderate: toes four; anterior ones elongated, entirely divided, or united by a membrane at the base, sometimes pinnated.

82. Glareola

Bill short, convex, compressed towards the tip; the upper mandible curved for half its length: nostrils basal, lateral, obliquely cleft: a small part of the tibia naked: tarsi moderate, slender: outer and middle toes connected by a short membrane; hind toe small, and elevated: claws long, and pointed: wings very long; first quill considerably the longest.

83. Rallus

Bill longer than the head, rather slender, very slightly arched, compressed at the base, somewhat cylindrical at the tip; upper mandible channelled for two-thirds of its length: nostrils submedial, oblong-linear, placed in the groove, partly covered by a membrane lower: part of the tibia naked: toes long, and slender; anterior ones entirely divided: wings short, rounded; first quill shorter than the two next, which are longest: bastard winglet with a short spur.

84. Crex

Bill shorter than the head, somewhat thick, straight, convex: above, higher than broad at the base, attenuated and compressed at the tip; upper mandible a little deflected; gonys of the lower mandible ascending to meet it: nostrils lateral, medial, longitudinally cleft, half closed by the membrane of the nasal channel: anterior toes long, entirely divided: wings short; first quill shorter than the second and third, which are longest.

85. Gallinula

Bill shorter than the head, straight, robust, convex above, much compressed; upper mandible expanding at the base on the forehead, forming a naked disk: nostrils lateral, medial, oblong-linear: anterior toes very long, divided to their origin, bordered by a narrow, entire membrane: wings with the second and third quills longest.

86. Fulica

Bill shorter than the head, straight, robust, somewhat convex above, compressed, thick at the base: a naked disk on the forehead: nostrils lateral, medial, longitudinally cleft: anterior toes very long, united at the base, bordered by a scalloped membrane: wings moderate; second and third quills longest.