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A Manual Of British Vertebrate Animals | by Leonard Jenyns



Or descriptions of all the animals belonging to the classes, mammalia, aves, reptilia, amphibia, and pisces, which have been hitherto observed in the British Islands: including the domesticated, naturalized, and extirpated species : the whole systematically arranged.

TitleA Manual Of British Vertebrate Animals
AuthorLeonard Jenyns
PublisherLongman & Co.
Year1835
Copyright1835, Longman & Co.
AmazonA Manual Of British Vertebrate Animals

By The Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A, Fellow Of The Linnean, Zoological, And Entomological Societies Of London; And Of The Cambridge Philosophical Society.

-Vertebrate Animals Introduction
The present Work contains descriptions of all the Vertebrate Animals, including the domesticated, naturalized, and extirpated species, which have been hitherto observed in the British Islands. The obj...
-Vertebrate Animals Introduction. Part 2
* Dr. Fleming has alluded briefly to several other species which have been included by some authors in the British Fauna, but the claims of these to be considered as true natives being extremely doubt...
-Vertebrate Animals Introduction. Part 3
* If there are cases which appear exceptions to this rule, such as those of the Manalus borealis of Fleming and the Albacore of Couch, they are instances in which not only the species, but even the ge...
-Vertebrate Animals Introduction. Part 4
It may be added that in computing the fin-ray formula, which is similar to that adopted by MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, all the rays are included which it was possible to distinguish, on the ground th...
-Vertebrate Animals Introduction. Part 5
The specific characters, which are for the most part entirely new, have been drawn up, as far as practicable, with a view to the exact differences of species; but the difficulty of doing this in the i...
-Alphabetical List Of Works Quoted
Ann. Des Sci Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Paris, 1824, etc. 8vo. Ann. Du Mus Annales dn Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris, 1802- 1813. 4to. 20 vols. Ann. Of Phil The Annals of Phil...
-Alphabetical List Of Works Quoted. Part 2
Hast. Worcest Hastings (C). Illustrations of the Natural History of Worcestershire, etc. Lond. 1834. 8vo. Heysh. Cumb. An Heysham (J).. A Catalogue of Cumberland Animals. (Prefixed to the 1st...
-Alphabetical List Of Works Quoted. Part 3
Proceed, Of Berw. Nat. Club Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalist's Club. Edinb. 1834, etc. 8vo. --------- Zool. Soc. - Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Lond. 1830, e...
-Vertebrata
Vertebrate animals are characterized by having the brain and principal trunk of the nervous system included in a bony articulated case, composing the skull and vertebral column. They have all red bloo...
-Class I. Mammalia. Order I. Ferae
I. Incisor, canine, and molar teeth all present, forming a continuous series. Feet armed with strong claws: mammae abdominal: penis sheathed. * Six incisors in each jaw: grinders of three...
-Order II. Primates
Claws flat and small: anterior extremities with a distinct thumb: mammae pectoral: penis free and pendulous. Vespertilionidae Incisors varying in number; summits of the grinders armed with sharp...
-Order III. Glires
Incisors two in each jaw, large, and strong, remote from the grinders: tusks none: toes distinct, with small conical claws. * Furnished with strong clavicles. 14. Sciurus Grinders simple, wit...
-Order IV. Ungulata
Teeth various: incisors and tusks often wanting in one or both jaws : grinders of one sort: toes large, covered with hoofs. * No incisors in the upper jaw; eight in the lower: two middle toes separ...
-Order V. Cetacea
Teeth various; sometimes entirely wanting: body fish-shaped: anterior extremities in the form of fins; posterior united, forming a flat horizontal tail. * Grinders with flat summits: nostrils at th...
-Order I. Ferae. Gen. 1. Ursus, Linn. 1. U. Arctos, Linn. (Brown Bear)
Blackish brown: forehead convex above the eyes: snout suddenly tapering: soles of the hinder feet moderately long. U. Arctos, Desmar. Mammal, p. 163. Common Bear, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 450. p...
-Gen. 2. Meles, Cuv. 2. M. Tawus, Flem. (Badger)
Gray above, black beneath; a black band on each side of the head extending from the nose over the eyes to behind the ears. M. Taxus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 9. M. vulgaris, Desm. Mammal, p. 173. Badger,...
-Gen. 3. Mustela, Linn. 3. M. Foina, Linn. (Common Martin)
(1. Mustela, Cuv). Brown: throat and breast white. M. Foina, Desm. Mammal, p. 182. Martes Fagorum, Flem. Brit. An. p. 14. Martin, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 92. pi. 6. no. 15. Dimensions ...
-4. M. Martes, Linn. (Pine Martin)
Brown: throat and breast yellow. M. Martes, Desm. Mammal, p. 181. Martes Abietum, Flem. Brit. An. p. 14. Pine Martin, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 94. Don. Brit. Quad. pi. 13. Dimensions Leng...
-5. M. Putorius, Linn. (Polecat)
Dusky brown with a tinge of yellow; beneath paler : some white spots about the ears and mouth. M. Putorius, Desm. Mammal, p. 177. Flem. Brit. An. p. 14. Fitchet, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 89. pi...
-6. M. Furoy Linn. (Ferret)
Yellowish white with the eyes red. M. Furo, Desm. Mammal, p. 178. Ferret, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 418. pi. 98. Dimensions Length of the head and body one foot two inches; of the head two ...
-7. M. Vulgaris, Gmel. (Weasel)
Reddish brown above; beneath white: tail of the same colour with the body. M. vulgaris, Desm. Mammal, p. 179. Flem. Brit. An. p. 13. Common Weasel, Perm. Brit. Zool. vol. 1. p. 95. pi. 7. no. 17. S...
-8. M. Erminea, Linn. (Stoat Or Ermine)
Reddish brown above, beneath white; or wholly white: extremity of the tail always black. M. Erminea, Desm. Mammal, p. 180. Flem. Brit. An. p. 13. Stoat, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 89. pi. 17. no....
-Gen. 4. Lutra, Cuv. 9. L. Vulgaris, Desm. (Otter)
Deep brown: sides of the head, throat and breast, cinereous. L. vulgaris, Desm. Mammal, p. 188. Mem. Brit An. p. 16. Otter, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 92. pi. 8. no. 19. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. ...
-Gen. 5. Canis, Linn. 10. C. Familiaris, Linn. (Dog)
(1. Canis, Flem). Tail recurved. C. familiaris, Desm. Mammal, p. 190. Flem. Brit. An. p. 10. Dog, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 59. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 273. pi. 75. Description Know...
-11. C. Lupus, Linn. (Wolf)
Tail straight: eyes oblique. C. Lupus, Desm. Mammal, p. 197. Wolf, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 75. pi. 5. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 290. pi. 75. Dimensions Length of the head and body thre...
-12. C. Vulpes, Linn. (Fox)
Tawny brown above; white beneath : ears externally black : tail thick and bushy, tipped with white. C. Vulpes, Desm. Mammal, p. 201. Vulpes vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p, 13. Fox, Penn. Brit. Zool. v...
-Gen. 6. Felis, Linn. 13. F. Catus, Linn. (Wild Cat)
Yellowish gray, with longitudinal and transverse bars of black : tail annu-lated with black; of equal thickness throughout. F. Catus, Desm. Mammal, p. 232. Flem. Brit. An. p. 15. Wild Gat, Penn. Br...
-14. F. Maniculata Riipp. (Domestic Cat)
Tail relatively longer than in the last species, and gradually tapering to a point. F. maniculata, Temm, Monog. de Mammal, torn. i. p. 128. Domestic Cat, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 82. Descrip...
-Gen. 7. Phoca, Linn. 15. P. Vitulina, Linn. (Common Seal)
Fur yellowish gray more or less marked and spotted with brown ; whiskers with the bristles undulated. P. vitulina, Desm. Mammal, p. 244. Flem. Brit. An. p. 17. Common Seal, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i...
-16. P. Barbata, Mull. (Great Seal)
Fur blackish: middle toes on the forefeet longer than the lateral ones. P. barbata, Desm. Mammal, p. 246. Flem. Brit. An. p. 18. Great Seal, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 136. Don. Brit. Quad. pi. 1...
-Gen. 8. Trichechus, Linn. 17. T. Rosmarus, Linn. (Walrus)
T. Rosmarus, Desm. Mammal, p. 253. Flem. Brit. An. p. 18. Arctic Walrus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 234. pi. 68. Nat. Miscell. vol. viii. pi. 276. Dimensions Entire length from eleven to fiftee...
-Gen. 9 Talpa, Linn. 18. T. Europcea, Linn. (Mole)
T. Europaea, Desm. Mammal, p. 160. Flem. Brit. An. p. 9. Mole, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 128. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 515. pi. 117. Dimensions Length of the head and body five inches thre...
-Gen. 10. Sorex, Linn. 19. S. Araneus, Linn. (Common Shrew)
Reddish brown above; paler beneath: tail shorter than the body, somewhat square, not ciliated on its under surface. S. Araneus, Desm. Mammal, p. 149. Flem. Brit. An. p. 8. Fetid Shrew, Penn. Brit. ...
-20. S. Fodiens, Gmel. (Water Shrew)
Blackish brown above ; grayish white beneath : tail two-thirds the length of the body : feet and tail strongly ciliated with white hairs. S. fodiens, Mem. Brit. An. p. 8. S. Daubentonii, Desm. Mamm...
-21. S. Remifer, Geoff.? (Oared Shrew)
Black above; scarcely paler beneath; throat brownish ash : tail quadrangular at the base, flattened at the extremity, and, as well as the feet, ciliated. S. remifer, Geoff. Ann. du Mus. torn. xvn. ...
-Gen. 11. Erinaceus, Linn. 22. E. Europceus, Linn. (Hedgehog)
Ears short: spines moderately long. E. Europseus, Desm. Mammal, p. 147. Flem. Brit. An. p. 7. Common Urchin, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 133. Hedgehog, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. i. p. 542. pi. 121. ...
-Order II. Primates. Gen. 12. Rhinolophus, Geoff. 23. R. Ferrum-Equinum, Gmel. (Greater Horse-Shoe Bat)
Posterior foliaceous appendage lanceolate, expanding laterally at the base: ears notched on their external margins. R. Ferrum-equinum, Flem. Brit. An. p. 5. R. unihastatus, Desm. Mammal, p. 125. Ho...
-24. R. Hipposideros, Bechst. (Lesser Horse-Shoe Bat)
Posterior foliaceous appendage lanceolate, without any lateral expansions: ears deeply notched on their external margins. R. Hipposideros, Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. in. p. 2. pi. 121. Flem. Brit. An....
-Gen. 13. Vespertilio, Linn. 25. V. Murinus, Desm
(1. Vespertilio, Geoff). Ears oval, as long as the head ; tragus falciform, half the length of the auricle: fur reddish brown above; dirty white beneath. V. murinus, Desm. Mammal, p. 134. La Cha...
-26. V. Bechsteinii, Leisl
Ears oval, a little longer than the head; tragus falciform, bending outwards at the extremity, not half the length of the auricle: fur reddish gray above; white beneath. V. Bechsteinii, Desm. Mamma...
-27. V. Nattereri, Kuhl
Ears oblong-oval, about as long as the head; tragus lanceolate, nearly two-thirds the length of the auricle: fur reddish gray above, white beneath : interfemoral ample, the margin crenate on each side...
-28. V. Serotinus, Gmel. (Serotine)
Ears oval-triangular, shorter than the head; tragus semicordate : muzzle short, and obtuse: fur chestnut brown above; pale beneath. V. Serotinus, Desm. Mammal, p. 137. La Serotine, Buff. Hist. Nat....
-29. V. Noctula, Gmel. (Noctule)
Ears oval-triangular, shorter than the head; tragus small, arcuate, terminating in a broad round head : fur short, of a uniform reddish brown above and below. V. Noctula, Desm. Mammal, p. 136. Flem...
-30. V. Leisleri, Kuhl
Ears oval-triangular, shorter than the head; tragus terminating in a round head: fur long, bright chestnut above, darker beneath : under surface of the flying membrane with a broad band of hair along ...
-31. V. Discolor, Natt
Ears shorter than the head, oval, bending outwards, with a projecting lobe on the inner margin; tragus of equal breadth throughout: fur above reddish brown, with the tips of the hairs white ; beneath ...
-32. V. Pipistrellus, Gmel. (Pipistrelle)
Ears shorter than the head, oval-triangular, deeply notched on their external margins; tragus nearly straight, terminating in a blunt rounded head: fur reddish brown above; somewhat paler beneath. ...
-33. V. Pygmceus. Leach. (Pygmy Bat)
Forehead with an impressed longitudinal furrow: ears a little shorter than the head, broad at the base, obtuse and rounded at the extremity ; tragus linear: fur above brown, darkest on the head and do...
-34. V. Emarginatus, Geoff
Ears oblong, nearly as long as the head, deeply notched on their external margins ; tragus half the length of the auricle, subulate, bending slightly inwards towards the tip: fur reddish gray above, a...
-35. V. Mystacinus, Leisl
Ears oblong, shorter than the head, bending outwards and notched on their external margins; tragus half the length of the auricle, lanceolate, straight: a moustache of fine close hairs on the upper li...
-36. V. Auritus, Linn. (Greater Long-Eared Bat)
Ears more than double the length of the head ; tragus oval-lanceolate : fur brownish gray on the upper parts; paler beneath. V. auritus, Desm. Mammal, p. 144. Long-eared Bat, Perm. Brit. Zool. vol....
-37. V. Brevimanus, Jenyns. (Lesser Long-Eared Bat)
Ears not double the length of the head ; tragus oval-lanceolate : fur reddish brown on the upper parts ; yellowish white beneath. V. brevimanus, Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 55. pi. 1. f. 2. Dimens...
-38. V. Barbastellus, Gmel. (Barbastelle)
Ears shorter than the head, broad, triangular, notched on their external margins; tragus semicordate: fur black, with the tips of the hairs grayish white. V. Barbastellus, Desm. Mammal, p. 145. Sow...
-Order III. Glires. Gen. 14. Sciurus, Linn. 39. S. Vulgaris, Linn. (Common Squirrel)
Fur brownish red above; white beneath: ears with a pencil of long hairs at the extremity. S. vulgaris, Desm. Mammal, p. 330. Flem. Brit. An. p. 20. Common Squirrel, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 107...
-Gen. 15. Myoxus, Gmel. 40. M. Avellanarius, Desm. (Dormouse)
Fur tawny red above; white beneath: tail bushy, the length of the body. M. avellanarius, Desm. Mammal, p. 295. Flem. Brit. An. p. 22. Dormouse, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 110. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vo...
-Gen. 16. Mus, Linn. 41. M. Sylvaticus, Linn. (Field Mouse)
Fur yellowish brown above; whitish beneath, with a ferruginous spot on the breast: ears more than half the length of the head. M. sylvaticus, Desm. Mammal, p. 301. Flem. Brit. An. p. 19. Field Mous...
-42. M. Messorius, Shaw. (Harvest Mouse)
Fur tawny brown on the upper parts; beneath white: ears one-third the length of the head. M. messorius, Desm. Mammal, p. 302. Flem. Brit. An. p. 19. Harvest Mouse, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. n. p. 62. F...
-43. M. Musculus, Linn. (House Mouse)
Fur dusky gray above with a tinge of yellow; beneath cinereous: ears about half the length of the head. M. Musculus, Desm. Mammal, p. 301. Flem. Brit. An. p. 19. Common Mouse, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol...
-44. M. Rattus, Linn. (Black Rat)
Fur grayish-black above; ash-colour beneath : tail a little longer than the body. M. Rattus, Desm. Mammal, p. 300. Mem. Brit. An. p. 20. Black Rat, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. I. p. 113. Shaw, Gen. Zool...
-45. M. Decumanus, Pall. (Brown Rat)
Fur above grayish brown, tinged with yellow; beneath whitish: tail scarcely so long as the body. M. decumanus, Desm. Mammal, p. 299. Flem. Brit. An. p. 20. Norway Rat, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. ...
-Gen. 17. Arvicola, Lacip. 46. A. Amphibia, Desm. (Water Campagnol)
Fur above dusky gray tinged with yellow; beneath paler: tail more than half the length of the body. A. amphibia, Desm. Mammal, p. 280. A. aquatica, Flem. Brit. An. p. 23. Water Rat, Penn. Brit. Zoo...
-47. A. Agrestis, Flem. (Field Campagnol)
Fur reddish brown above; pale gray beneath: tail one-third the length of the body. A. agrestis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 23. A. vulgaris, Desm. Mammal. p. 282. Short-tailed Mouse, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. ...
-48. A. Riparia, Yarr. (Bank Campagnol)
Fur bright chestnut-red above, ash-colour beneath : tail half the length of the body; the hairs at the tip a little elongated. A. riparia, Yarr ell in Proceed, of Zool. Soc. (1832) p. 109. Id. in L...
-Gen. 18. Castor, Linn. 49. C. Fiber, Linn. (Beaver)
Fur of a deep chestnut-brown; glossy above, dull beneath. C. Fiber, Desm. Mammal, p. 277. Common Beaver, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. n. p. 30. pi. 128. Dimensions Length of the head and body two fe...
-Gen. 19. Lepus, Linn. 50. L. Timidus, Linn. (Common Hare)
Tawny gray, shaded with brown: ears longer than the head; black at the tips: tail black above, white beneath. L. timidus, Desm. Mammal, p. 347. Mem. Brit. An. p. 21. Hare, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i....
-51. L. Cuniculus, Linn. (Rabbet)
Brownish gray, mixed with tawny: ears scarcely longer than the head: tail brown above, white beneath. L. Cuniculus, Desm. Mammal, p. 348. Mem. Brit. An. p. 2J. Rabbet, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. ...
-52. L. Albus, Briss. (Alpine Hare)
Dusky gray in summer, with a tinge of tawny ; white in winter: ears shorter than the head, always black at the extremity. L. albus, Briss. Reg. An. p. 139. L. variabilis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 22. Alp...
-Gen. 20. Cavia, Gmel. 53. C. Cobaya, Gmel. (Guinea Pig)
Reddish yellow, variegated with black and white. C. Cobaya, Desm. Mammal, p.356. Variegated Cavy, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. II. p. 17. pi. 126. Dimensions Length of the head and body twelve inche...
-Order IV. Ungulata. Gen. 21. Bos, Linn. 54. B. Taurus, Linn. (Common Ox)
Forehead flat, longer than broad: horns taking their origin from the extremities of the occipital ridge. B. Taurus, Desm. Mammal, p. 499. Flem. Brit. An. p. 24. Ox, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 18....
-Gen. 22. Ovis, Linn. 55. O. Aries, Linn. (Sheep)
Horns compressed, and lunated. O. Aries, Desm. Mammal, p. 488. Flem. Brit. An. p. 25. Sheep, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 27. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. II. p. 385. Description Varying much in siz...
-Gen. 23. Capra, Linn. 56. C. Hircus, Linn. (Goat)
Horns edged in front, rounded posteriorly. C. Hircus, Desm. Mammal, p. 482. Flem. Brit. An. p. 25. Domestic Goat, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 35. pi. 3. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. II. p. 369. pi. 199. ...
-Gen. 24. Cervus, Linn. 57. C. Elaphus, Linn. (Stag, Or Red Deer)
Horns branched; round; diverging at the base, somewhat converging at the extremity. C. Elaphus, Desm. Mammal, p. 434. Flem. Brit. An. p. 26. Stag, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. 1. p. 41. Shaw, Gen. Zool. ...
-58. C. Duma, Linn. (Buck, Or Fallow Deer)
Horns branched; compressed; palmated at the top, diverging. C. Dama, Desm. Mammal, p. 438. Flem. Brit. An. p. 26. Fallow Deer, Petin. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 41. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. II. p. 282. pi...
-59 C. Capreolus, Linn. (Roe-Buck)
Horns branched ; cylindrical; small and erect, with furcate summits. C. Capreolus, Desm. Mammal, p. 439. Flem. Brit. An. p. 26. Roe, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 49. pi. 4. Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. ii...
-Gen. 25. Equus, Linn. 60. E. Caballus, Linn. (Horse)
Tail uniformly covered with long hair; mane long and flowing: ears of moderate size: no dorsal line or transverse band. E. Caballus, Desm. Mammal, p. 416. Flem. Brit. An. p. 27. Horse, Penn. Brit. ...
-61. E. Asinus, Linn. (Ass)
Gray, inclining to reddish; with the dorsal line, and a transverse band across the shoulders, black: ears very large : tail terminating in a tuft of long hair. E. Asinus, Desm, Mammal, p. 414. Ass,...
-Gen. 26. Sus, Linn. 62. S. Scrofa, Linn. (Boar)
Tusks strong, triangular, of moderate length, directed to one side. S. Scrofa, Desm. Mammal, p. 389. Flem. Brit. An. p. 28. Hog, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. i. p. 55. Wild Boar, and Common Hog, Shaw, Ge...
-Order V. Cetacea. Gen (1). Manatus, Cuv.? Gen. (2). Stellerus, Cuv.?
(1). - ? Manatus borealis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 29. Mermaid of the Shetland Seas, Edinb. New Phil. Joum. (1829) vol. vi. p. 57. Two instances at least are on record in which specimens of the Herbivor...
-Gen. 27. Delphinus, Linn. 63. D. Delphis, Linn. (Common Dolphin)
(1. Delphinus, Cuv). Jaws moderately produced ; nearly of equal length : teeth more than forty on each side above and below; slender, slightly bent, pointed. D. Delphis, Desm. Mammal, p. 514. Fl...
-64. D. Tursio, Fab. (Blunt-Toothed Dolphin)
Jaws moderately produced ; the lower longer than the upper : teeth rather more than twenty on each side above and below ; straight, with obtuse summits. D. Tursio, Desm. Mammal, p. 514. Mem. Brit. ...
-65. D. Phoccena, Linn. (Porpesse)
Under jaw slightly projecting beyond the upper : teeth twenty-two to twenty-five on each side above and below; straight, compressed, and rounded at the summits. D. Phoccena, Desm. Mammal, p. 516. F...
-66. D. Orca, Fab. (Grampus)
Upper jaw projecting a little beyond the lower : teeth about eleven on each side above and below; conical, bent at the summits : pectoral fins broad and oval. D. Orca,Flem.Brit. An. p. 34. D. Gramp...
-67. D. Melasy Traill.(Casing Whale)
Top of the head very convex : teeth conical, varying in number: pectoral fins long and narrow. D. melas, Traill in Nichol. Journ. vol. xxn. p. 81. Flem. Brit. An. p. 34. D. globiceps, Cuv. Ann. du ...
-68. D. Albicans, Fab. (Beluga)
Head blunt: teeth about nine on each side above and below; short, with obtuse summits. D. leucas, Desm. Mammal, p. 519. Delphinaptera albicans, Flem. Brit. An. p. 36. Beluga, Barclay and Neill in W...
-Gen. 28. Monodon, Linn. 69. M. Monoceros, Linn. (Narwhal)
Body sub-conical, with a dorsal and ventral ridge: head obtuse, about one-seventh of the entire length. M. Monoceros, Scoresby, Arct. Reg. vol. i. p. 486. pl. 15. Flem. Brit. An. p. 37. Small-heade...
-Gen. 29. Hyperoodon, Lactp. 70. H. Bidens, Flem. (Bottle-Head)
Teeth two only in the fore part of the lower jaw. H. bidens, Flem. Brit. An. p. 36. H. Butskopf, Lacep. CStac. p. 319: Bottle-nose Whale with two teeth, Hunter in Phil. Trans. 1787. pi. 19. Beaked ...
-Gen. 30. Physeter, Linn. 71. P- Macrocephalus, Shaw. (Blunt-Headed Cachalot)
(1. Catodon, Lacep). Teeth in the lower jaw from twenty to twenty-four on each side; mostly conical with obtuse summits. Catodon .macrocephalus and C. Trumpo, Lacep. Cetac. pp. 165 and 212. C. m...
-72. P. Tursio, Linn. (High-Finned Cachalot)
Teeth very slightly bent, with flat summits. P. Tursio, Flem. Brit. An. p. 38. P. Mular, Lacep. Cetac. p. 239. Desm. Mammal, p. 526. High-finned Cachalot, Perm. Brit. Zool. vol. in. p. 64. Descr...
-Gen. 31. Balae Na, Linn. (1. Baljena, Lacep). 73. B. Mysticetus, Linn. (Common Whale)
Gape of the mouth arched : upper jaw with about six hundred and fifty laminae of whalebone. B. Mysticetus, Scoresby, Arctic Reg. vol. 1. p. 449. pl. 12. Flem. Brit. An. p. 33. Common Whale, Penn. B...
-74. B. Physalus, Linn. (Fin-Fish)
Pectoral skin without longitudinal folds. Balsenoptera Gibbar, Scoresb. Arct. Reg. vol. 1. p. 478. Physalis vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 32. Fin-Fish, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. in. p. 57. Fin-backed M...
-75. B. Boops, Linn. (Sharp-Lipped Whale)
Pectoral skin with longitudinal folds admitting of dilatation : jaws pointed. Balsenoptera Jubartes, Scoresb. Arct. Reg. vol. 1. p. 484. B. Boops, Flem. Brit. An. p. 31. Pike-headed Mysticete, Shaw...
-76. B. Musculus, Linn. (Round-Lipped Whale)
Pectoral skin with longitudinal folds : margin of the under lip semicircular. Balsenoptera Rorqual, Scoresb. Arct. Reg. vol. 1. p. 482. B. Mus-culus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 30. Round-lipped Whale, Penn...
-Class II. Aves. Order I. Raptores
& i. Feet formed for grasping. Bill strong, covered at the base with a cere, hooked towards the extremity: legs strong and muscular, short, or of moderate length: toes four in number, three directe...
-Order II. Insessores
Bill various: legs short, or of moderate length: feet adapted for perching: toes four, varying in position, flat underneath; hind toe articulated on the same plane with the fore toes : claws slender, ...
-Order II. Insessores. Part 2
23. Saxicola Bill rather strong, straight, carinated above, dilated at the base, advancing on the forehead ; upper mandible emarginated, slightly bending at the tip: rictus with some stiff longish ...
-Order II. Insessores. Part 3
35. Corvus Bill strong, thick, convex above, compressed at the sides, with the tomia sharp and cutting; upper mandible slightly bending towards the tip; lower one nearly straight: nostrils basal, o...
-Order III. Rasores
Bill short, or moderate, convex, often furnished with a cere at the base; upper mandible arched: wings short: legs strong and muscular, adapted for walking: hind toe sometimes wanting; when present, g...
-Order IV. Grallatores
Bill various: legs moderate or elongated, slender, with the lower part of the tibia generally naked, adapted for wading: toes long, three or four in number, more or less connected by a membrane at the...
-Order IV. Grallatores. Continued
72. Ibis Bill very much elongated, slender, arcuate, broad at the base, somewhat quadrangular, the tip depressed, obtuse, and rounded; upper mandible deeply channelled throughout its whole le...
-Order V. Natatores
Bill various: legs short, often placed far behind, adapted for swimming: lower part of the tibia more or less naked: tarsi compressed: toes generally four; the three anterior ones palmated, semi-palma...
-Order V. Natatores. Continued
II. Colymbidae Bill slightly compressed, smooth, not covered by a membranous skin; the tomia simple, or only slightly denticulated: wings short: legs placed at the extremity of the body: tarsi very...
-Order I. Raptores. Gen. 1. Neophron, Sav. 1. N. Percnopterus, Sav. (Egyptian Neophron)
Plumage above and below white; quills alone black: occipital feathers long, and filiform: tail cuneated. N. Percnopterus, Jard. and Selb. Orn. pl. 33. Cathartes Perc-nopterus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tor...
-Gen. 2. Aquila, Briss. 2. A. Chrysaetos, Vigors. (Golden Eagle)
Tail longer than the wings; rounded at the extremity: the last phalanges of all the toes with only three scales. Falco fulvus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 38. Golden Eagle, Mont. Orn. Diet, and S...
-3. A. Albicilla, Briss. (Cinereous Eagle)
Plumage brown; with spots of a darker tint in the immature state: tail not extending beyond the wings: all the phalanges of the toes scaled. Falco Albicilla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 49. Ciner...
-4. A. Haliceetus, Meyer. (Osprey)
Wings longer than the tail. Falco Haliaetus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 47. Osprey, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Must, vol. I. p. 24. pl. 4. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. i. p. 13. Dimensions ...
-Gen. 3. Falco, Linn. 5. F. Islandicus, Lath. (Jer-Falcon)
Plumage white, with dusky lines and spots. F. Islandicus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 17. Jer-Falcon, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 36. pl. 14. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. i. p. 15...
-6. F. Peregrinus, Gmel. (Peregrine Falcon)
Above bluish ash, with darker fasciae; beneath yellowish white, with brown transverse bars; a broad black moustache: wings reaching to the extremity of the tail. F. peregrinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. to...
-7. F. Subbuteo, Linn. (Hobby)
Above bluish black; beneath reddish yellow, with longitudinal streaks of brown: a broad black moustache: wings reaching beyond the extremity of the tail. F. Subbuteo, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. 1. p. 2...
-8. F. Ae Salon, Gmel. (Merlin)
Above bluish ash, beneath reddish yellow, with longitudinal dark spots: no moustache: wings reaching to two-thirds the length of the tail. F. AEsalon, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 27. Merlin, Mont...
-9. F. Rufipes, Bechst. (Red-Legged Falcon )
General plumage dark bluish gray, without spots: cere and feet red: claws yellow: wings reaching to the extremity of the tail. F. rufipes, Temm. Man. cTOm. torn. I. p. 33. Orange-legged Hobby, Lath...
-10. F. Tinnunculus, Linn. (Kestril)
Upper plumage reddish brown, spotted with black: cere and feet yellow: claws black: wings reaching to three-fourths the length of the tail. F. Tinnunculus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 29. Kestril...
-Gen. 4. Accipiter, Willugh. 11. A. Palumbarius, Will. (Goshawk)
(1. Astur, Vig). A broad white streak over the eye. Falco palumbarius, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 55. Goshawk, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol.i. p. 29. pis. 12 and 12*. Bew. Brit. Birds, ...
-12. A. Fringillarius, Will. (Sparrow-Hawk)
A white spot on the nape. Falco Nisus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 56. Sparrow-Hawk, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. i. p. 32. pls. 13 and 13*. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. i. p. 44. Dimensions ...
-Gen. 5. Milvus, Bechst. 13. M. Ictinus, Sav. (Kite)
(1. Milvus, Vig). Reddish brown above; beneath ferruginous, with dark longitudinal streaks. Falco Milvus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 59. Kite, Mont. Orn, Diet, and Supp. Selb. Hlust. vol. I. ...
-Gen. 6. Buteo, Nob. (1. Buteo, Beehat). 14. B. Vulgaris. Will. (Common Buzzard)
Tarsi naked: tail barred transversely throughout its whole length. Falco Buteo, Temm. Man. d'Qrn. torn. i. p. 63. Common Buzzard, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. i. p. 55. pl. 6. Bew. Brit. Birds...
-15. B. Lagopus, Vig. (Rough-Legged Buzzard)
Tarsi feathered nearly to the toes: basal portion of the tail white, the remainder brown. Falco Lagopus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 65. Rough-legged Falcon, Mont. Orn. Diet. Rough-legged Buzzard...
-16. B. Apivorus, Ray. (Honey Buzzard)
Upper plumage brown, with cinereous bars on the wings: under parts white, with triangular brown spots. Falco apivorus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 67. Honey Buzzard, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust...
-17. B. Rufus, Nob. (Marsh Harrier)
General plumage deep reddish brown: crown of the head yellowish white: wings a little shorter than the tail. Falco rufus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 69. Marsh Harrier, Selb. Must. vol. i. p. 66....
-18. B. Cyaneus, Nob. (Hen-Harrier)
Upper plumage (male) bluish gray, (female) reddish brown: quills dusky, without transverse bars: third and fourth primaries of equal length: wings reaching to three-fourths the length of the tail. ...
-19. B. Cineraceus, Flem. (Ash-Coloured Harrier)
Upper plumage (male) bluish ash, (female) reddish brown: third primary much longer than the others: secondaries with three black transverse bars: wings reaching to the extremity of the tail. Falco ...
-Gen. 7. Bubo, Isid, Geoff. 20. B. Maocimus, Flem. (Eagle Owl)
(1. Bubo, Cuv). Upper plumage variegated with black and ochre: under parts ochre-yellow, with longitudinal black spots. Strix Bubo, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 100. Eagle Owl, Selb. Must. vol....
-21. B. Scops, Nob. (Scops-Eared Owl)
Plumage variegated with brown, gray, black, and rufous. Strix Scops, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 103. Scops-eared Owl, Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 92. pi. 22. Bern. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 67. Littl...
-Gen. 8. Otus. Cuv. 22. O. Vulgaris, Flem. (Long-Eared Owl)
Plumage reddish yellow, variegated with gray and dusky brown: egrets elongated, composed of eight or ten feathers. Strix Otus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 102. Long-eared Owl, Mont. Orn. Diet. Se...
-23. O. Brachyotos, Flem. (Short-Eared Owl)
Upper plumage dusky brown, edged with ochre-yellow: egrets small and inconspicuous, composed of three or four feathers. Strix Brachyotos, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 99. Short-eared Owl, Mont. Or...
-Gen. 9. Strix, Linn. 24. S. Jlammea, Linn. (White Owl)
Upper plumage tawny yellow, variegated with gray and brown: underneath white. S. flammea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 91. White Owl, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 99. pl. 24. Bew. Bri...
-Gen. 10. Syrnium, Sav. 25. S. Aluco, Nob. (Tawny Owl)
Upper plumage reddish brown, variegated with black and ash-gray: scapulars and wing-coverts spotted with white: under parts white, with reddish bars, and longitudinal dusky streaks. Strix Aluco, Te...
-Gen. 11. Noctua, Sav. (1. Surnia, Selby). 26. N. Nyctea, Nob. (Snowy Owl)
Plumage snow-white, more or less marked with transverse brown bars. Strix nyctea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 82. Snowy Owl, Mont. Orn. Diet. Supp. App. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 95. pl. 23. Bew. Br...
-26. N. Funerea, Nob. (Canada Owl)
Upper parts spotted with brown and white; beneath white, with transverse brown bars: quills spotted with white; tail marked with distant, transverse, narrow, white bars. Strix funerea, Lath. Ind. O...
-27. N. Passerina, Selby. (Little Owl)
Tarsi feathered; toes thinly covered with a few white hairs. Strix passerina, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 92. Little Owl, Mont. Orn. Diet. Little Night-Owl, Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p. 107. pi. 27. ...
-28. N. Tengmalmi, Selby. (Tengmalrri's Owl)
Tarsi and toes thickly clothed with downy feathers. Strix Tengmalmi, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 94. Tengmalm's Night-Owl, Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p. 105. pl. 26. Little Owl, Bew. Brit. Birds, vol....
-Order II. Insessores. Gen. 12. Lanius, Linn. 29. L. Excubitor, Linn. (Cinereous Shrike)
* Tail long; graduated. Head, neck, and back, cinereous; a black band beneath the eyes: under parts white. L. Excubitor, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 142. Cinereous Shrike, Mont. Orn. Diet, and...
-30. L. Rufus, Briss. (Wood-Chat)
Upper plumage variegated with black, white, and ferruginous: under parts white: second quill equal to the fifth: tail slightly rounded. L. rufus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 146. Wood-Chat, Bew. ...
-31. L. Collurio, Linn. (Red-Backed Shrike)
Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, ferruginous: breast and flanks rose-red: second quill longer than the fifth: tail even at the extremity. L. Collurio, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 147. Red-backe...
-Gen. 13. Muscicapa, Linn. 32. M. Grisola, Linn. (Spotted Flycatcher)
Upper plumage brownish ash: under parts white: head and breast spotted with dusky. M. grisola, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 152. Spotted Flycatcher, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. i. p. 141. pl...
-33. M. Luctuosa, Temm. (Pied Flycatcher)
Upper plumage black; forehead, and under parts of the body, white. M. luctuosa, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 155. Pied Flycatcher, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 143. pl. 43*. f...
-Gen. 14. Cinclus, Bechst. 34. C. Aquaticus, Bechst. (Water-Ouzel)
Upper parts brown: throat and breast white: abdomen brownish red. C. aquaticus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 177. Water-Ouzel, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Sum). Bew. Brit. Birds, vol, II. p. 118. Europea...
-Gen. 15. Turdus, Linn. 35. T. Viscivorus, Linn. (Missel-Thrush)
* Plumage brown, and spotted. Lore grayish white: upper plumage cinereous brown; wing-coverts edged with white: all the under parts spotted. T. viscivorus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 161. Mis...
-36. T. Pilaris, Linn. (Fieldfare)
Lore black: back and wing-coverts brown; head, neck, and rump, ash-gray: abdomen without spots. T. pilaris, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. I. p. 163. Fieldfare, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. lllust. vol. I. p. 16...
-37. T. Musicus, Linn. (Song-Thrush)
Lore yellowish: all the upper parts brown tinged with olive: wing-coverts edged with reddish yellow: throat without spots. T. musicus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 164. Song-Thrush, Selb. Must. vo...
-38. T. Iliacus, Linn. (Redwing)
A broad white streak above the eyes: upper parts olive-brown: under wing-coverts and flanks deep orange-red: middle of the abdomen without spots. T. iliacus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 165. Redw...
-39. T. Merula, Linn. (Blackbird)
Plumage wholly black. T. Merula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 168. Blackbird, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 167. pl. 45. f. 4. and pl. 43. f. 4. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 120. Di...
-40. T. Torquatus, Linn. (Ring-Ouzel)
Plumage black, edged with gray: a crescent-shaped white spot on the breast. T. torquatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 166. Ring-Ouzel, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 169. pl....
-Gen. 16. Oriolus, Linn. 41. O. Galbula, Linn. (Golden Oriole)
Golden yellow; lore, wings, and tail, black. O. Galbula, Temm, Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 129. Golden Oriole, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 176. pl. 35. f. 1 and 2. Bew, Brit. Birds, vol. ...
-Gen. 17. Accentor, Bechst. 42. A. Alpinus, Bechst. (Alpine Accentor)
Cinereous gray, with large brown spots on the back: throat white with brown scales: abdomen grayish white mixed with reddish. A. alpinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 248. Alpine Accentor, Selb. I...
-43. A. Modularise Cuv. (Hedge Accentor)
Crown of the head cinereous, with brown streaks: back and wing-coverts with large brown spots: throat and breast bluish gray: middle of the abdomen whitish. A. modularis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I....
-Gen. 18. Sylvia, Lath. (1. Erithaca, Swains). 44. S. Rubecula, Lath. (Redbreast)
Upper parts brownish gray, tinged with olive: throat and breast bright ferruginous. S. Rubecula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 215. Redbreast, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 188. pl. 46....
-45. S. Suecica, Lath. (Blue-Throated Warbler)
Upper parts ash-brown tinged with olive: throat, and fore part of the neck blue, with a central white spot. S. Suecica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 216. Blue-throated Warbler, Lath. Syn. vol. II....
-46. S. Pkcenicurus, Lath. (Redstart)
Bluish gray above: throat black; breast, rump, and under tail-coverts, red: second quill equal to the sixth. S. Phoenicurus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 220. Redstart, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must...
-47. S. Tithys, Scop. (Black Red-Tail)
Upper parts bluish ash: throat and breast black: rump and under tail-coverts red: second quill equal to the seventh. S. Tithys, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 218. Phoenicura Tithys, Jard. and Selb....
-48. S. Locustella, Lath. (Grasshopper Warbler)
Upper plumage olivaceous brown, spotted with dusky: tail of one colour, long, and very much cuneated. S. Locustella, Temm. Man. d'Orri. torn. i. p. 184. Grasshopper Warbler, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Su...
-49. S. Phragmitis, Bechst. (Sedge Warbler)
Upper plumage olivaceous brown, tinged with yellow, and spotted with dusky: above the eye a broad white streak: tail moderate. S. Phragmitis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 189. Sedge Warbler, Mont....
-50. S. Arundinacea, Lath. (Reed-Wren)
Upper parts plain olivaceous brown, without spots: between the bill and the eye a white streak. S. arundinacea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 191. Reed-Wren, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. I. p....
-51. S. Luscinia, Lath. (Nightingale)
Upper plumage reddish brown; beneath, cinereous white. S. Luscinia, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 195. Nightingale, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 206. pl. 46. f. 1. Bew. Brit....
-52. S. Atricapilla, Lath. (Black-Cap Warbler)
Top of the head and occiput deep black (male), or reddish brown (female); rest of the upper plumage greenish ash. S. Atricapilla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 201. Black-cap, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb...
-53. S. Hortensis, Lath. (Greater Pettychaps)
Upper parts grayish brown, tinged with olive: orbits white: tail of one colour. S. hortensis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 206. Greater Pettychaps, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 211. p...
-54. S. Cinerea, Lath. (White-Throat)
Top of the head cinereous; back and wing-coverts grayish brown inclining to rufous: under parts white; the breast tinged with rose-red: tail particoloured. S. cinerea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p....
-55. S. Curruca, Lath. (Lesser White-Throat)
; Crown of the head cinereous; back and wing-coverts grayish ash, tinged with brown: under parts silvery white: tail particoloured. S. Curruca, Temm. Man. d'Oim. torn. I. p. 209. Lesser White-Throa...
-56. S. Sibilatrix, Bechst. (Wood-Wren)
Upper parts bright yellowish green: belly and under tail-coverts pure white: wings with the second quill equal to the fourth; third and fourth with their outer webs sloped off at the extremity. S. ...
-57. S. Trochilus, Lath. (Willow-Wren)
Upper parts pale olive-green, tinged with yellow: under tail-coverts yellowish white: wings with the second quill equal to the sixth; the third, fourth, and fifth, with their outer webs sloped off at ...
-58. S. Hippolais, Lath. (Chiff-Chaff)
Upper parts olive-green, tinged with yellow; beneath yellowish white: wings with the second quill equal to the seventh; third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, with their outer webs sloped off at the ...
-Gen. 19. Melizophilus, Leach. 59. M. Provincialis, Leach. (Dartford Warbler)
Upper plumage deep grayish brown: throat, neck, and breast, ferruginous red. Sylvia provincialis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 211. S. Dartford-iensis, Mont, in Linn, Trans. vol. ix. p. 191. Dartf...
-Gen. 20. Regulus, Cuv. 60. R. Aurocapillus, Selby. (Gold-Crested Regulus)
Upper parts greenish yellow: cheeks and region of the eyes cinereous, without any white bands: crown-feathers elongated, forming a bright yellow orange crest. Sylvia Regulus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn...
-61. R. Ignicapillus, Nob. (Fire-Crested Regulus)
Upper parts yellowish green, passing into pure yellow on the sides of the neck; cheeks with three longitudinal streaks, one black and two white: crown-feathers elongated, of a brilliant flame-red. ...
-Gen. 21. Motacilla, Linn. 62. M. Alba, Linn. (Pied Wagtail)
* Hind claw moderate; much curved. Plumage variegated with black and white. M. alba, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. I. p. 255. Pied Wagtail, Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 251. pl. 49. f. I. Bew. Brit. Birds,...
-63. M. Boarula, Linn. (Gray Wagtail)
Head and back bluish gray; rump and under parts bright yellow: tail very long. M. Boarula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 257. Gray Wagtail, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 253. ...
-64. M. Tfava, Ray. (Yellow Wagtail)
Head, and all the upper parts of the body, olive-green: streak above the eye, and under parts, bright yellow: tail moderate. M. flava, Ray, Syn. Av. p. 75. Yellow Wagtail, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp...
-65. M. Neglecta, Gould. (Blue-Headed Wagtail)
Head bluish lead-colour; streak above the eye white: body above olivaceous green, beneath yellow. M. neglecta, Gould in Proceed, of Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 129. Id. Europ. Birds, part 3. M. flava, Temm...
-Gen. 22. Anthus, Bechst. 66. A. Richardi, Vieill. (Richard's Pipit)
* Hind claw longer than the toe; very little curved. Upper plumage deep brown, with lighter edges: breast spotted: tarsi very long. A. Richardi, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 263. Vigors in Zool...
-67. A. Pratensis, Bechst. (Meadow Pipit)
Upper plumage olivaceous green, with dusky spots: neck, breast, and sides, spotted: tarsi moderate. A. pratensis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 269. Meadow Pipit, Selb. Illust. vol. i. p. 260. pl. ...
-68. A. Arboreus, Bechst. (Tree Pipit)
Upper parts olivaceous green, with dusky spots: breast and sides spotted: wings with two transverse bars of yellowish white. A. arboreus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 271. Tree Pipit, Selb. Illust...
-69. A. Petrosus,Flem. (Rock Pipit)
Upper parts greenish brown with darker spots: breast and sides streaked with brown: above the eye a yellowish white streak. A. aquaticus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 265. Alauda petrosa, Mont, in...
-Gen. 23. Saxicola, Bechst. 70. S. (Enanthe, Bechst. (Wheat-Ear)
Upper parts ash-gray: forehead, throat, streak above the eyes, and basal portion of the tail, white. S. (Enanthe, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 237. Wheat-Ear, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. 1...
-71. S. Rubetra, Bechst. (Whin-Chat)
Upper plumage dusky brown, edged with reddish yellow: streak above the eyes, a spot on the wings, and base of the tail, white. S. Rubetra, Temm. Man. & Orn. torn. 1. p. 244. Whin-Chat, Mont. Orn. D...
-72. S. Rubicola, Bechst. (Stone-Chat)
Head and throat black; back black, the feathers with reddish edges: sides of the neck, a spot on the wings, and rump, white. S. Rubicola, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 246. Stone-Chat, Mont. Orn. D...
-Gen. 24. Parus, Linn. 73. P. Major, Linn. (Great Titmouse)
(1. Parus, Leach). Head, throat, lower part of the neck, and mesial line of the abdomen, black; cheeks, and a spot on the nape, white. P. major, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 287. Great Titmouse...
-74. P. Cceruleus, Linn. (Blue Titmouse)
Crown blue, encircled with white: cheeks white, bordered with black, and dark blue. P. cseruleus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 289. Blue Titmouse, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p. 235. pl...
-75. P. Cristatus, Linn. (Crested Titmouse)
Crown-feathers elongated, forming a crest, black, edged with white: cheeks and sides of the neck dull white: throat, a streak on the temples, and collar, black. P. cristatus, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn....
-76. P. Palustris, Linn. (Marsh Titmouse)
Crown, throat, and nape, deep black: cheeks yellowish white. P. palustris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 291. Marsh Titmouse, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p. 237. pl. 51. f. 4. Bew. Brit....
-77 P Ater, Linn. (Cole Titmouse)
Head, throat, and fore part of the neck, black; cheeks, and a spot on the nape, white: two transverse white bars on the wings. P. ater, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 288. Cole Titmouse, Mont. Orn. ...
-78. P. Caudatus, Linn. (Long-Tailed Titmouse)
Forehead, crown, cheeks, and throat, white: a broad streak across the eye, nape, and back, black; scapulars reddish. P. caudatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 296. Long-tailed Titmouse, Mont. Orn....
-Gen. 25. Calamophilus, Leach. 79. C. Biarmicus, Leach. (Bearded Titmouse)
Crown and occiput bluish ash; throat white; beneath the eye a black pointed moustache. Parus biarmicus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 298. Bearded Titmouse, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p...
-Gen. 26. Bombycilla, Briss. 80. B. Garrula, Bonap. (Bohemian Wax-Wing)
Head and upper part of the body purplish red; the feathers on the crown elongated; throat black: secondaries and greater coverts tipped with white. Bombycivora garrula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p...
-Gen. 27. Alauda, Linn. 81. A. Alpestris, Linn. (Shore Lark)
Upper parts reddish brown; streak above the eye, moustache, and a broad transverse bar on the breast, black. A. alpestris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 279. Shore Lark, Wils. Amer. Orn. vol. 1. p....
-82. A. Arvensis, Linn. (Sky-Lark)
Upper parts reddish brown; neck and breast reddish white with dusky spots. A. arvensis, Temm. Man. d'Om. torn. I. p. 281. Sky-Lark, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 273. pl. 50. f. 1. Bew. B...
-83. A. Arborea, Linn. (Wood-Lark)
Upper parts reddish brown: neck and breast yellowish white, with dusky spots: a distinct yellowish white band above the eyes, reaching from the bill to the occiput. A. arborea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. to...
-Gen. 28. Emberiza, Linn. 84. E. Lapponica, Nilss. (Lapland Bunting)
(1. Plectrophanes, Meyer). Crown of the head, and upper part of the breast, black; above the eye a white band, prolonged on the sides of the neck: nape, back, and scapulars, varied with brown and r...
-85. E. Nivalis, Linn. (Snow-Bunting)
Head, neck, a large space on the wings, and all the under parts, white. E. nivalis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 319. Snow-Bunting, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 279. pl. 52....
-86. E. Miliaria, Linn. (Common Bunting)
Upper parts yellowish brown, with darker spots: beneath yellowish white, spotted and streaked with black. E. Miliaria, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 306. Common Bunting, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illu...
-87. E. Schceniclus, Linn. (Reed-Bunting)
Head, throat, and fore part of the neck, black: back and scapulars reddish brown, with dusky streaks. E. SchoBniculus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 307. Reed-Bunting, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust...
-88. E. Citrinella, Linn. (Yellow Bunting)
Head, neck, and upper part of the breast, yellow: back and scapulars reddish brown, with darker spots. E. Citrinella, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 304. Yellow Bunting, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illus...
-89. E. Cirlus, Linn, (Cirl Bunting)
Head and nape olivaceous green, with dusky spots: throat, and a narrow band across the eye, black: a yellow gorget on the neck. E. Cirlus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 313. Cirl Bunting, Mont. Orn...
-90. E. Hortulana, Linn. (Ortolan Bunting)
Head and neck olive-gray, obscurely spotted with dusky brown; throat, orbits, and a narrow streak from the corner of the bill downwards, greenish yellow. E. Hortulana, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p....
-Gen. 29. Fringilla, Linn. 91. F. Ccelebs, Linn. (Chaffinch)
(1. Fringilla., Cuv). Head and nape grayish blue: back and scapulars chestnut brown, tinged with olive; rump greenish. F. Ccelebs, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 357. Chaffinch, Mont. Orn. Diet. ...
-92. F. Montifringilla, Linn. (Mountain Finch)
Head, cheeks, nape, and upper part of the back, black: rump white: axillae bright gamboge-yellow. F. Montifringilla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 360. Mountain Finch, Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 306. p...
-93. F. Domestical Linn. (House Sparrow)
Crown and occiput bluish ash; cheeks, and sides of the neck, grayish white: a transverse whitish bar on the wing. F. domestica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 350. House Sparrow, Mont. Orn. Diet. Se...
-94. F. Montana, Linn. (Tree Sparrow)
Crown and occiput chestnut-brown; sides of the neck, and a collar on the nape, white: wings with two transverse white bars. F. montana, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 354. Tree Sparrow, Mont. Orn. D...
-95. F. Coccothraustes, Temm. (Common Grosbeak)
Base of the bill, lore, and throat, black: crown, cheeks, and rump, reddish brown. F. Coccothraustes, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 344. Haw Grosbeak, Mont. Orn. Diet. Haw-Finch, Selb. Must. vol. I...
-96. F. Chloris, Temm. (Green Grosbeak)
All the upper and under parts of the body yellowish green. F. Chloris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 346. Green Grosbeak, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 163. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 3...
-97. F. Carduelis, Linn. (Goldfinch)
Base of the bill, occiput, and nape, black: forehead and throat, blood-red. F. Carduelis, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. I. p. 376. Goldfinch, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. ILlust. vol. I. p. 312. pl. 55. f. 8, 9...
-98. F. Spinus, Linn. (Siskin)
Crown of the head, and throat, black: nape dusky green: above and behind the eye a broad yellow streak. F. Spinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 371. Siskin, Mont. Orn. Diet. & Supp. Selb. Illust. ...
-99. F. Linaria, Linn. (Lesser Redpole)
Forehead, lore, and throat, black: bill much compressed towards the tip, yellowish: feet brown. F. Linaria, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 373. Lesser Redpole, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol...
-100. F. Cannabina, Linn. (Common Linnet)
Throat yellowish white, with dusky streaks: scapulars and wing-coverts, chestnut-brown: bill thick at the base; bluish gray: feet brown. F. cannabina, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 364. Common or B...
-101. F. Montium, Gmel. (Mountain Linnet)
Throat reddish brown, without spots; greater wing-coverts edged with white; rump purplish red: bill thick and short; yellow: feet black. F. Montium, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 368. Mountain Linn...
-Gen. 30. Pyrrhula, Briss. 102. P. Vulgaris, Temm. (Common Bullfinch)
Base of the bill, crown, throat, wings and tail, black: cheeks, and under parts, red. P. vulgaris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 338. Bullfinch, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 165. S...
-103. P. Enucleator, Temra. (Pine Bullfinch)
General plumage reddish orange, spotted on the back and scapulars with dusky brown. P. Enucleator, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 333. Pine Grosbeak, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 16...
-Gen. 31. Loxia, Briss. 104. L. Curvirostra, Linn. (Common Cross-Bill)
Bill as long as the middle toe, moderately hooked; the crossing point of the lower mandible passing beyond the ridge of the upper. L. curvirostra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 328. Common Cross-Bi...
-105. L. Pytiopsittacus, Bechst. (Parrot Cross-Bill)
Bill shorter than the middle toe, very strong and broad at the base, much hooked; the crossing point of the lower mandible not reaching so high as the ridge of the upper. L. Pytiopsittacus, Temm. M...
-106. L. Leucoptera, Gmel. (White-Winged Cross-Bill)
Bill longer than the middle toe: wings with two broad transverse white bars. L. leucoptera, Bonap. Amer. Orn. vol. n. pl. 15. f. 3. (Female). Faun. Bor. Am. vol. II. p. 263. L. falcirostra, Lath. I...
-Gen. 32. Sturnus, Linn. 107. S. Vulgaris, Linn. (Common Starling)
Plumage black, with purple and green reflections; the feathers tipped with yellowish white. S. vulgaris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 132. Common Starling, Selb. Illust. vol. 1. p. 340. pl. 36. f....
-Gen. 33. Pastor, Temm. 108. P. Roseus, Temm. (Rose-Coloured Pastor)
Head and neck violet-black, the feathers on the crown elongated, forming a crest: back and belly rose-red. P. roseus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tom.I. p. 136. Rose-coloured Pastor, Selb. Illust. vol. I. p....
-Gen. 34. Fregilus, Cuv. 109. Graculus, Selb. (Cornish Chough)
Black: bill and feet coral-red. Pyrrhocorax Graculus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 122. Cornish Chough, Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 365. pl. 33. Chough, Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 90. Red-legged Cr...
-Gen. 35. Corvus, Linn. (1. Corvus, Cuv). 110. C. Corax, Linn. (Raven)
Plumage black, glossed with blue: nostrils covered by bristly feathers half the length of the bill: tail considerably rounded, extending two inches beyond the folded wings. C. Corax, Temm. Man. d'O...
-111. C. Corone, Linn. (Carrion Crow)
Plumage bluish black: nostrils covered by bristly feathers one-third the length of the bill: tail moderately rounded, extending an inch and a quarter beyond the wings. C. Corone, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ...
-112. C. Comix, Linn. (Hooded Crow)
Head, throat, wings and tail, black, glossed with blue; the rest of the plumage ash-gray. C. Comix, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 109. Id. torn. III. p. 59. Hooded Crow, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illu...
-113. C. Frugilegus, Linn. (Rook)
Plumage black, glossed with blue: base of the bill (in the adult bird) denuded of feathers, and covered with a white scurf. C. frugilegus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 110. Id. torn. III. p. 59. R...
-114. C. Monedula, Linn. (Jackdaw)
Crown of the head, and upper parts of the body, bluish black; occiput and nape ash-gray. C. Monedula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 111. Id. torn. III p. 60. Jackdaw, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. v...
-115. C. Pica, Linn. (Magpie)
Head, throat, back, and breast, black; scapulars and belly white. C. Pica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 113, Garrulus Pious, Id. torn. III. p. 63. Magpie, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 3...
-Gen. 36. Garrulus, Briss. 116. G. Glandarius, Flem. (Jay)
A black moustache descending from the corners of the bill: greater wing-coverts barred with black and blue. Corvus glandarius, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 114. Garrulus gland. Id. torn. in. p. 65...
-Gen. 37. Nucifraga, Briss. 117. N. Caryocatactes, Temm. (Nutcracker)
General plumage brown, spotted on the back and under parts with white. N. Caryocatactes, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 117. Id. torn. in. p. 67. Nutcracker, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. 1. p. ...
-Gen. 38. Picus, Linn. 118. P. Viridis, Linn. (Green Woodpecker)
Plumage above, green; beneath, greenish ash; crown and occiput bright red. P. viridis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 391. Id. torn. III. p. 280. Green Woodpecker, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. ...
-119. P. Major, Linn. (Great Spotted Woodpecker)
Crown, and upper part of the body, black; scapulars white; a crimson patch on the occiput. P. major, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 395. Id. torn. III p. 281. Greater Spotted Woodpecker, Mont. Orn. ...
-120. P. Minor; Linn. (Lesser Spotted Woodpecker)
Occiput and nape black: middle of the back, and scapulars, with white and black bars: crown of the head red. P. minor, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. I. p. 399. Id. torn. III. p. 283. Lesser Spotted Woodpe...
-Gen. 39. Yunx, Linn. 121. Y. Torquilla, Linn. (Wryneck)
Upper parts yellowish gray, irregularly spotted and lined with brown and black; a broad black mesial stripe on the back of the neck. Y. Torquilla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 403. Id. torn. 1ll. ...
-Gen. 40. Certhia, Linn. 122. C. Familiaris, Linn. (Common Creeper)
Upper parts yellowish brown; variegated with dusky, and white spots: rump reddish yellow. C. familiaris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 410. Id. torn. III. p. 288. Common Creeper, Mont. Orn. Diet. S...
-Gen. 41. Troglodytes, Cuv. 123. T. Europceus, Selb. (Common Wren)
Upper plumage reddish brown, with transverse dusky lines: over the eye a narrow white streak. Sylvia Troglodytes, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 233. Troglodytes vulgaris, Id. torn. in. p. 160. Comm...
-Gen. 42. Upupa, Linn. 124. U. Epops, Linn. (Hoopoe)
Head, neck, and breast, purplish red; wings black, barred with white. U. Epops, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. i. p. 415. Id. torn. in. p. 291. Hoopoe, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 393. pl. 4...
-Gen. 43. Sitta, Linn. 125. S. Europcea, Linn. (Nuthatch)
Upper parts bluish ash; breast and belly reddish yellow; a black streak across the eye and ear-coverts. S. Europsea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 407. Id. torn. III. p. 285. Nuthatch, Mont. Orn. D...
-Gen. 44. Cuculus, Linn. 126. C. Canorus, Linn. (Common Cuckow)
Head, neck, breast, and upper parts, bluish ash: abdomen whitish, with transverse dusky bars. C. canorus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 381. Id. torn. in. p. 272. Common Cuckow, Mont. Orn. Diet, an...
-Gen. 45. Coccyzus, Vieill. 127. C. Americanus, Bonap. (Carolina Cuckow)
Cuculus Americanus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 170. Lath. Ind. Orn. vol. 1. p. 219. Cue. Carolinensis, Wils. Amer. Orn. vol. iv. p. 13. pl. 28. f. 1. Cue. cinerosus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. III. p. ...
-Gen. 46. Coracias, Linn. 128. C. Garrula, Linn. (Garrulous Roller)
Head, neck, and under parts, light bluish green: back and scapulars reddish brown. C. garrula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 127. Id. torn. III. p. 72. Garrulous Roller, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illu...
-Gen. 47. Merops, Linn. 129. M. Apiaster, Linn. (Common Bee-Eater)
Forehead greenish white; nape, and upper part of the back, deep chestnut: throat yellow, bounded by a black line. M. Apiaster, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 1. p. 420. Id. torn. III. p. 293. Sow. Brit. M...
-Gen. 48. Alcedo, Linn. 130. A. Ispida, Linn. (Common King-Fisher)
Crown of the head, and wing-coverts, deep green, spotted with azure-blue: behind the eye a patch of orange-brown passing into white. A. Ispida, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 423. Id. torn. III. p. ...
-Gen. 49. Hirundo, Linn. 131. H. Rustica, Linn. (Chimney Swallow)
Upper parts, and a transverse bar on the breast, bluish black; forehead and throat chestnut-red. H. rustica, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. I. p. 427. Id. torn. III. p. 297. Chimney Swallow, Mont. Orn. Die...
-132. H. Urbica, Linn. (House Martin)
Head, nape, and back, bluish black; rump white: tarsi and toes feathered. H. urbica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 428. Id. torn. III. p. 300. Martin, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. I. p. 123. p...
-133. H. Riparia, Linn. (Bank Martin)
All the upper parts, and a transverse band on the breast, cinereous brown: tarsi and toes naked. H. riparia, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 429. Id. torn. III. p. 300. Sand Martin, Mont. Orn. Diet. ...
-Gen. 50. Cypselus, Illig. 134. C. Apus, Flem. (Common Swift)
Chin white; all the rest of the plumage black. C. murarius, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 434. Id. torn. III. p. 303. Common Swift, Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 127. pl. 42. f. 4. Swift, Mont. Orn. Die...
-135. C. Alpinus, Temm. (Alpine Swift)
General colour of the plumage grayish brown: throat, and middle of the abdomen, white. C. alpinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 433. Id. torn. III. p. 303. Greatest Martin, Edw. Nat. Hist. vol. I....
-Gen. 51. Caprimulgus, Linn. 136. C. Europceus, Linn. (Europcean Goatsucker)
General colour of the plumage ash-gray, variegated with black, browr, and ferruginous. C. Europseus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 436. Id. torn. III. p. 304. European Goat-sucker, Mont. Orn. Diet....
-Order III. Rasores. Gen. 52. Columba, Linn. 137. C. Palumbus, Linn. (Ring-Dove)
(1. Columba, Swains). Bluish ash; a white space on the sides of the neck, and on the edge of the wing; extremity of the tail black. C. Palumbus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 444. Id. Pig. et G...
-138. C. Cenas, Linn. (Stock-Dove)
Bluish ash; sides of the neck with green and purple reflections; some of the wing-coverts spotted with black, forming an irregular transverse bar; rump bluish gray; tip of the tail black. C. (Enas,...
-139. C. Livia, Briss. (Rock-Dove)
Bluish ash; sides of the neck glossed with green reflections; wings with two distinct transverse bars; rump white; tip of the tail black. C. Livia, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 446. Id. Pig. et G...
-140. C. Turtur, Linn. (Turtle-Dove)
Back and rump cinereous brown; a black space on the sides of the neck; tip of the tail white. C. Turtur, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. n. p. 448. Id. Pig. et Gall. torn. i. p. 305. Turtle-Dove, Mont. Orn....
-141. C. Migratoria, Linn. (Passenger Pigeon)
Cinereous; sides of the neck glossed with green and purple; wing-coverts spotted with black. C. migratoria, Temm. Pig. et Gall. torn. I. p. 346. Passenger Pigeon, Lath. Syn. vol. II. p. 661. (Male)...
-Gen. 53. Meleagris, Linn. 142. M. Gallopavo, Linn. (Turkey)
Head, and upper part of the neck, almost naked, with a bluish papillose skin: a tuft of black hairs on the breast. M. Gallopavo, Temm. Pig. et Gall. torn. n. p. 374. and torn. III. p. 677. Turkey, ...
-Gen. 54. Pavo, Linn. 143. P. Cristotus Linn. (Crested Peacock)
Crest on the head compressed. P. cristatus, domesticus, Temm. Pig. et Gall. torn. II. p. 35. and torn. III. p. 651. Peacock, Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 328. Dimensions Entire length three f...
-Gen. 55. Gallus, Briss. 144. G. Domesticus, Briss. (Domestic Cock)
Caruncle on the head compressed, denticulated; throat with two pendulous wattles: neck-feathers linear and elongated. G. domesticus, Temm. Pig. et Gall. torn. II. p. 92. and torn. III. p. 654. The ...
-Gen. 56. Phasianus, Linn. 145. P. Colchicus, Linn. (Common Pheasant)
Head and neck metallic green, glossed with blue; breast and flanks reddish orange with purple reflections, the feathers edged and tipped with violet black. P. Colchicus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II....
-146. P. Torquatus, Temm. (Ring-Necked Pheasant)
Head and neck bluish green, the latter encircled by a white collar; a line of white over each eye; lower part of the neck and breast copper-red, the feathers deeply divided by a black line. P. torq...
-Gen. 57. Numida, Linn. 147. N. Meleagris, Linn. (Guinea Pintado)
Head and upper part of the neck naked, the skin bluish: plumage on the body bluish gray, with white spots. N. Meleagris, Temm. Pig. et Gall. torn. II. p. 431. and torn. III. p. 680. Guinea Pintado,...
-Gen. 58. Tetrao, Linn. 148. T. Urogallus, Linn. (Wood Grous)
(1. Tetrao, Steph). Chin and throat-feathers elongated: breast glossed with dark green: bill white: tail rounded at the extremity. T. Urogallus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 457. Id. Pig. et G...
-149. T. Tetrix, Linn. (Black Grous)
Throat-feathers not elongated: the general plumage violet-black, with a white bar on the wings: tail very much forked; the lateral feathers bending outwards. T. Tetrix, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. ...
-150. T. Scoticus, Temm. (Red Ptarmigan)
The entire plumage chestnut-brown, variegated with black: tail of sixteen feathers; the six outer ones on each side dusky. T. Scoticus, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. II. p. 465. Red Grous, Mont. Orn. Diet...
-151. T. Lagopus', Sab. (Common Ptarmigan)
Cinereous, with transverse undulating lines and spots of black, (summer); or wholly white, (winter); shafts of the quills, and lateral tail-feathers, always black. T. Lagopus, Sab. Supp. Parry s Fi...
-152. T. Rupestris, Sab. (Rock Ptarmigan)
Brownish yellow, with transverse black bars, (summer); or pure white, (winter); shafts of the quills, and lateral tail-feathers, always black. T. rupestris, Sab. Supp. Parry s First Voy. p. cxcv. R...
-Gen. 59. Perdix, Briss. (1. Perdix, Steph). 153. P. Cinerea, Briss. (Common Partridge)
Upper parts cinereous, variegated with brown and black; a deep chestnut crescent-shaped spot on the breast. P. cinerea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 488. Id. Pig. et Gall. torn. in. pp. 373, & 72...
-154. P. Rubra, Briss. (Red-Legged Partridge)
Upper parts reddish ash: throat and cheeks white; bounded by a collar of black, expanding on the breast, and spotted with white. P. rubra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tom.n. p.485. Id. Pig.et Gall. torn. III...
-155. P. Virginiana, Lath. (Virginian Partridge)
Body above brownish chestnut, variegated with black and rufous; beneath whitish, with transverse undulating black lines: throat, and a broad band above the eye, white. Tetrao Virginianus, Wils. Ame...
-156. P. Coturnix, Lath. (Common Quail)
Upper parts cinereous brown, variegated with black: over each eye, and on the crown of the head, a longitudinal whitish streak. P. Coturnix, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 491. Coturnix dacty-lison...
-Gen. 60. Otis, Linn. 157. O. Tarda, Linn. (Great Bustard)
Upper part of the body reddish orange, with transverse black bars; beneath whitish: a tuft of long filiform feathers (male) from the corners of the lower mandible. O. Tarda, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn....
-158. O. Tetrax, Linn. (Little Bustard)
Upper part of the body yellowish orange, with fine zigzag dusky lines; neck black, encircled by a double collar of white. O. Tetrax, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ex. p. 507. Little Bustard, Mont. Orn. D...
-Order IV. Grallatores. Gen. 61. Cursorius. Lath. 159. C. Isabellinusy Meyer. (Cream-Coloured Courser)
General plumage reddish cream-colour: behind the eyes a double black streak. C. isabellinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 513. Cream-coloured Plover, Lath. Syn. vol. ill. p. 217. Id. Supp. p. 254...
-Gen. 62. (Edicnemus, Temm. 160. Oe. Crepitans, Temm. (Common Thick-Knee)
Reddish ash, with longitudinal dusky spots: quills black; the first two primaries with a broad white bar across each web. (E. crepitans, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 521. Common Thick-knee, Selb....
-Gen. 63. Charadrius, Linn. 161. C. Pluvialis, Linn. (Golden Plover)
Upper parts dusky brown, spotted with yellow; cheeks, neck, and breast, variegated with brown and ash-colour; throat and abdomen white. C. pluvialis, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. II. p. 535. Golden Plove...
-162. C. Morinellus, Linn. (Dotterel Plover)
Upper plumage brownish ash, edged with reddish: breast reddish ash: a broad streak above the eyes, and a gorget on the breast, white. C. Morinellus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 537. Dotterel, Mo...
-163. C. Hiaticula, Linn. (Ringed Plover)
Upper parts cinereous brown: a broad gorget of black on the breast: bill orange and black: feet orange. C. Hiaticula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 539. Ringed Plover, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illus...
-164. C. Minor, Meyer. (Little Ringed Plover)
Upper parts cinereous brown: a gorget of black on the breast: bill entirely black: feet flesh-colour. C. minor, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. 11. p. 542. Little Ring-Dotterel, Gould, Eur op. Birds, part x...
-165. C. Cantianus, Lath. (Kentish Plover)
Upper parts cinereous brown: a large patch of black on each side of the breast: bill and feet black. 12. Cantianus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 544. Kentish Plover, Levrin, Brit. Birds, vol. v. ...
-Gen. 64. Vanellus, Briss. (1. Squatarola, Cuv). 166. V. Griseus, Briss. (Gray Plover)
Upper plumage dusky brown, variegated with white and ash-colour; breast and belly white with dark spots (winter), or of a uniform deep black (summer). V. melanogaster, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p...
-167. V. Cristatus, Meyer. (Crested Lapwing)
Crown, fore part of the neck and breast, greenish black; occipital feathers very much elongated, slightly recurved: back and scapulars olive-green. V. cristatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 550....
-Gen. 65. Strepsilas, Illig. 168. S. Interpres, Leach. (Common Turnstone)
Upper parts variegated with white, black, and ferruginous; breast and abdomen white. S. collaris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 553. Common Turnstone, Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 204. pl. 33*. Turns...
-Gen. 66. Calidris, Illig. 169. C. Arenaria, Illig. (Sanderling)
Cinereous above, with darker streaks; all the under parts white (winter): or ferruginous and white spotted with black; belly and abdomen white (summer). C. arenaria, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. ...
-Gen. 67 Haematopus, Linn. 170. H. Ostralegus, Linn. (Pied Oyster-Catcher)
Head, neck, and upper parts black: breast and abdomen white: bill and feet red. H. ostralegus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 531. Pied Oyster-Catcher, Mont. Orn. Diet, and Supp. Oyster-Catcher, Be...
-Gen. 68. Grus, Pall. 171. G. Cinerea, Bechst. (Common Crane)
Cinereous; occiput, throat, and fore part of the neck, dusky gray. G. cinerea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 557. Common Crane, Selb. Illust. vol. 11. p. 4. pl. 1. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 3....
-Gen. 69. Ardea, Linn. 172. A. Cinerea, Lath. (Common Heron)
(1. Ardea, Steph). * A large portion of the tibia naked; tarsi long. General plumage bluish ash: middle toe, claw included, much shorter than the tarsus. A. cinerea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. ...
-173. A. Purpurea, Linn. (Purple Heron)
General plumage reddish ash, inclining to purple: middle toe, claw included, as long as, or longer than the tarsus. A. purpurea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 570. Crested Purple Heron, Lath. Syn....
-174. A. Garzetta, Linn. (Little Egret Heron)
Whole plumage white: bill black. A. Garzetta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 574. Egret, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. 11. Append, p. 631. pl. 7. Mont. Orn. Diet. Little Egret, Lath. Syn. vol. III. p. 90....
-175. A. Russata, Wagler. (Buff-Backed Heron)
Occiput, nape, and hind-neck, saffron-yellow: wings, tail, and under parts, pure white. A. russata, Wagler, Syst. Av. part i. sp. 12. A. sequinoctialis, Mont, in Linn. Trans, vol. ix. p. 197. Littl...
-176. A. Ralloides, Scop. (Squacco Heron)
Occipital feathers very long, white edged with black: neck, back, and scapulars, pale buff-orange. A. Ralloides, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 581. Squacco Heron, Selb. Must. vol. 11. p. 25. pl. 6...
-177. A. Minuta, Linn. (Little Heron)
Crown, back, scapulars, and secondaries, black, glossed with green; neck, wing-coverts, and under parts, reddish yellow. A. minuta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 584. Little Bittern, Penn. Brit. Z...
-178. A. Stellaris, Linn. (Common Bittern)
Upper parts ochre-yellow, variegated with black; beneath paler, with oblong dusky streaks. A. stellaris, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 580. Bittern, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Must. vol. 11. p. 30. pl...
-179. A. Lentiginosa, Mont. (American Bittern)
Back and scapulars chocolate-brown glossed with purple, the edges of the feathers paler: under parts ochre-yellow, marked on the neck, breast, and belly, with broad chestnut streaks. A. lentiginosa...
-180. A. Nycticorax, Linn. (Common Night-Heron)
Crown, back, and scapulars, black, glossed with green: under parts white. A. Nycticorax, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 577. Night-Heron, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. II. p. 39. pls. 7,& 7*....
-Gen. 70. Ciconia, Briss. 181. C. Alba, Ray. (White Stork)
White; scapulars and wings black. C. alba, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 560. Stork, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. II. p. 6. White Stork, Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 45. pl. 11. ...
-182. C. Nigra, Ray. (Black Stork)
Black; lower part of the breast, and belly, white. C. nigra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 561. Black Stork, Mont, in Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 19. Selb. Illust. vol. II. p. 48. pl. 11*. Dimens...
-Gen. 71. Platalea, Linn. 183. P. Leucorodia, Linn. (White Spoonbill)
Whole plumage white: a pendent crest of long subulate feathers on the occiput. P. Leucorodia, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ft. p. 595. Spoonbill, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. II. App. p. 634. pl. 9. Bew. Brit...
-Gen. 72. Ibis, Lactp. 184. I. Falcinellus, Temm. (Glossy Ibis)
Neck, breast, and under parts, bright chestnut-red; lower back, rump, wings and tail, glossy green with purple reflections. I. Falcinellus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 598. Glossy Ibis, Mont. Or...
-Gen. 73. Numenius, Briss. 185. N. Arquata, Lath. (Common Curlew)
Head, neck, breast, and all the upper parts, rufous ash; belly and abdomen white; the whole variegated with dusky spots. N. arquata, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 603. Common Curlew, Mont. Orn. Di...
-186. N. Phceopus, Lath. (Whimbrel)
Head, neck, breast, and upper parts, pale ash-colour, spotted with dusky: lower back, belly and abdomen, white. N. Phseopus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 604. Whimbrel, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit...
-Gen. 74. Totanus, Bechst. 187. T. Fuscus, Leisl. (Dusky Sandpiper)
* Bill slender, straight. Upper plumage ash-gray; rump, and all the under parts, pure white: legs, and base of the lower mandible, red. T. fuscus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 639. Cambridge G...
-188. T. Calidris, Bechst. (Redshank Sandpiper)
Upper parts cinereous brown; rump, belly, and greater portion of the secondary quills, white: legs, and basal half of both mandibles, red. * Probably, in very old birds, this white edging disappear...
-189. T. Ochropus, Temm. (Green Sandpiper)
Upper parts greenish brown: tail barred with brown and white; the two outer feathers on each side almost entirely white: bill and legs greenish. T. Ochropus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 651. T. ...
-190. T. Glareola, Temm. (Wood Sandpiper)
Upper parts deep brown, spotted with white: all the tail-feathers barred with brown and white; the two outer feathers on each side with the inner web entirely white: bill and legs greenish. T. Glar...
-191. T. Hypoleucos, Temm. (Common Sandpiper)
All the upper parts cinereous brown glossed with olive; under parts pure white, without spots. T. Hypoleucos, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tom.II. p. 657. Common Sandpiper, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit Birds, v...
-192. T. Glottis, Bechst. (Greenshank)
Back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, dusky brown, the feathers edged with yellowish white; lower back, and under parts, white: legs greenish. T. Glottis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 659. Greenshan...
-Gen. 75. Recurvirostra, Linn. 193. R. Avocetta, Linn. (Scooping Avocet)
Crown, nape, scapulars, and lesser wing-coverts, black: cheeks, and under parts, pure white. R. Avocetta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 590. Scooping Avocet, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol...
-Gen. 76. Himantopus, Briss. 194. H. Melanopterus, Temm. (Black-Winged Long-Shanks)
Occiput, nape, back, and wings, black: rest of the plumage white. H. melanopterus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 528. Long-legged Plover, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. 11. p. 476. White, Nat. Hist. Selb....
-Gen. 77. Limosa, Brits. 195. L. Rufa, Briss. (Bar-Tailed Godwit)
Tail with eight or nine transverse dusky bars: bill curving considerably upwards: middle claw short, and without serratures: tarsi moderate. L. rufa, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. 11. p. 668. Godwit, and...
-196. L. Melanura, Leisl. (Black-Tailed Godwit)
Tail of a uniform black, the base white: wings with a transverse white bar: bill very slightly curved: middle claw long and serrated: tarsi very long. L. melanura, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 66...
-Gen. 78. Scolopax, Linn. (1. Rusticola, Vieill). 197. S. Rusticola, Linn. (Woodcock)
Plumage, above, variegated with black, gray, and ferruginous; beneath, yellowish white, with transverse undulating bars: occiput barred transversely. S. Rusticola, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 67...
-198. S. Sabini, Vig. (Sabine's Snipe)
Whole plumage variegated with black and chestnut; paler beneath: tail of twelve feathers. S. Sabini, Vigors in Linn. Trans, vol. xiv. p. 556. pl. 21. Jard. and Selb. Orn. vol. I. pl. 27. Sabine's S...
-199. S. Major, Gmel. (Great Snipe)
All the under parts spotted and barred with black: tail of sixteen feathers. S. major, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 675. Great Snipe, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. 11. p. 115. pl. 2...
-200. S. Gallinago, Linn. (Common Snipe)
Neck and breast mottled with black and pale ferruginous; belly and abdomen pure unspotted white: tail of fourteen feathers. S. Gallinago, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 676. Common Snipe, Mont. Orn...
-201. S. Gallinula, Linn. (Jack Snipe)
Crown divided longitudinally by a black band reaching to the nape: neck and breast spotted; belly and abdomen pure white: tail of twelve feathers. S. Gallinula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. if. p. 678. ...
-202. S. Grisea, Gmel. (Brown Snipe)
Cinereous brown (winter), or reddish brown variegated with black (summer); rump and tail white, with numerous dusky transverse bars. S. grisea, Temm. Man. dOrn. torn. II. p. 679. S. Noveboracensis,...
-Gen. 79. Tringa, Briss. 203. T. Pugnaoc, Linn. (Ruff)
(1. Machetes, Cuv). Tail rounded; the two middle feathers barred; the three outer ones on each side always of one colour. T. pugnax, Temm. Man. d'0rn. torn. ii. p. 631. Ruff, Mont. Orn. Diet, & ...
-204. T. Subarquata, Temm. (Pigmy Curlew)
Bill slightly bent down, much longer than the head: the two middle tail-feathers longer than the others: a considerable part of the tibia naked: tarsus fourteen lines in length. T. subarquata, Temm...
-205. T. Variabilis, Meyer. (Dunlin)
Bill nearly straight, a little longer than the head: the two middle tail-feathers longer than the others, and pointed: a small part of the tibia naked: tarsus eleven lines and a half. T. variabilis...
-206. T. Pectoralis, Bon. (Pectoral Sandpiper)
Bill shorter than the head, compressed and reddish yellow at the base: rump black: middle tail-feathers longest: feet greenish yellow: tarsus one inch.Bon. T. pectoralis, Bon. Syn. p. 318. Id. Am...
-207. T. Maritima, Brunn. (Purple Sandpiper)
Bill slightly curved at the tip, longer than the head: tibia almost entirely feathered: feet, and base of the bill, coloured. T. maritima, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 619. T. nigricans, Mont, in...
-208. T. Temminckii, Leisl. (Temminctfs Stint)
Bill very slightly curved at the tip, shorter than the head: tail cuneiform, the outer feathers pure white: tarsus eight lines and a half. T. Temminckii, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 622. Little ...
-209. T. Minuta, Leisl. (Little Stint)
Bill straight, shorter than the head: tail doubly forked, the outer feathers cinereous brown edged with whitish: tarsus ten lines and a half. T. minuta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 624. Little S...
-210. T. Canutus, Linn. (Knot)
Bill straight, a little longer than the head, very much dilated at the tip: tail even at the extremity: a small part of the tibia naked. T. cinerea, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 627. Knot and Ash...
-211. T. Rufescens, Vieill. (Buff-Breasted Sandpiper)
Bill slender, very slightly curved, not longer than the head: tail cuneated: the outer feathers light brown, edged with white: a large portion of the tibia naked. T. rufescens, Vieill. Gal. Ois. to...
-Gen. 80. Lobipes, Cuv. 212. L. Hyperboreus, Steph. (Red Lobefoot)
Crown, nape, and sides of the breast, deep ash; sides of the neck ferruginous: legs greenish gray. Phalaropus hyperboreus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 709. P. Williamsii, Simm. in Linn. Trans, v...
-Gen. 81. Phalaropus, Briss. 213. P. Lobatus, Flem. (Gray Phalarope)
Gray above; beneath white (winter): or brown above, the feathers edged with rufous; beneath red (summer): a transverse white bar on the wings. P. platyrhinchus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 712. ...
-Gen. 82. Glareola, Briss. 214. G. Pratincola, Leach. (Collared Pratincole)
Above brown; throat and front of the neck reddish white, bounded by a black line: tail very much forked. G. Pratincola, Leach in Linn. Tram: vol. xiii. p. 131. pl. 12. G. torquata, Temm. Man. d'Orn...
-Gen. 83. Rallus, Linn. 215. R. Aquations, Linn. (Water-Rail)
Above, olive-brown spotted with dusky; beneath, bluish gray; flanks with black and white bars. R. aquaticus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 683. Rail, Mont. Orn. Diet. & Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. 11...
-Gen. 84. Crex, Bechst. 216. C. Pratensis, Bechst. (Corn-Crake)
Above, rufous brown, the centres of the feathers dusky; beneath, yellowish white: wing-coverts ferruginous. Gallinula Crex, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 686. Crake Galli-nule, Mont. Orn. Diet. La...
-217. C. Porzana, Selby. (Spotted Crake)
Above olive-brown, with dusky streaks and white spots; beneath cinereous olive, spotted with white. Gallinula Porzana, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 688. Spotted Crake, Selb. Illust. vol. 11. p. 1...
-218. C. Baillonii, Selby. (Banion's Crake)
Upper parts olivaceous red, with numerous white spots on the back and wings: these last reaching to half the length of the tail: bill green: legs flesh-colour. Gallinula Baillonii, Temm. Man. d'Orn...
-219. C. Pusilla, Selby. (Little Crake)
Upper parts olivaceous with a few white streaks; wings without spots, reaching to the extremity of the tail: bill and legs sap-green. Gallinula pusilla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 690. Little C...
-Gen. 85. Gallinula, Lath. 220. G. Chloropus, Lath. (Common Gallinule)
Plumage above deep olive-brown; beneath blackish gray; ridge of the wing, and under tail-coverts, white. G. chloropus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 693. Common Gallinule, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Br...
-Gen. 86. Fulica, Linn. 221. F. Atra, Linn. (Common Coot)
Head and neck black; back black, tinged with cinereous: beneath paler. F. atra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 706. Common Coot, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 193. pl. 32. Coot...
-Order V. Natatores. Gen. 87. Anser, Briss. 222. A. Ferus, Steph. (Wild Goose)
(1. Anser, Steph). Bill strong and elevated; orange, the nail whitish: legs flesh-colour: wings not reaching to the extremity of the tail. Anas Anser ferus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 818. G...
-223. A. Segetum, Steph. (Bean Goose)
Bill long, and somewhat depressed; orange, the base and nail black: legs orange: wings extending beyond the extremity of the tail. Anas Segetum, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. II. p. 820. Bean Goose, Mont...
-224. A. Albifrons, Steph. (White-Fronted Goose)
Bill and legs orange; the former with the nail white: wings reaching a little beyond the tail: a large white space on the forehead. Anas albifrons, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 821. White-fronted...
-225. A. Leucopsis, Bechst. (Common Bernicle)
Forehead, cheeks, and throat, white: crown, occiput, neck and breast, black. Anas Leucopsis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. it. p. 823. Bernicle Goose, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 2...
-226. A. Torquatus, Frisch. (Brent Bernicle)
Head, neck, and breast, black; a white patch on each side of the neck. Anas Bernicla, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. u. p. 824. Brent Goose, Mont. Orn. Diet,& Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 300, Selb...
-227. A. Ruficollis, Pall. (Red-Breasted Bernicle)
Crown and throat black; fore-neck and breast ferruginous; lore, and a double longitudinal line on the sides of the neck, white. Anas ruficollis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 826. Red-breasted Goo...
-228. A. Mgyptiacus, Briss. (Egyptian Goose)
Forehead, crown, and throat, white; a large patch encircling the eyes, and another on the breast, chestnut-red. Chenalopex AEgyptiaca, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. vol. xii. part 2. p. 43. pi. 42. E...
-229. A. Gambensis, Briss. (Spur-Winged Goose)
Neck, and all the upper plumage, black, glossed with purple on the back; cheeks, throat, and under parts, white: bill and legs red. PlectropterusGambensis, Steph. in Shams Gen. Zool. vol. XII. part...
-Gen. 88. Cygnus, Meyer. 230. C. Guineensis, Nob. (Guinea Swan)
An elevated knob at the base of the upper mandible: upper parts of the body brownish gray, the edges of the feathers paler: a black list down the nape of the neck. Anser Guineensis, Briss. Orn. vol...
-231. C. Canadensis; Steph. (Canada Swan)
No protuberance at the base of the bill: head and neck black; under the throat a crescent-shaped white patch. G. Canadensis, Steph, in Shaw's Gen.Zod. vol. xii. part 2. p. 19. Anser Canadensis, Fau...
-232. C. Ferns, Ray. (Whistling Swan)
Bill black; the base and sides, these last to beyond the nostrils, bright yellow: plumage white: tail of twenty feathers. Anas Cygnus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. it. p. 828. Whistling Swan, Mont. Orn....
-233. C. Bewickii, Yarr. (Bewick's Swan)
Bill black; the base orange-yellow: plumage white: tail of eighteen feathers. C. Bewickii, Yarrell in Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 445. Selby in Newcastle Nat. Hist. Trans, vol. i. p. 17. Faun. Bor. A...
-234. C. Olor, Steph. (Mute Swan)
Bill red; the edges of the mandibles, nail, and a protuberance at the base, black: plumage white: tail of twenty-four feathers. C. Olor, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. vol. xii. part ii. p. 15. pl. 38...
-Gen. 89. Tadorna, Leach. 235. T. Rutila, Steph. (Ruddy Shieldrake)
Back, scapulars, and under parts, ferruginous yellow; a black collar on the neck; a large white space on the wings: bill and legs black. Anas rutila, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 832. Ruddy Goose...
-236. T. Bellonii, Steph. (Common Shieldrake)
Back, wing-coverts, and flanks, white; a broad ferruginous band on the breast: bill, frontal protuberance, and legs, red. Anas Tadorna, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 833. Shieldrake, Mont. Orn. Di...
-Gen. 90. Cairina, Flem. 237. C. Moschata, Flem. (Musk Duck)
Bill, legs, and naked skin surrounding the eyes, red: plumage various. Anas mcschata, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 199. Muscovy Duck, Lath. Syn. vol. in. p. 476. Musk Duck, Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. i...
-Gen. 91. Anas, Linn. 238. A. Clypeata, Linn. (Common Shoveller)
(1. Anas, Swains). Head and neck glossy green; back brown; belly and abdomen brownish red; lesser wing-coverts pale blue. A. clypeata, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 842. Shoveller, Mont, Orn. D...
-239. A. Strepera, Linn. (Gadwall)
Back, breast, scapulars and flanks, dusky brown, marked with undulating white lines: speculum white. A. Strepera, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 837. Gadwall, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol...
-240. A. Acuta, Linn. (Pintail)
A longitudinal white line on each side of the occiput; back and flanks undulated with black and grayish white; two central elongated tail-feathers black. A. acuta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 83...
-241. A. Glocitans, Pall. (Bimaculated Duck)
Before and behind the eyes an irregular patch of chestnut-brown; back and flanks undulated with black: two middle tail-feathers somewhat elongated, straight. Querquedula glocitans, Vigors in Linn. ...
-242. A. Boschas, Linn. (Mallard)
Head, and upper part of the neck, deep green; below the green a white collar: four middle tail-feathers (in the male) recurved. A. Boschas, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 835. Common Duck, Mont. Or...
-243. A. Querquedula, Linn. (Garganey)
Crown, occiput, and list on the nape, dark brown; a white stripe from the eye down each side of the neck: speculum grayish green. A. Querquedula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 844. Garganey, Mont....
-244. A. Crecca, Linn. (Teal)
Crown, cheeks, and neck, ferruginous brown; from the eyes to the nape a broad longitudinal band of green: speculum, half green and half black. A. Crecca, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 846. Teal, M...
-Gen. 92. Mareca, Steph. 245. M. Penelope, Selb. (Wigeon)
Forehead yellowish white; rest of the head, and neck, chestnut-red: back and flanks undulated with black and white. Anas Penelope, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 840. Wigeon, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Sup...
-Gen. 93. Dendronessa, Swains. 246. D. Sponsa, Swains. (Summer Duck)
A pendent occipital crest, variegated with green, purple, and white. D. Sponsa, Faun. Bor. Amer. part ii. p. 446. Summer Duck, Lath. Syn. vol.m. p. 546. Wils. Amer. Orn. vol. viii. p.97. pl. 70. f....
-Gen. 94. Somateria, Leach. 247. S. Mollissima, Leach. (Eider Duck)
Lateral prolongations at the base of the bill in the form of two narrow flat lamellae: bill and legs greenish gray. Anas mollissima, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 848. Eider Duck, Mont. Orn. Diet,...
-248. S. Spectabilis, Leach. (King Duck)
Lateral prolongations at the base of the bill in the form of two elevated, compressed tubercles: bill red: legs ochre-yellow. Anas spectabilis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 851. King Duck, Mont. ...
-Gen. 95. Oidemia, Flem. 249. O.fusca, Flem. (Velvet Scoter)
Black; a white speculum on the wings: legs red. Anas fusca, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 854. Velvet Duck, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds', vol.ii. p. 320. Velvet Scoter, Selb. Illust. vol. ii...
-250. O. Nigra, Flem. (Black Scoter)
The whole plumage black; no speculum on the wings: legs dusky gray-Anas nigra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 856. Scoter, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 322. Black Scoter, Selb. Illus...
-Gen. 96. Fuligula, Ray. 251. F. Riifina, Steph. (Red-Crested Pochard)
Head, throat, and crest, reddish brown; lower part of the neck, breast, belly and abdomen, deep black; flanks, a large spot on the shoulders, and speculum on the wing, white: bill and legs red. F. ...
-252. F. Ferina, Steph. (Common Pochard)
Head and neck bright chestnut; breast black; flanks and scapulars with undulating lines of black and grayish white: no speculum: bill black, with a broad transverse blue band. Anas ferina, Temm. Ma...
-253. F. Nyroca, Steph. (Nyroca Pochard)
Head, neck, breast, and flanks, ferruginous: irides, and a spot on the chin, white: speculum white, edged with black beneath: bill and legs bluish gray. F. Nyroca, Steph. in Shaws Gen. Zool. vol. x...
-254. F. Dispar Steph. (Western Pochard)
White; beneath ferruginous: forehead, and occipital band, green; orbits, throat, collar and back, black. F. dispar, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. vol. xii. part ii. p. 206. Anas dispar, Gmel. Syst. t...
-255. F. Marila ,Steph. (Scaup Pochard)
Head and neck black, glossed with green; back and scapulars whitish, with undulating black lines; belly, flanks, and speculum on the wing, white; bill blue; legs ash-colour. * Brit. Birds, vol. vi....
-256. F. Cristata, Steph. (Tufted Pochard)
Head, neck, crest, and upper parts, black, with glossy reflections; belly, flanks, and speculum on the wing, white: bill and legs bluish gray. Anas Fuligula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 873. Tuf...
-Gen. 97. Clangula, Flem. 257. C. Chrysophthalmos, Steph. (Golden-Eye Garrot)
A large patch before the eye, lower neck, all the under parts, and speculum on the wing, white: legs orange-yellow. Anas Clangula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 870. Golden-Eye, Mont. Orn. Diet, &...
-258. C. Histrionica, Steph. (Harlequin Garrot)
A large patch on the lore, spot on the ears, longitudinal band on the sides of the neck, collar, and pectoral fascia on each side, white: speculum blue: legs dusky. C. histrionica, Steph. in Shaws ...
-Gen. 98. Harelda, Leach. 259. H. Glacialis, Steph. (Long-Tailed Hareld)
Crown and nape white; a large chestnut patch on the sides of the neck: bill black, with a transverse orange band: legs yellow. Anas glacialis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 860. Sabine in Linn. Tr...
-Gen. 99. Mergus, Linn. 260. M. Merganser, Linn. (Goosander)
Breast, and speculum on the wing, white; the latter without transverse bars: bill and legs red: crest (in the adult male) short and bushy. M. Merganser, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 881. Goosande...
-261. M. Serrator, Linn, (Red-Breasted Merganser)
___Breast (in the male) reddish brown: speculum white, divided by one or two transverse bars: bill and legs red: crest (in the adult male) long, slender, pendent. M. Serrator, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tor...
-262. M. Cucullatus, Linn. (Hooded Merganser)
Head, neck, and upper parts, dusky brown; beneath white: bill and legs reddish brown: crest (in the adult male) semicircular, compressed. M. cucullatus, Faun. Bor. Amer. part ii. p. 463. Hooded Mer...
-263. M. Albellus, Linn. (Smew)
Head, neck, and all the under parts, white; cheeks and occiput greenish black: bill and legs bluish gray: crest (in the adult male) bushy, moderately elongated. M. albellus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. tom.i...
-Gen. 100. Podiceps, Lath. 264. P. Cristatus, Lath. (Great Crested Grebe)
Bill longer than the head, reddish, the tip white; distance from the nostrils to the tip about eighteen lines. P. cristatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 717. Crested Grebe, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb...
-265. P. Rubricollis, Lath. (Red-Necked Grebe)
Bill of the length of the head, black, towards the base yellow; distance from the nostrils to the tip thirteen or fourteen lines: no ruff; occipital crest very short. P. rubricollis, Temm. Man. d'O...
-266. P. Cornutus. Lath. (Sclavonian Grebe)
Bill strong, shorter than the head, compressed throughout its length; black, the tip red: eyes with a double iris: distance from the nostrils to the tip of the bill seven lines. P. cornutus, Temm. ...
-267. P. Auritus, Lath. (Eared Grebe)
Bill shorter than the head, depressed at the base, slightly recurved at the tip, black: iris single: distance from the nostrils to the tip of the bill six lines and a half. P. auritus, Temm. Man. d...
-268. P. Minor, Lath. (Little Grebe)
Bill very short, compressed; distance from the nostrils to the tip six lines: no ruff or occipital crest: tarsi furnished posteriorly with a double row of serratures. P. minor, Temm. Man. d'Orn. to...
-Gen. 101. Colymbus, Lath. 269. C. Glacialis, Linn. (Northern Diver)
Head and neck violet-black, the latter with a double interrupted white collar: bill upwards of four inches in length; the upper mandible nearly straight. C. glacialis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. it. p...
-270. C. Arcticus, Linn. (Black-Throated Diver)
Occiput and nape cinereous brown; front of the neck violet-black: bill upwards of three inches in length; the upper- mandible slightly curved. C. arcticus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 913. Black...
-271. C. Septentrionalis, Linn. (Red-Throated Diver)
Occiput and nape with black and white streaks; front of the neck deep orange-brown: bill scarcely, or not exceeding, three inches; slightly recurved; tomia very much inflexed. C. septentrionalis, T...
-Gen. 102. Uria, Briss. 272. U. Troile, Lath. (Foolish Guillemot)
Above brownish black; secondaries tipped with white: bill as long as, or somewhat longer than, the head; very much compressed throughout: feet dusky. U. Troile, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 921. ...
-273. U. Grylle, Lath. (Black Guillemot)
Above black; a large white patch on the middle of the wings: legs red. U. Grylle, Teinrn. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 925. Black Guillemot, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Sitpp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 170....
-Gen. 103. Mergulus, Ray. 274. M. Alle, Selby. (Common Rotche)
Black; breast, belly, a spot above the eyes, and tips of the secondaries, white. Uria Alle, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 928. Little Auk, Mont. Orn. Diet. & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 40...
-Gen. 104. Fratercula, Briss. 275. F. Arctica, Steph. (Puffin)
Crown, collar and back, black; cheeks, throat, breast and belly, white. Mormon Fratercula, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 933. Puffin, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 404. Se...
-Gen. 105. Alca, Linn. 276. A. Torda, Linn. (Razor-Bill)
Wings reaching to the rump: bill black, with a transverse white band: a narrow white line in advance of the eye. A. Torda, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 936. Razor-Bill, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit...
-277. A. Impennis, Linn. (Great Auk)
Wings very short, not reaching to the rump: bill black: an oval white patch in advance of the eye. A. impennis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 939. Great Auk, Mont. Orn. Diet. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol...
-Gen. 106. Phalacrocorax, Briss. 278. P. Carbo, Steph. (Common Cormorant)
A white gorget under the throat: tail of fourteen feathers. Carbo Cormoranus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 894. Corvorant, Mont. Orn. Diet. Cormorant, Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 379. Leach, Zo...
-279. P. Cristatas, Steph. (Crested Shag)
The whole of the plumage, throat included, deep green: tail short, of twelve feathers. Carbo cristatus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 900. Shag, and Crested Shag, Mont. Orn. Diet. & Supp. Shag, He...
-Gen. 107. Sula, Briss. 280. S. Bassana, Briss. (Common Gannet)
Crown and occiput pale buff; quills black; the rest of the plumage white. S. alba, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 905. Gannet, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 390. Solan Gann...
-Gen. 108. Sterna, Linn. 281. S. Caspia, Pall. (Caspian Tern)
(1. Sterna, Steph). Bill thick and strong, bright red: tarsus one inch six lines in length: tail short, forked. S. Caspia, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 733. Caspian Tern, Lath. Syn. vol. iii. ...
-282. S. Cantiaca, Gmel. (Sandwich Tern)
Bill long; black, the tip yellowish: legs short; black: tarsus one inch: tail long, very much forked, shorter than the wings. S. Cantiaca, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 735. Sandwich Tern, Mont. O...
-283. S. Dougallii, Mont. (Roseate Tern)
Bill slender; black, the base reddish: legs orange: tarsus nine lines: tail greatly forked, extending far beyond the wings*. S. Dougalli, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 738. Roseate Tern, Mont. Orn...
-284. S. Hirundo, Linn. (Common Tern)
Bill moderate; red, the tip black: legs red: tarsus nine lines and a half: tail very much forked; as long as, or a little shorter than, the wings. S. Hirundo, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 740. Co...
-285. S. Arctica, Temm. (Arctic Tern)
Bill slender; red throughout its whole length: legs red: tarsus seven lines: tail very much forked; longer than the wings. S. arctica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 742. Arctic Tern, Shaw, Gen. Zo...
-286. S. Minuta, Linn. (Lesser Tern)
Bill orange, the tip black: legs orange: tarsus seven lines and a half: tail very much forked, shorter than the wings: forehead white. S. minuta, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 752. Lesser Tern, Mo...
-287. S. Nigra, Linn. (Black Tern)
Bill black: legs reddish brown: membranes of the toes deeply emar-ginated: tarsus seven lines and a half: tail not much forked, shorter than the wings. S. nigra, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 749....
-288. S. Anglica, Mont. (Gull-Billed Tern)
Bill short and thick; entirely black: legs long; black: claws nearly straight: tarsus one inch three or four lines: tail not much forked, considerably shorter than the wings. S. Anglica, Temm. Man....
-289. S. Stolida, Linn. (Black Noddy)
Forehead and crown whitish; the rest of the plumage, as well as the bill and legs, black. S. stolida, Lath. Ind. Orn. vol. ii. p. 805. Noddy, Lath. Syn. vol. iii. p. 354. Black Noddy, Steph. in Sha...
-Gen. 109. Larus, Linn. 290. L. Sabini, Sabine. (Sabine's Gull)
(1. Xema, Leach). Xema Sabini, Leach in Ross's Voy. App. p. Lvii. with fig. Lams Sabini, Sab. in Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 520. pl. 29. Sabine's Xeme, Steph. in Shaw's Gen. Zool. vol. xiii. part i....
-291. L. Minutus, Pall. (Little Gull)
Bill brownish red: legs bright vermilion: tarsus eleven or twelve lines: hind toe very small; the claw straight: all the quills tipped with white; the shafts of the primaries brown. L. rainutus, Te...
-292. L. Capistratus, Temm. (Brown-Headed Gull)
Bill and legs reddish brown: tarsus one inch seven lines: shafts of the outer primaries white: in summer, a brown hood reaching to the occiput. L. capistratus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 785. F...
-293. L. Ridibundus, Linn. (Black-Headed Gull)
Bill and legs bright red: tarsus one inch ten lines: a large white space in the middle of the primaries: in summer, a deep brown hood reaching below the occiput. L. ridibundus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. to...
-294. L. Atracilla, Linn. (Laughing Gull)
Bill and legs deep brownish red: tarsus one inch ten lines: primaries entirely black; extending considerably beyond the tail: in summer a lead-coloured hood reaching below the occiput. L. Atracilla...
-295. L. Tridactylus, Lath. (Kittiwake Gull)
Bill greenish yellow: legs dusky: tarsus one inch four lines: a small knob instead of a back toe: primaries bluish ash, the outer one edged externally with black. L. tridactylus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. ...
-296. L. Canus, Linn. (Common Gull)
Bill greenish, yellow at the tip: legs greenish gray: tarsus two inches one line: wings reaching beyond the tail; first two primaries black, with a large white spot near the tips. L. canus, Temm. M...
-297. L. Eburneus, Gmel. (Ivory Gull)
Bill strong; bluish gray, the tip yellow: legs black: naked part of the tibia very small: tarsus one inch six lines: membranes of the toes somewhat abbreviated: adult plumage pure white. L. eburneu...
-298. L. Argentatus, Brunn. (Herring Gull)
Bill yellow: legs livid flesh-colour: tarsus two inches six lines: wings reaching very little beyond the tail: shafts of the primaries black: mantle (in the adult) bluish ash. L. argentatus, Temm. ...
-299. L. Fuscus, Linn. (Lesser Black-Backed Gull)
Bill and legs yellow: tarsus two inches three lines: wings reaching two inches beyond the tail: shafts of the primaries black: mantle (in the adult) grayish black. L. fuscus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn...
-300. L. Rnarinus, Linn. (Great Black-Backed Gull)
Bill yellow: legs pale flesh-colour: tarsus three inches: wings reaching very little beyond the tail: shafts of the primaries black: mantle (in the adult) grayish black. L. marinus, Temm. Man. d'Or...
-301. L.' Islandicus, Edmondst. (Iceland Gull)
Bill yellow: legs livid: tarsus two inches three lines: wings reaching a little beyond the tail: shafts of the primaries white: mantle (in the adult) pale bluish ash. L. Islandicus, Edmondst. in We...
-302. L. Glaticus, Brunn. (Glaucous Gull)
Bill yellow: legs livid: tarsus three inches: wings barely reaching to the end of the tail: primaries terminated by a large white space; the shafts entirely white: mantle (in the adult) pale bluish as...
-Gen. 110. Lestris, Illig. 303. L. Cataractes, Temm. (Common Skua)
Central tail-feathers but slightly elongated; of equal breadth throughout; square at the extremities: tarsus two inches eight lines. L. Cataractes, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 792. Cataractes vu...
-304. L. Pomarinus, Temra. (Pomarine Skua)
Central tail-feathers projecting three inches; of equal breadth throughout; rounded at the tips: tarsus two inches and half a line; covered posteriorly with rough angular scales. L. pomarinus, Temm...
-305. L. Richardsonii, Swains. (Richardson's Skua)
Central tail-feathers projecting three inches; gradually tapering from the base; the tips acute: tarsus one inch nine lines; slightly rugose posteriorly. L. Richardsonii, Faun. Bor. Amer. part ii. ...
-306. L. Parasiticus, Temni. (Arctic Skua)
Central tail-feathers projecting six inches or more; gradually tapering from the base; the tips acute: tarsus one inch six lines; slightly rugose. L. parasiticus, Tertnn. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 7...
-Gen. 111. Procellaria, Linn. 307. P. Glacialis) Linn. (Northern Fulmar)
(1. Procellaria, Vig). White; back and wings hoary ash: bill and legs yellow. P. glacialis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 802. Fulmar, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. 11. p. 239...
-308. P. Puffinus, Linn. (Cinereous Shearwater)
Bill two inches long: tarsus one inch ten lines: tail conical. Temm. P. Puffinus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. 11. p. 805. Cinereous Shearwater, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. xiii. part i. p. 227. Selb. Illust....
-309. P. Anglorum, Temm. (Manks Shearwater)
Bill very slender; one inch seven or eight lines in length: tail rounded; wings extending a little beyond its extremity: tarsus one inch nine lines. P. Anglorum, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 806....
-310. P. Fuliginosa, Strickland
Puffinus fuliginosus, Proceed, of Zool. Soc. 1832. p. 129. Dimensions Entire length eighteen inches: length of the bill (from the forehead) one inch and seven-eighths, (from the gape) two inches...
-311. P. Pelagica, Linn. (Stormy Petrel)
Black: tail even; the wings extending a little beyond its tip: tarsus ten lines and a half. P. pelagica, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 810. Stormy Petrel, Mont. Orn. Diet,& Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds,...
-312. P. Leachii, Temm. (Leaches Petrel)
Black: tail forked; the wings not reaching beyond its tip: tarsus eleven lines and a half. P. Leachii, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 812. Leach's Petrel, Steph. in Shows Gen. Zool. vol. xiii. part...
-Class III. Reptilia. Order I. Testudinata
Body enclosed in a double shield; the head, neck, limbs, and tail, alone free; the upper shield formed by the union of the ribs and dorsal vertebrae, the lower one by the pieces of the sternum: jaws h...
-Order II. Sauria
Skin covered with scales: body and tail elongated: jaws furnished with teeth: generally four feet. I. Lacertidie Tongue slender, extensile, bifid: all the feet with five toes; these last separat...
-Order III. Ophidia
Skin covered with scales: body cylindrical, very much elongated: jaws furnished with teeth: no feet. I. Anguidae A third eyelid: body entirely covered with imbricated scales: jaws not dilatable:...
-Order I. Testudinata. Gen. 1. Sphargis, Merr. 1. S. Coriacea, Gray. (Coriaceous Turtle)
Shell oval, pointed behind, with three longitudinal ridges. S. coriacea, Gray, Syn. Rept. part i. p. 51. Testudo coriacea, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 350. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 78. Coriudo coriace...
-Gen. 2. Chelonia, Brongn. 2. C. Imbricata, Gray. (Imbricated Turtle)
Shell elliptic, carinated, with the plates of the disk imbricated. C. imhricata, Gray, Syn. Rept. part i. p. 52. Testudo imhricata, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 350. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 78. Chelon...
-Order II. Sauria. Gen. 3. Lacerta, Cuv. 3. L. Stirpium, Daud. (Sand Lizard)
Occipital plate rudimentary; frontal large, nearly as broad behind as before: temples covered with small plates: abdominal lamellse in six longitudinal rows: fore feet with the third toe longest: femo...
-4. L. Agilis, Berkenh. (Common Lizard)
Occipital plate rudimentary; frontal large, as broad behind as before: temples covered with small plates: abdominal lamellae in six rows: fore feet with the fourth toe longest: femoral pores from nine...
-Order III. Ophidia. Gen. 4. Anguis, Cuv. 5. A. Fragilis, Linn. (Blind-Worm)
A. fragilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 392. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 81. Flem. Brit. An. p. 155. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 70. Csecilia, Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 289. Blind-Worm, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii....
-Gen. 5. Natrix, Flem. 6. N. Torquata, Ray. (Ringed Snake)
Dorsal scales carinated: a lunulate yellow spot on each side of the nape, with a black one behind. N. torquata, Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 334. Flem. Brit. An. p. 156. Coluber Natrix, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn...
-Gen. 6. Vipera, Baud. 7. V. Communis, Leach. (Common Viper)
Three plates on the upper part of the head, larger than the surrounding scales; dorsal scales carinated: a series of confluent rhomboidal black spots down the back. V. communis, Leach, Zool. Misc. ...
-Class IV. Amphibia. Order I. Caducibranchia
Gills deciduous. I. Ranidae No tail in the adult state: fore feet with four toes; hind feet with five, or with the rudiment of a sixth. 1. Rana Skin smooth: hind feet very long, adapted fo...
-Order I. Caducibranchia. Gen. 1. Rana, Laurent. 1. R. Temporaria, Linn. (Common Frog)
Reddish or yellowish brown, spotted with black; an elongated black patch behind the eyes. R. temporaria, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 357. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 80. Flem. Brit. An. p. 158. R. aquati...
-Gen. 2. Bufo, Laurent. 2. B. Vulgaris, Flem. (Common Toad)
Lurid brownish gray, with reddish brown tubercles: body large and swollen. B. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 159. B. terrestris, Rces. Ran. tab. 20. Rana Bufo, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 354. Turt....
-3. B. Calamita, Laurent. (Natter-Jack)
Olivaceous, or yellowish brown; a bright yellow line down the middle of the back: eyes very much elevated. Rana Bufo, , Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1047. R. Rubetra, Turt. Brit. An. p. 80. B...
-Gen. 3. Triton, Laurent. 4. T. Palustris, Flem. (Warty Eft)
Body rough; with scattered pores; a distinct lateral line of pores: dorsal and caudal crests (in the male) separate; the former deeply serrated. T. palustris, Flem. Brit. An p. 157. Lacerta palustr...
-5. T. Punctatus, Bonap. (Common Eft)
Body smooth, without pores; lateral line of pores indistinct; top of the head with two porous bands: dorsal and caudal crests united, and uniformly crenate. T. punctatus, Bonap. Faun. Ital. fasc. i...
-6. T. Vittatus, Gray. (Striped Eft)
Body smooth, without pores; lateral line of pores distinct; top of the head with two porous bands: dorsal and caudal crests irregularly and deeply notched. T. vittatus, Grays Mss. Dimensions ...
-Class V. Pisces
Skeleton bony; the osseons matter disposed in fibres: sutures of the cranium distinct: maxillary and intermaxillary bones, always one, and generally both, present. I. Pectinibranchii Branchice i...
-Order I. Acanthopterygii
The first portion of the dorsal fin, or the entire first dorsal when two are present, with simple spinous rays: also the anal and ventrals with one or more of the anterior rays generally spinous. I...
-Order I. Acanthopterygii. Continued
IV. Sparidae No denticulations on the preopercle, or spines on the opercle: palate without teeth: mouth not protractile: body oval, covered with large scales; no scales on the vertical fins. ...
-Order II. Malacopterygii
All the fin-rays, with the exception sometimes of the first in the dorsal and the first in the pectorals, soft and cartilaginous; these rays of an articulated structure, and generally more or less bra...
-Order II. Malacopterygii. Continued
V. Gadidae Ventrals jugular, pointed: body covered with soft scales: all the fins soft: jaws, and front of the vomer, armed with several rows of sharp card or rasp-like teeth: gill-opening large wi...
-Order III. Osteodermi
Body mailed with transverse angular plates: snout very much produced, formed by a prolongation of the bones of the head and gill-covers: generally one dorsal, with simple slender rays: the other fins ...
-Order IV. Gymnodontes
No true teeth; but the jaws covered with a lamellated substance resembling ivory, either entire, or divided in the middle by a suture: opercle small; branch-iostegous rays five on each side; both deep...
-Order V. Scleroderma
Snout very much produced, of a conical or pyramidal form; mouth small, with distinct teeth in each jaw: skin generally scabrous, or clothed with large scales. 70. Balistes Eight teeth, forming a...
-Order VI. Eleutheropomi
Branchiae pectinated, free, with one large external aperture; furnished with an opercle, but without rays in the membrane: upper jaw formed by the palatine bone firmly united to the maxillary: interma...
-Order VII. Acanthorrhini
Branchiae pectinated; adhering by a large portion of their external margin; opening outwards by a single aperture, communicating with five others at the bottom of the general cavity: opercle rudimenta...
-Order VIII. Plagiostomi
Branchiae pectinated, fixed, opening outwards by several distinct apertures: no opercle: jaws represented by the palatine and postmandibular bones, which alone are armed with teeth: pectorals and vent...
-Order IX. Cyclostomi
Branchiae purse-shaped, fixed, opening outwards by several apertures: jaws represented by an immoveable cartilaginous ring, formed by the union of the palatine and mandibular bones: no pectorals or ve...
-Order I. Acanthopterygii. Gen. 1. Perca, Linn. (1. Perca, Cuv). 1. P. Fluviatilis, Linn. (Common Perch)
Back dusky green; sides with five transverse dusky bands. P. fiuviatilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 481. Block, Ichth. pl. 52. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. in. pl. 52. Flem. Brit. An. p. 213. Perch, Wi...
-2. P. Labrax, Linn. (Common Basse)
P. Labrax, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 482. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 43. Flem. Brit. An. p. 213. Scisena Labrax, Block, Ichth. pl. 301. Labrax Lupus, Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. ii. p. 41. pl. 11....
-3. P. Cabrilla, Linn. (Smooth Serranus)
Jaws without scales: cheeks and gill-covers marked with three or four oblique bands; sides with a few longitudinal bands. P. Cabrilla, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 488. P. Channus, Couch in Loud. M...
-4. P. Gigas, Gmel. (Dusky Serranus)
Lower jaw covered with very small scales. P. Gigas, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1315. P. robusta, Couch in Loud. Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 21. fig. 7. Serranus Gigas, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. ...
-5. P. Cernua, Linn. (Common Ruffe)
Back and sides olivaceous, spotted with dusky brown. P. Cernua, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 487. Block, Ichth. pl. 5. f. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 39. Cernua fluviatilis, Flem. Brit. An. p....
-Gen. 2. Trachinus, Linn. 6. T. Draco, Linn. (Great Weever)
Entire length six times the depth of the body: second dorsal with about thirty rays: lower jaw ascending. T. Draco, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 435. Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. iii. p. 178. Cuv. Reg...
-7. T. Vipera, Cuv. (Little Weever)
Entire length four times the depth of the body: second dorsal with twenty-four rays: lower jaw nearly vertical. T. Vipera, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. iii. p. 189. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 152. T. ...
-Gen. 3. Mullus, Linn. 8. M. Surmuletus, Linn. (Striped Surmullet)
Red; sides with longitudinal yellow lines: profile descending obliquely from the forehead. M. Surmuletus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. I. p. 496. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 57. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. i. pl. 12. Fl...
-9. M. Barbatus, Linn. (Red Surmullet)
Plain red; the sides without any longitudinal yellow lines: profile nearly vertical. M. barbatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 495. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 348. f. 2. Mullus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 285. ta...
-Gen. 4. Trigla, Cuv. 10. T. Pini, Bl. (Pine-Leaved Gurnard)
* Body marked with fine transverse thread-like ridges. Transverse lines not reaching below the middle of the sides: lateral line smooth: profile oblique. * According to Mr. Couch, there is one y...
-11. T. Lineata, Gmel. (Streaked Gurnard)
Transverse lines encircling the whole body: lateral line sharply serrated: profile nearly vertical. T. lineata, Gmel. Linn, tom.i. pt. 3. p. 1345. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 354, ' Don. Brit. Fish. vol. i. ...
-12. T. Uirundo, Bl. (Sapphirine Gurnard)
Lateral line smooth: pectorals very large, reaching beyond the ventrals: spine on the opercle scarcely projecting beyond the membrane. T. Hirundo, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 60. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. i. pl....
-13. T. Lyra, Linn. (Piper)
Lateral line smooth: pectorals large, reaching beyond the ventrals: humeral and opercular spines extremely long: snout divided into two dentated processes. T. Lyra, Linn. Suit. Nat. torn. i. p. 496...
-14. T. Gurnardus, Linn. (Gray Gurnard)
Lateral line sharply serrated: pectorals of equal length with the ventrals: humeral and opercular spines long: first three rays of the first dorsal granulated. T. Gurnardus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. ...
-15. T. Cuculus, Bl. (Red Gurnard)
Constantly red, with a black spot on the first dorsal: this last with the first three rays smooth, without granulations. T. Cuculus, Block, Ichth. pl. 59. Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 457. Flem....
-Gen. 5. Cottus, Linn. 16. C. Gobio, Linn. (Bull-Head)
Head nearly smooth: preopercle armed with a single spine. C. Gobio, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 452. Block, Ichth. pl. 39. f. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 80. Flem. Brit. An. p. 216. Bullhead,...
-17. C. Scorpius, Bl. (Sea-Scorpion, Or Father-Lasher)
Two erect spines before the eyes: preopercle with three spines; the first barely one-fifth the length of the head. C. Scorpius, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 40; Don. Brit. Fish. vol. II. pl. 35. Flem. Brit...
-18. C. Bubalis, Euph. (Four-Spined Father-Lasher)
Two erect spines before the eyes: preopercle with four spines; the first one-third the length of the head. C. Bubalis, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. iv. p. 120. pl. 78. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 163. ...
-19. C. Quadricornis, Linn. (Four-Horned Father-Lasher)
Four tubercles on the occiput: preopercle with three spines. C. quadricornis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 451. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 108. Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. iv. p. 123. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. ...
-Gen. 6. Aspidophorus, Lacep. 20. A. Cataphractus, Nob. (Pogge)
Dorsals contiguous: upper jaw longest: chin and branchiostegous membrane furnished with numerous thread-like filaments. A. armatus, Lacep. Hist. Nat. des Poiss. torn. iii. p. 222. A. Euro-pseus, Cu...
-Gen. 7. Scorpaena, Linn. 21. S. Norvegica, Cuv. (Northern Sebastes)
(1. Sebastes, Cuv). Dorsal fin with fifteen spinous and fifteen soft rays; the longest of the spinous rays scarcely more than one-fifth the depth of the body. Sebastes Norvegicus, Cuv. et Val. P...
-Gen. 8. Gasterosteus, Linn. 22. G. Aculeatus, Linn. (Three-Spined Stickleback)
(1. Gasterosteus, Cuv). * Sides more or less protected by transverse scaly plates. Three dorsal spines. G. aculeatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 489. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 53. f. 3. Don. Brit. Fis...
-23. G. Spinulosus, Yarr. And Jen. (Four-Spined Stickleback)
Four dorsal spines. Four-spined Stickleback, Edinb. New Phil. Journ. Apr. 1831. p. 386. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 83. Length One inch and a quarter. De script. Differs in no essential p...
-24. G. Pungitius, Linn. (Ten-Spined Stickleback)
Dorsal spines nine or ten. * It is more than probable that some of the other foreign Gasterostei described by Cuvier are mere varieties of this species. They hardly differ more from those described...
-25. G. Spinachia, Linn. (Fifteen-Spined Stickleback)
G. Spinachia, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 492. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 53. f. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 45. Spinachia vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 219. Aculeatus marinus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 340. t...
-Gen. 9. Sciaena, Cuv. 26. S. Aquila, Cuv. (Maigre)
(I. ScivENA, CUV). S. Aquila, Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. v. p. 21. pl. 100. Neill in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. Apr. 1826. p. 135. Flem. Brit. An. p. 213. S. Umbra, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 172. The ...
-Gen. 10. Sparus, Cuv. 27. S. Aurata, Linn. (Gilt-Head)
(1. Chrysophrys, Cuv). Molars in four or five rows above, and three below: a golden spot on the preopercle, and a dark one on the opercle. S. Aurata, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 266. Flem. Brit. An. p. 21...
-28. S. Pagrus, Linn. (Braize, Or Becker)
Silvery, tinged with red: no golden crescent between the eyes; no black spot on the shoulder. Pagrus vulgaris, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. vi. p. 104. pl. 148. Le Pagre de la Mediterranee, Cuv. Reg. ...
-29. S. Erythrinus, Linn. (Spanish Sea Bream)
Rose-colour, with silvery reflections: a golden crescent between the eyes, but no lateral spot. S. Erythrinus, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 274. Shaw, Nat. Misc. vol. xx. pl. 834. Pagellus Erythrinus, Cuv. et...
-30. S. Centrodontus, Laroche. (Common Sea Bream)
Flesh-red, with golden-yellow reflections: a crescent-shaped mark above the eyes; a large black spot on the shoulder. S. centrodontus, Laroche, Ann. du Mus. torn. xiii. p. 345. pl. 23. f. 11. S. Pa...
-Gen. 11. Dentex, Cuv. 31. D. Vulgaris, Cuv, (Toothed Gilt-Head)
Silvery; back tinged with sky-blue: dorsal bluish yellow; pectorals and caudal reddish. D. vulgaris, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. vi. p. 163. pl. 153. Flem. Brit. An. p. 212. Sparus Dentex, Block, Ich...
-Gen. 12. Cantharus, Cuv. 32. C. Griseus, Cuv. (Black Sea Bream)
Silvery gray, with bluish reflections; on each flank twenty-four dark longitudinal lines. C. griseus, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. vi. p. 249. Sparus lineatus, Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 451. pll...
-Gen. 13. Brama, Schn. 33. B. Rail, Cuv. (Ray's Sea Bream)
B. Raii, Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. vii. p. 210. pl. 190. Sparus Raii, Block, Ichth. pl. 273. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 37. S. niger, Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 98. Brama marina cauda forcipata, Ray, Syn...
-Gen. 14. Scomber, Cuv. 34. S. Scomber, Linn. (Common Mackerel)
(1. Scomber, Cuv). First dorsal with twelve rays: lower part of the sides and abdomen plain silvery. S. Scomber, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 492. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 54. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. ...
-35. S. Maculatus, Couch. (Spanish Mackerel)
First dorsal with seven rays: sides and belly thickly covered with small dusky spots. S. maculatus, Couch in Loud. Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 22. f. 8. Le Maquereau Colias, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. t...
-36. S. Thynnus, Linn. (Common Tunny)
Nine spurious finlets above and below: pectorals falcate; contained five times and a half in the entire length. S. Thynnus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 493. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 55. Don. Brit. Fish. ...
-37. S. Pelamys, Linn. (Bonito)
Eight spurious finlets above, seven below: sides of the abdomen with four longitudinal dusky bands. S. Pelamys, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 492. Thynnus Pelamys, Cuv. et Val. Hist. Nat. des Poiss....
-Gen. 15. Xiphias, Linn. 38. X. Gladius, Linn. (Common Sword-Fish)
X. Gladius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 432. Block, Ichth. pl. 76. Flem. Brit. An. p. 220. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 201. Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. viii. p. 187. pls. 225, & 226. X. Rondeletii, Leac...
-Gen. 16. Centronotus, Lacep. 39. C. Ductor, Nob. (Common Pilot-Fish)
(1. Naucrates, Cuv). Naucrates Ductor, Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. viii. p. 229. pl. 232. Gasterosteus Ductor, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 489. Scomber Ductor, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 338. Pilot-Fish, Wil...
-Gen. 17. Caranx, Cuv. 40. C. Trachurus, Lacep. (Scad)
C. Trachurus, Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. ix. p. 9. pl. 246. Scomber Trachurus, Block, Ichth. pl. 56. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. 1. pl. 3. Trachurus vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 218. Scad, Will. Hist. Pise. ...
-Gen. 18. Zeus, Linn. 41. Z. Faber, Linn. (Dory)
(1. Zeus, Cuv). Z. Faber, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 454. Block, Ichth. pl. 41. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. I. pl. 8. Flem. Brit. An. p. 218. Doree, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 294. tab. S. 16. Penn. Brit. Zo...
-42. Z. Aper, Gmel. (Boar-Fish)
Z. Aper, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1225. Capros Aper, Lacep. Hist. Nat. des Poiss. torn. iv. p. 591. Riss. Hist. Nat. de VEur. Mer. torn. iii. p. 380. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 211. Proceed, ...
-Gen. 19. Lampris, Retz. 43. L. Luna, Risso. (Opah, Or King-Fish)
L. Luna, Riss. Hist. Nat. de VEur. Merid. torn. iii. p. 341. Flem. Brit. An. p. 219. Zeus Luna, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1225. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 97. Z. imperialis, Shaw, Nat. Misc....
-Gen. 20. Coryphaena, Linn. 44. C. Morion Cuv. (Black-Fish)
(1. Centrolophus, Lacep). Centrolophus Morio, Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. ix. p. 254. C. niger, Lacep. Hist. Nat. des Poiss. torn. iv. pp. 441, & 442. pl. 10. f. 2. Perca nigra, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. ...
-Gen. 21. Lepidopus, Gouan. 45. L. Argyreus, Cuv. (Scale-Foot, Or Scabbard-Fish)
L. argyreus, Cuv. Beg. An. torn. ii. p. 217. Cuv. et Vol. Poiss. torn. viii. p. 163. pl. 223. L. Lusitanicus, Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. ii. p. 7. pl. 62. L. tetradens, Flem. Brit. An. p. 205. Van-delliu...
-Gen. 22. Trichiurus, Linn. 46. T. Lepturus, Linn.? (Hair-Tail)
T. Lepturus, Hoy in Linn. Trans, vol. xi. p. 210. Flem. Brit. An. p. 204. Block, Ichth. pl. 158.? Cuv. Beg. An. torn. n. p. 218.? Cuv. et Val. Poiss. torn. viii. p. 173.? Silvery Hair-Tail, Yarr. Brit...
-Gen. 23. Gymnetrus, Bl. 47. G. Arcticus, Cuv. (Deal-Fish)
Gymnogaster arcticus, Cuv. Beg. An. (1st Ed). torn. ii. p. 246. Deal-Fish of Orkney, Flem. in Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 215. with Jig. Vaagmaer, or Deal-Fish, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 191. ...
-Gen. 24. Cepola, Linn. 48. C. Rubescens, Linn. (Red Band-Fish)
C. rubescens, Mont, in Linn. Trans, vol. vii. p. 291. pl. 17. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 105. Mem. Brit. An. p. 204. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 221. C. Taenia, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 170.? Serpens rubesc...
-Gen. 25. Mugil, Linn. 49. M. Capito, Cuv. (Gray Mullet)
Maxillary visible when the mouth is closed: orifices of the nostril near together: the skin at the margin of the orbit not advancing upon the eye: scale above the pectoral short and obtuse. M. Capi...
-50. M. Chelo, Cuv. (Thick-Lipped Gray Mullet)
Lips very large and fleshy, the margins ciliated; teeth penetrating into their substance like so many hairs: maxillary curved, showing itself behind the commissure. Cuv. M. Chelo, Cuv. Reg. An. ...
-51. M. Curtus, Yarr. (Short Gray Mullet)
M. curtus, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 210. Description Length of the head compared with that of the body and tail as one to three, the proportion in the Common Gray Mullet being as one to fo...
-Gen. 26. Atherina, Linn. 52. A. Presbyter, Cuv. (Atherine)
Anal with fifteen soft rays: fifty-one vertebrae. A. Presbyter, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. if. p. 235. A. Hepsetus, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 87. Flem. Brit. An. p. 217. Atherine, Penn. Brit. Zool. vo...
-Gen. 27. Blennius, Linn. 53. B. Ocellaris, Bl. (Ocellated Blenny)
(1. Blennius, Cuv). * Head with two or more tentaculiform appendages. Head with two principal appendages: dorsal bilobated; the anterior lobe much elevated, marked with an ocellated spot. B. ...
-54. B. Gattorugine, Mont. (Gattoruginous Blenny)
Head with two appendages: dorsal nearly even throughout, continuous with the caudal. B. Gattorugine, Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 447. Flem. Brit. An. p. 206. Gattorugine, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 1...
-55. B. Palmicornis, Cuv. (Crested Blenny)
Head with four appendages: dorsal even throughout, continuous with the caudal: ventrals very small. B. palmicornis, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 237. B. Galerita, Flem. Brit. An. p. 207. B. Pennantii...
-56. B. Galerita, Mont. (Montagu's Blenny)
B. Galerita, Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. 1. p. 98. pl. 5. f. 2. Alauda cristata sive Galerita, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 134. B. Montagui, Flem. Brit. An. p. 206. Diminutive Blenny, Penn. Brit. Zool. (Edit. 1...
-57. B. Pholis, Linn. (Smooth Blenny, Or Shan)
Dorsal notched in the middle; not continuous with the caudal. B. Pholis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 443. Block, Ichth. pl. 71. f. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 79. Alauda non cristata, Will. H...
-58. B. Gunnellus, Linn. (Spotted Gunnel)
A row of dark ocellated spots along the base of the dorsal fin. B. Gunnellus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 443. Block, Ichth. pl. 71. f. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 27. Gunnellus Cornubiensium...
-Gen. 28. Zoarces, Cuv. 59. Z. Viviparus, Cuv. (Viviparous Blenny)
Z. viviparus, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 240. Blennius viviparus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 443. Block, Ichth. pl. 72. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 34. Mustela vivipara, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 122. ...
-Gen. 29. Anarrhichas, Linn. 60. A. Lupus, Linn. (Wolf-Fish)
A. Lupus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 430. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 74. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. i. pl. 24. Flem. Brit. An. p. 208. Wolf-Fish, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 130. c. xviii. tab. H. 3. f. 1. Ravenous Wolf...
-Gen. 30. Gobius, Linn. 61. G. Niger, Linn. (Black Goby)
Dorsals contiguous: lower jaw a very little the longest: distance between the eyes not equal to their diameter. G. niger, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. I. p. 449. Sea-Gudgeon, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 206. ta...
-62. G. Bipunctatus, Yarr. (Two-Spotted Goby)
Dorsals nearly contiguous: lower jaw considerably the longest: distance between the eyes more than equal to their diameter. G. bipunctatus, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 255. G. niger, Don. Brit. Fi...
-63. G. Minutus, Pall. (Spotted Goby)
Dorsals remote; the second with the fourth and succeeding rays gradually decreasing: eyes closely approximating. G. minutus, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1199. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 38...
-64. G. Gracilis, Jenyns. (Slender Goby)
Dorsals remote; the second with the posterior rays longest: eyes closely approximating. G. gracilis, Jen. Cat. of Brit. Vert. An. 25. sp. 63. Slender Goby, Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 260. Leng...
-Gen. 31. Callionymus, Linn. 65. C. Lyra, Linn. (Gemmeous Dragonet)
Distance from the end of the snout to the posterior margin of the orbit, and thence to the first dorsal fin-ray, equal: first ray of the first dorsal greatly prolonged. C. Lyra, Linn. Sust. Nat. to...
-66. C. Dracunculus, Linn. (Sordid Dragonet)
Distance from the end of the snout to the posterior margin of the orbit only half that from the eye to the first dorsal fin-ray: first ray of the first dorsal moderate. C. Dracunculus, Linn. Syst. ...
-Gen. 32. Lophius, Linn. 67. L. Piscatorius Linn. (Common Angler)
L. piscatorius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 402. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 87. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 115. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 101. Flem. Brit. An. p. 214. Shaw, Nat. Misc. vol. xi. pl. 422. Rana pisc...
-Gen. 33. Labrus, Linn. 68. L. Maculatus, Bloch. (Ballan Wrasse)
(1. Labrus, Cuv). * Dorsal with twenty or twenty-one spinous rays. Ascending margin of the preopercle oblique: soft portion of the dorsal more than twice the height of the spinous: dorsal and an...
-69. L. Lineatus, Don. (Streaked Wrasse)
L. lineatus, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 74. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 99. Mem. Brit. An. p. 209. L. Psittacus, Riss. Hist. Nat. de l'Eur. Merid. torn. iii. p. 304.? Green-streaked Wrasse, Yarr. Brit. Fi...
-70. L. Pusillus, Jenyns. (Corkling)
Ascending margin of the preopercle very oblique; a few obsolete denticulations about the lower angle: soft portion of the dorsal a little higher than the spinous: dorsal extending a little beyond the ...
-71. L. Variegatus, Gmel. (Striped Wrasse)
Ascending margin of the preopercle nearly vertical: dorsal extending a little beyond the anal; the soft portion scarcely higher than the spinous: branchiostegous membrane with five rays. L. variega...
-72. L. Vetula, Bloch? (Sea-Wife)
Ascending margin of the preopercle oblique, forming with the basal an obtuse angle: dorsal nearly of equal height throughout: branch-iostegous membrane with four rays. L. Vetula, Bloch, Ichth. pl. ...
-73. L. Trimaculatus, Gmel. (Trimaculated Wrasse)
Ascending margin of the preopercle oblique: dorsal with the posterior rays a little the longest: body red; with three dark spots on each side, two at the base of the dorsal fin, and one between the do...
-74. L. Julis, Linn. (Rainbow Wrasse)
Above fuscous and green; beneath white, with a fulvous dentated stripe on each side: two fore-teeth longest.1 Don. L. Julis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 476. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 287. f. 1.? Don. ...
-75. L. Tinea, Linn. (Ancient Wrasse)
Dorsal line falling gradually to the snout: depth very nearly one-third of the length: denticulations of the preopercle moderate. L. Tinea, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 477. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 98...
-76. L. Cornubicus, Gmel. (Goldsinny)
Depth considerably less than one-third of the length: denticulations of the preopercle very much developed: a conspicuous black spot on each side of the tail. L. Cornubius, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. par...
-77 L. Gibbus, Gmel. (Gibbous Wrasse)
Depth considerably more than one-third of the length; dorsal line falling suddenly to the snout. L. gibbus, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1295. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 98. Crenilabrus gibbus, Flem...
-78. L. Luscus, Linn.? (Scale-Rayed Wrasse)
Very much elongated: between the rays of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, processes of imbricated scales. L. luscus, Couch in Loud. Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 18, & p. 742. fig. 121. Scale-ray...
-Gen. 34. Centriscus, Linn. 79. C. Scolopax, Linn. (Trumpet-Fish)
C. Scolopax, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 415. Block, Ichth. pl. 123. f. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 63. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 117. Shaw, Nat. Misc. vol. xiv. pl. 584. Flem. Brit. An. p. 220. Cuv...
-Order II. Malacopterygii. Gen. 35. Cyprinus, Linn. 80. C. Carpio, Linn. (Common Carp)
(I. ABDOMINALES). (* 1. Cyprinus, Cuv). * With barbules. Mouth with two barbules on each side: caudal forked. C. Carpio, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 525. Block, Ichth. pl. 16. Turt. Brit....
-81. C. Gibelio, Gmel. (Gibel)
Depth one-third of the entire length: lateral line bending slightly downwards: caudal crescent-shaped. C. Gibelio, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1417. Block, Ichth. pl. 12. Flem. Brit. An. p. 1...
-82. C. Auratus, Linn. (Golden Carp)
Caudal deeply forked; sometimes three or four lobed. C. auratus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 527. Bloch, Ichth. pls. 93, & 94. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 108. Flem. Brit. An. p. 185. Gold-Fish, Penn. Br...
-83. C. Barbus, Linn. (Barbel)
C. Barbus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 525. Block, Ichth. pl. 18. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. is. pl. 29. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 107. Barbus vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 185. Barbel, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 259...
-84. C. Gobio, Linn. (Gudgeon)
C. Gobio, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 526. Block, Ichth. pl. 8. f. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 71. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 107. Gobio fluviatilis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 186. Gudgeon, Will. Hist. Pise...
-85. C. Tinca, Linn. (Tench)
C. Tinca, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 526. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 14. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 108. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 113. Tinca vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 186. Tench, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 251. c...
-86. C. Brama, Linn. (Yellow Bream)
J)epth one-third of the whole length: number of scales in the lateral line fifty-seven: anal with twenty-eight or twenty-nine rays. C. Brama, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 531. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 13....
-87. C. Blicca, Bl.? (White Bream)
Depth three times and a half in the entire length: number of scales in the lateral line not exceeding fifty-one: anal with from twenty-two to twenty-four rays, C. Blicca, Block, Ichth. pl. 10.? C. lat...
-88. C. Rutilus, Linn. (Roach)
Body deep: jaws equal: dorsal with twelve rays: irides, and all the fins, red. C. Rutilus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 529. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 67. Turt. Brit. Faun...
-89. C. Dobula, Linn. (Dobule)
Elongated: head broad; snout blunt and rounded: upper jaw longest: anal, pectorals, and ventrals, red. C. Dobula, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 528. Block, Ichth. pl. 5. Yarrell in Linn. Trans, vol....
-90. C. Leuciscus, Linn. (Dace)
Elongated; depth rather more than one-fifth of the length: upper jaw longest: dorsal with ten rays: anal, pectorals, and ventrals, pale: irides yellowish. C. Leuciscus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p....
-91. C. Lancastriensis, Shaw. (Graining)
Elongated; depth one-fifth of the length: back and upper part of the sides pale drab: fins yellowish white. C. Lancastriensis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. v. p. 234. Leuciscus Lancastriensis, Yarr. in Li...
-92. C. Cephalus, Linn. (Chub)
Elongated: body thick; snout broad and rounded; upper jaw longest: dorsal and anal with ten rays: pectorals, ventrals, and anal, pale red. C. Cephalus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 527. C. Jeses, D...
-93. C. Erythrophthalmus, Linn. (Rudd, Or Red-Eye)
Body deep: lower jaw longest: anal with fourteen rays: sides and abdomen gilded; caudal, ventrals, and anal, bright vermilion. C. Erythrophthalmus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 530. Bloch, Ichth. p...
-94. C. Cceruleus, Nob. (Azurine)
Depth moderate: lower jaw longest: anal with fourteen rays: sides and abdomen silvery; all the fins plain white. Leuciscus cseruleus, Yarr. in Linn. Trans, vol. xvii. p. 8. pl. 2. f. 2. Azurine, Id...
-95. C. Alburnus, Linn. (Bleak)
Elongated: lower jaw longest, ascending: anal with about nineteen rays: bright silvery; fins pellucid white. C. Alburnus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 531. Block, Ichth. pl. 8. f. 4. Don. Brit. Fis...
-96. C. Phoxinus, Linn. {Minnow)
Body slender, rounded: jaws equal: scales very minute: anal with ten or eleven rays: fins pale. C. Phoxinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 528. Block, Ichth. pl. 8. f. 5. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. ...
-Gen. 36. Cobitis, Linn. 97. C. Barbatula, Linn. (Bearded Loach)
Body rounded anteriorly, compressed behind: sides of the head unarmed. C. barbatula, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 499. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 31. f. 3. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. i. pl. 22. Turt. Brit. Faun....
-98. C. Tcenia, Linn. (Groundling)
Body much compressed throughout: beneath each eye a forked spine. C. Taenia, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 499. Block, Ichth. pl. 31. f. 2. Berken. Syn. vol. i. p. 79. Tart. Brit. Faun. p. 103. Flem...
-Gen. 37. Esox, Cuv. 99. E. Lucius, Linn. (Pike)
E. Lucius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 516. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 32. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 109. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 105. Flem. Brit. An. p. 184. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 282. Pike, Will. Hist....
-Gen. 38. Belone, Nob. 100. B. Vulgaris, Flem. {Common Gar-Fish)
(1. Belone, Cuv). B. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 184. Esox Belone, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 517. Block, Ichth. pl. 33. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 64. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 105. Horn-Fish or...
-101. B. Saurus, Nob. (Saury, Or Skipper)
Esox Saurus, Rackett in Linn. Trans, vol. vii. p. 60. tab. 5. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 105. Neill in Wern. Mem. vol. i. p. 541. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 116. Lacertus vel Saurus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. ...
-Gen. 39. Exocoetus, Linn. 102. E. Volitans, Linn.? (Flying-Fish)
Ventrals small, placed before the middle. E. volitans, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 520. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 31. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 106. E. evolans, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 398. Winged Flying...
-Gen. 40. Salmo, Cuv. 103. S. Salar, Linn. (Common Salmon)
Posterior margin of the gill-cover forming a semicircle: vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity: caudal forked: ventrals dusky on their inner surface. S. Salar, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i....
-104. S. Eriox Linn. {Bull Trout, Or Grey)
Posterior margin of the gill-cover very little curved: vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity: caudal even: back and sides spotted with purplish gray; ventrals plain white. S. Eriox, Lin...
-105. S. Trutta, Linn. (Sea Trout)
Gill-cover slightly produced behind; the margin rounded: vomerine teeth extending the whole way: caudal forked: back and sides with X-shaped dusky spots: ventrals plain white. S. Trutta, Linn. Syst...
-106. S. Fario, Linn. (Common Trout)
Gill-cover produced behind into a rounded angle: vomerine teeth extending the whole way: maxillaries reaching to a vertical line from the posterior part of the orbit: caudal slightly forked: back and ...
-107. S. Ferox, Jard. And Selb. (Great Lake Trout)
Great Lake Trout (S. ferox), Jard. in Encycl. Brit. (7th Edit). Art. Angling, p. 142. Id. in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. vol. xviii. p. 55. Description {Form). Principally distinguished by its larg...
-108. S. Salmulus, Turt. (Samlet)
Vomerine teeth extending the whole way: maxillaries reaching to beneath the centre of the orbit: caudal forked for half its length: sides marked with long, narrow, transverse, bluish bands. S. Salm...
-109. S. Umbla, Linn. (Charr)
Vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity; dorsal midway between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal: anal commencing beyond the tip of the reclined dorsal: axillary scale nearly h...
-110. S. Salvelinus, Don. (Torgoch)
Vomerine teeth confined to the anterior extremity: dorsal exactly in the middle of the entire length: anal commencing in a line with the tip of the reclined dorsal: axillary scale not one-third the le...
-Gen. 41. Osmerus, Art. 111. O. Eperlanus, Flem. (Smelt)
O. Eperlanus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 181. Eperlanus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 202. tab. N. 6. f. 4. Salmo Eperlanus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 511. Block, Ichth. pl. 28. figs. 1,2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii...
-Gen. 42. Thymallus, Cuv. 112. T. Vulgaris, Nilss. (Grayling)
T. vulgaris, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 13. Thymallus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 187. tab. N. 8. Salmo Thymallus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 512. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 24. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 88...
-Gen. 43. Coregonus, Cuv. 113. C. Lavaretus, Flem.? (Gwiniad)
Jaws equal; snout scarcely advancing beyond them. C. Lavaretus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 182.? Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 15.? Salmo Wartmanni, Block, Ichth. pl. 105.? Gwiniad, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 18...
-114. C. Pollan, Thomps. (Pollan,)
C. Pollan, Thomps. in Proceed, of Zool. Snc. June 9, 1835. Length From ten to twelve inches. Thomps. Description (Form). Differs from the Gwiniad in the snout not being produced; in the ...
-115. C. Marcenula, Jard. (Vendace)
Lower jaw longest, obliquely ascending. C. Maraenula, Jard. in Edinb. Journ. of Nat. and Geog. Sci. vol. iii. p. 4. pl. 1. Salmo Maraenula, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 28. f. 3.? Gmel. Linn. torn. i. partiii...
-Gen. 44. Clupea, Cuv. (Clupea, Linn). 116. C. Harengus, Linn. (Common Herring)
Minute teeth in both jaws: infra-orbitals and gill-covers veined: subopercle rounded at bottom: dorsal behind the centre of gravity: ventrals beneath the middle of the dorsal. C. Harengus, Linn. Sy...
-117. C. Leachii, Yarr. (Leach's Herring)
C. Leachii, Yarr. in Proceed, of Zool. Soc. (1831). p. 34. Id. in Zool. Journ. vol. v. p. 278. pl. 12. Description Much deeper in proportion than the Common Herring, an adult fish eight inches...
-118. C. Sprattus, Bloch. {Sprat)
Teeth in the lower jaw obsolete: infra-orbitals and gill-covers not veined: dorsal further back than in the Herring; the ventrals beneath its anterior margin: keel of the abdomen serrated: anal with e...
-119. C. Alba, Yarr. (White-Bait)
Minute teeth in both jaws: dorsal further back than in the Herring: ventrals beneath the middle of the dorsal: keel of the abdomen serrated: anal with sixteen rays. C. alba, Yarr. in Zool. Journ. v...
-120. C. Pilchardus, Bloch. (Pilchard)
Teeth obsolete: infra-orbitals and opercular pieces strongly veined: subopercle square at bottom: dorsal exactly in the centre of gravity: ventrals beneath the posterior half of the dorsal. * Loudo...
-121. C. Finta, Cuv. (Shad)
Distinct teeth in both jaws: a row of dusky spots along each side of the body. C. Finta, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 320. C. Alosa, Block, Ichth. pl. 30. f. 1. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 57. Tur...
-122. C. Alosa, Cuv. (Allis)
Jaws without distinct teeth: a single black spot behind the gills. C. Alosa, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 319. Shad, Bowd. Brit. fr. wat. Pish. Draw. no. 27. Length From two to three, sometimes...
-Gen. 45. Engraulis, Cuv. 123. E. Encrasicholus, Flera. (Anchovy)
E. Encrasicholus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 183. Clupea Encrasicholus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 523.* Bloch, Ichth. pl. 30. f. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 50. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 107. Encrasicholu...
-Gen. 46. Gadus, Linn. 124. G. Morrhua, Linn. (Common Cod)
Back and sides spotted with yellow and brown; lateral line white: jaws nearly equal. G. Morrhua, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 436. Block, Ichth. pl. 64. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 89. Don. Brit. Fish. vo...
-125. G. Jeglefinus, Linn. (Haddock)
Lateral line, and a large spot behind the pectorals, black: upper jaw longest. G. iEglefinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 435. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 62. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 59. Turt. Brit. ...
-126. G. Luscus, Linn. (Bib, Or Pout)
Depth one-fourth of the length: first anal commencing nearly in a line with the first dorsal. G. luscus & barbatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 437. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 90. G. barbatus, Block, Ic...
-127. G. Minutus, Linn. (Poor)
Depth one-fifth of the length: first dorsal entirely before the first anal. G. minutus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 438. Block, Ichth. pl. 67. f. 1. Turt. Brit: Faun. p. 90. Asellus mollis minor, ...
-Gen. 47. Merlangus, Cuv. 128. M. Vulgaris, Flem. (Whiting)
Upper jaw longest: lateral line nearly straight. M. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 195. Gadus Merlangus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 438. Block, Ichth. pl. 65. Tart. Brit. Faun. p. 91. Don. Brit. Fi...
-129. M. Pollachius Flem. {Pollack)
Lower jaw considerably the longest: lateral line curved, and dark coloured: caudal slightly forked. M. Pollachius, Flem. Brit. An. p. 195. Gadus Pollachius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 439. Block,...
-130. M. Carbonarius, Flem. (Coal-Fish)
Lower jaw longest: lateral line straight, and white: caudal deeply forked. M. Carbonarius, Flem. Brit. An. p. 195. Gadus Carbonarius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 438. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 66. Don. Br...
-131. M. Virens, Flem. (Green Cod)
Jaws equal: lateral line straight. M. virens, Flem. Brit. An. p. 195. Gadus virens, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 438. Neill in Wern. Mem. vol. I. p. 532. Green Cod, Penn. Brit. Zool. (Edit. 1812)...
-Gen. 48. Merluccius, Cuv. 132. M. Vulgaris, Flem. (Common Hake)
Whitish, grayish on the back: lower jaw longest. M. vulgaris, Mem. Brit. An. p. 195. Gadus Merluccius, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 439. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 164. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 28. T...
-Gen. 49. Lota, Cuv. 133. L. Molva, Nob. {Ling)
Above gray, inclining to olive; beneath silvery: upper jaw longest. Gadus Molva, Linn. Si/st. Nat. torn. i. p. 439. Block, Ichth. pl. 69. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 91. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 102. ...
-134. L. Vulgaris. Nob. (Burbot)
Yellowish or olivaceous brown, with darker blotches: jaws equal. Gadus Lota, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 440. Block, Ichth. pl. 70. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 91. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 92. Muste...
-Gen. 50. Motella, Cuv. 135. M. Tricirrata, Nilss. (Three-Bearded Rock-Ling)
Reddish yellow, spotted with black: two barbules on the snout; and one at the symphysis of the lower jaw. M. tricirrata, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 48. Gadus tricirratus, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 165. ...
-136. M. Mustela, Nilss. {Five-Bearded Rock-Ling)
Olive-brown: four barbules on the snout; and one at the symphysis of the lower jaw. M. Mustela, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 49. Gadus Mustela, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 440. Don. Brit. Fish. v...
-137. M. Glauca, Nob. (Mackerel Midge)
Back bluish green; all besides silvery: five barbules. Midge (Ciliata glauca), Couch in Loud. Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 15. fig. 2. and p. 741. Length One inch three lines. Couch. D...
-Gen. 51. Brosmus, Flem. 138. B. Vulgaris, Flem. (Torsk)
B. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 194. Gadus Brosrae, Gmel. Linn. . torn. i. partiii. p. 1175. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 70. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 92. Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 47. Torsk, Pen...
-Gen. 52. Phycis, Arted. 139. P. Furcatus, Flem. (Common Fork-Beard)
First dorsal more elevated than the second; the first ray very much elongated: ventrals twice as long as the head. Cuv. P. furcatus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 193. P. blennoides, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand...
-Gen. 53. Raniceps, Cuv. 140. R. Trifurcatus, Flem. (Tadpole-Fish)
R. trifurcatus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 194. Blennius trifurcatus, Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 93. Trifurcated Hake, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 196. pl. 32. Trifurcated Tadpole-Fish, Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. ii...
-Gen. 54. Platessa, Cuv. 141. P. Vulgaris, Flem. (Common Plaice)
Rhom-boidal: a row of osseous tubercles on the eye-side of the head: lateral line curved above the pectoral: body smooth: teeth blunt, contiguous. P. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 198. Pleuronectes ...
-142. P. Flesus, Flem. (Flounder)
Rhomboidal: a row of tubercular asperities along the base of the dorsal and anal fins; lateral line slightly curved, and rough with denticulated scales; rest of the body smooth: teeth blunt. P. Fle...
-143. P. Limanda, Flem. (Dab)
Subrhomboidal: lateral line strongly curved above the pectoral: body rough throughout; the scales with ciliated margins: teeth sharp, a little distant from each other. * Nat. Misc. vol. vii. pl. 23...
-144. P. Microcephala, Flem. {Lemon Dab)
Oblong-oval: lateral line slightly curved above the pectoral: body smooth: head and mouth very small: jaws equal: teeth obtuse. P. microcephala, Flem. Brit. An. p. 198. Pleuronectes micr...
-145. P. Pola, Cuv. {Pole)
Oblong-oval: lower eye more advanced than the upper one: lateral line straight throughout its course: body everywhere smooth: lower jaw longest: teeth cutting. P. Pola, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 3...
-146. P. Limandoides, Nob. (Sandnecker)
Oblong-oval: both eyes equally advanced towards the mouth: lateral line straight: body rough; the scales with ciliated margins: teeth conical, and sharp-pointed. Pleuronectes Limandoides, Bloch, Ic...
-Gen. 55. Hippoglossus, Cuv. 147. H. Vulgaris, Flem. (Holibut)
Eyes on the right side: lateral line arched above the pectorals: body oblong; smooth. H. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 199. Pleuronectes Hippoglossus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 456. Bloch, Ichth....
-Gen. 56. Pleuronectes, Flem. 148. P. Maximus, Linn. (Turbot)
Body rhom-boidal, and nearly as broad as long: the eye-side beset with small, subacute, osseous, tubercles. P. maximus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 459. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 49. Don. Brit. Fish. vol....
-149. P. Rhombus, Linn. (Brill)
Body broadly oval; smooth, without tubercles: first rays of the dorsal half free, and branched at their extremities. P. Rhombus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 458. Block, Ichth. pl. 43. Don. Brit. F...
-150. P. Punctatus, Bloch. (Block's Top-Knot)
Roundish oval: both sides of the body rough; the edges of the scales denticulated: the first ray of the dorsal fin elongated: ventrals and anal separate. P. punctatus, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 189. Flem. ...
-151. P. Hirtus, Mull. (Mutter's Top-Knot)
Roundish oval: eye-side of the body rough; the edges of the scales denticulated: jaws equal: the first dorsal ray not longer than the succeeding ones: ventrals and anal united. P. hirtus, Mull. Zoo...
-152. P. Megastoma, Don. {Whiff)
Body oblong; the eye-side rough, with the scales finely ciliated: gape large; lower jaw longest: first rays in the dorsal fin free, but simple. P. Megastoma, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 51. Turt...
-153. P. Amoglossus, Schn. (Scald-Fish)
Body oblong-oval: scales large, deciduous, finely ciliated: jaws equal: lower eye most in advance: before the anal a strong sharp spine. P. Amoglossus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 197. Bonap. Faun. Ital. Fa...
-Gen. 57. Solea, Cuv. 154. S. Vulgaris, Flem. (Common Sole)
(1. SOLEA, CUV). Greatest breadth not half the' length: upper side of the body dark brown; the pectoral tipped with black. S. vulgaris, Flem. Brit. An. p. 197. Pleuronectes Solea, Linn. Syst. Na...
-155. S. Pegusa, Yarr. (Lemon Sole)
Greatest breadth, dorsal and anal fins included, half the length: upper side of the body light orange-brown, freckled with dark brown spots; pectoral tipped with black. S. Pegusa, Yarr. in Zool. Journ...
-156. S. Lingula, Nob. (Red-Backed Sole)
Eye-side of the body light reddish brown; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins with dusky spots. Pleuronectes Lingula, Hanmer in Penn. Brit. Zool. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 313. pl. 48. P. variegatus, Do...
-Gen. 58. Lepadogaster, Gouan. 157. L. Cornubiensis, Flem. (Cornish Sucker)
A double cirrus in front of each eye: dorsal and anal fins connected by a membrane with the caudal. L. Cornubiensis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 189. Cyclopterus Cornubicus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. v. p. 397....
-158. L. Bimaculatus, Flem. (Bimaculated Sucker)
No cirri before the eyes: dorsal and anal fins short; not connected with the caudal: behind the pectoral, on each side, a purple spot. L. bimaculatus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 190. Cyclopterus bimaculatu...
-Gen. 59. Cyclopterus, Linn. (1. Cyclopterus, Cuv). 159. C. Lumpus, Linn. (Common Lump-Fish)
Three longitudinal rows of osseous tubercles on each side: a tuberculated ridge on the back, representing a first dorsal fin. C. Lumpus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 414. Block, Ichth. pl. 90. Don....
-160. C. Liparis, Linn. (Common Sea-Snail)
Dorsal and anal fins united to the caudal. C. Liparis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 414. Block, Ichth. pl. 123. f. 3. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. ii. pl. 47. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 115. Liparis nostras, Wi...
-161. C. Montagui, Don. (Montagu's Sea-Snail)
Dorsal and anal fins unconnected with the caudal: upper lip marked with several indentations. C. Montagui, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. in. pl. 68. (Young). Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. i. p. 91. pl. 5. f. 1....
-Gen. 60. Echeneis, Linn. 162. E. Remora, Linn. (Common Remora)
Shield on the head with about eighteen transverse bars: caudal crescent-shaped. E. Remora, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 446. Block, Ichth. pl. 172. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 94. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. ...
-Gen. 61. Anguilla, Cuv. (1. Anguilla, Cuv). 163. A. Acutirostris, Yarr. (Sharp-Nosed Eel)
Snout sharp, compressed at the sides; gape extending to beneath the middle of the eye: about one-third of the entire length before the dorsal, and between one-eighth and one-ninth before the pectorals...
-164. A. Latirostris, Yarr. (Broad-Nosed Eel)
Snout . broad and rounded; gape extending to a vertical line from the posterior part of the orbit: more than one-third of the entire length before the dorsal, and about one-seventh before the pectoral...
-165. A. Mediorostris, Yarr. (Snig Eel)
Snout rather long, and moderately broad; gape extending not quite to a vertical line from the posterior part of the orbit: rather less than one-third of the entire length before the dorsal, and betwee...
-166. A. Conger, Shaw. (Conger Eel)
Dorsal and anal fins margined with black: lateral line spotted with white. A. Conger, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. iv. part i. p. 20. pl. 1. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 87. Flem. Brit. An. p. 200. Muraena Conger...
-Gen. 62. Murcena, Thunb. 167. M. Helena, Linn. {Common Murcena)
Olivaceous brown, marbled with yellow. M. Helena, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 425. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 153. Mursena, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 103. tab. G. 1. Roman Mursena, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. iv. par...
-Gen. 63. Leptocephalus, Gronov. 168. L. Morrisii, Gmel. (Anglesea Morris)
L. Morrisii, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1150. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 88. Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. n. p. 436. pl. 22. f. 1. Leach, Zool. Misc. vol. iii. p. 10. pl. 126. Flem. Brit. An. p. 200. Cuv...
-Gen. 64. Ophidium, Linn
(33). 0. Barbatwn, Linn Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 431. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 159. f. 1. Berkenh. Syn. vol. i. p. 66. Turt. Brit. Faun, p. 88. Donzelle commune, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 359. Two pair ...
-169. O. Imberbe, Mont. (Beardless Ophidium)
Lower jaw without barbules. O. imberbe, Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. i. p. 95. pl. 4. f. 2. Flem. Brit. An. p. 201. Beardless Ophidium, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. App. p. 398. and vol. iv. pl. 93.? Id...
-Gen. 65. Ammodytes, Linn. 170. A. Tobianus, Bloch. (Wide-Mouthed Launce)
Gape large; maxillaries long; the pedicels of the intermaxillaries very short: dorsal commencing in a line with the extremities of the pectorals. A. Tobianus, Bloch, Ichth. pl. 75. f. 2. Turt. Brit...
-171. A. Lancea, Cuv. (Small-Mouthed Launce)
Gape not so large; maxillaries short; the pedicels of the intermaxillaries very long: dorsal commencing before the extremities of the pectorals. A. Lancea, Cuv. Beg. An. torn. 11. p. 360. A. Tobian...
-Order III. Osteodermi. Gen. 66. Syngnathus, Cuv. 172. S. Acus, Linn. (Great Pipe-Fish)
* Anal, caudal, and pectoral Jins, all present. Body hept-angular anteriorly: crown with an elevated longitudinal ridge; profile descending in a sinuous curve: snout much narrower, vertically, than...
-173. S. Typhle, Linn. (Lesser Pipe-Fish)
Body hexangular anteriorly: crown flat; profile nearly in the same line: snout almost as broad, vertically, as the head. S. Typhle, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 416. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 91. f. 1.? Do...
-174. S. Cequoreus, Linn. (Aequoreal Pipe-Fish)
Body octangular anteriorly: snout short; much narrower, vertically, than the head: dorsal and vent nearly in the middle of the entire length. S. sequoreus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 417. Mont, i...
-175. S. Ophidion, Bloch. (Snake Pipe-Fish)
Body round, very obsoletely octangular anteriorly: snout short; much narrower, vertically, than the head: dorsal and vent considerably before the middle of the entire length. S. Ophidion, Bloch, Ic...
-176. S. Lumbriciformis, Nob. (Worm Pipe-Fish)
Body round, slightly compressed anteriorly: snout very short; of nearly equal breadth with the head: dorsal and vent at about the middle of the entire length. S. Ophidion, Flem. Brit. An. p. 176. A...
-Gen. 67. Hippocampus, Cuv. 177. H. Brevirostris, Cuv.? (Sea-Horse)
Snout short. H. brevirostris, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 363. H. Rondeletii, Will. Hist. Pise. tab. I. 25. fig. 3. Pennant states his having been informed that the Syngnathus Hippocampus of Linn...
-Order IV. Gymnodontes. Gen. 68. Tetrodon, Linn. 178. T. Stellatus, Don. (Stellated Globe-Fish)
Above blue; beneath silvery: abdomen spinous; each spine arising from a stellated root, of four rays. Don. T. stellatus, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 66. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 116. Flem. Brit. An....
-Gen. 69. Orthagoriscus, Schn. 179. O. Mola, Schneid. (Short Sun-Fish)
Depth about two-thirds of the length: skin rough. O. Mola, Flem. Brit. An. p. 175. Mola Salviani, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 151. tab. I. 26. Tetrodon Mola, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 412. Don. Brit. F...
-180. O. Oblongus, Schneid. (Oblong Sun-Fish)
Length more than twice the depth of the body: skin smooth. O. truncatus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 175. Jen. Cat. of Brit. Vert. An. 31. sp. 181. Tetrodon truncatus, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1448...
-Order V. Sclerodermi. Gen. 70. Balistes, Cuv. 181. B. Capriscus, Gmel. (Mediterranean File-Fish)
B. Capriscus, Gmel. Linn. torn. 1. part iii. p. 1471. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 372. Capriscus Rondeletii, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 152. tab. I. 19. Le Baliste Caprisque, Lacep. Hist. Nat. des Poiss. tor...
-Order VI. Eleutheropomi. Gen. 71. Acipenser, Linn. 182. A. Sturio, Linn. (Common Sturgeon)
Osseous tubercles in five longitudinal rows; strong and spinous. A. Sturio, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 403. Block, Ichth. pl. 88. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 114. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. 111. pl. 65. Flem...
-Order VII. Acanthorrhin1. Gen. 72. Chimera, Linn. 183. C. Monstrosa, Linn. (Sea-Monster)
C. monstrosa, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 401. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 124. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 114. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 111. Flem. Brit. An. p. 172. Galeus Acantbias Clusii, Will. Hist. Pise. p....
-Order VIII. Plagiostoml. Gen. 73. Squalus, Linn. 184. S. Canicula, Linn. (Spotted Dog-Fish)
(1. SCYLLIUM, CUV). Spots small and numerous: ventrals cut obliquely at their posterior margin: valves of the nostrils united, partly covering the mouth. S. Canicula, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p...
-185. S. Stellaris, Linn. (Rock Dog-Fish)
Spots large and scattered: ventrals cut square at their posterior margin: valves of the nostrils separate, not reaching to the mouth. S. stellaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 399. Blainv. Faun. F...
-186. S. Carcharias, Linn. (White Shark)
Teeth triangular, the sides straight and denticulated; those in the lower jaw narrower than those above. S. Carcharias, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 400. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 113. Blainv. Faun. Fra...
-187. S. Vulpes, Gmel. (Sea-Fox, Or Thresher)
Teeth triangular, pointed; the edges not denticulated: caudal with the upper lobe nearly as long as the body. S. Vulpes, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. partiii. p. 1496. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 112. Blainv. Fau...
-188. S. Glaucus, Linn. (Blue Shark)
Teeth in the upper jaw triangular, and curved; in the lower jaw longer, and more straight; all denticulated: body slender, slate-blue above. S. glaucus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 401. Watson in ...
-190. S. Monensis, Shaw. (Beaumaris Shark)
S. Monensis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. vol. v. part ii. p. 350. S. Cornu-bicus, , Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1497. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 113. Beaumaris Shark, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 118. pl. 17....
-191. S. Galeus, Linn. (Common Tope)
S. Galeus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 399. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 118. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 112. Blainv. Faun. Frang. p. 85. Canis Galeus, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 51. tab. B. 6. f. 1. Galeus vulgaris, Flem....
-192. S. Mustelus, Linn. (Smooth Hound)
S. Mustelus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 400. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 112. Blainv. Faun. Franc, p. 81. pl. 20. f. 1. Mustelus lsevis, Will. Hist. Pisa. p. 60. tab. B. 5. f. 2. Flem. Brit. An. p. 166. Ga...
-193. S. Maatimus, Linn.? (Basking Shark)
S. maximus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 400.? Home in Phil. Trans. (1809). p. 206. pl. 6. f. 1. Flem. Brit. An. p. 164. Basking Shark, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 101. pl. 13. Id. (Edit. 1812). vo...
-194. S. Acanthias, Linn. (Picked Dog-Fish)
S. Acanthias, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 397. Block, Ichth. pl. 85. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iv. pl. 82. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 114. Blmnv. Faun. Franc, p. 57. Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 392. Galeus Acan...
-195. S. Borealis, Scoresb. (Greenland Shark)
S. borealis, Scoresb. Arct. Reg. vol. 1. p. 538. and vol. 11. pl. 15. f. 3, & 4. S. Norvegianus, Blainv. Faun. Franc, p. 61. S. gla-cialis, Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 116. Scymnus borealis, Mem. Br...
-Gen. 74. Zygaena, Cuv. 196. Z. Malleus, Val.? {Hammer-Head)
Z. Malleus, Valenc. in Mem. du Mus. (1822). torn. ix. p. 223. pl. 11. f. 1.? Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 393. Squalus Zygsena, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 399. A fish of this genus is recorded by M...
-Gen. 75. Squatina, Burner. 197. S. Angelus, Cuv. (Angel-Fish)
S. Angelus, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 394. Blainv. Faun. Frang. p. 53. S. vulgaris, Mem. Brit. An. p. 169. Squatina, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 79. tab. D. 3. Squalus Squatina, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p....
-Gen. 76. Raia, Linn. 198. R. Torpedo, Linn. (Electric Ray)
(1. Torpedo, Dumer). R. Torpedo, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 395. Block, Ichth. pl. 122.? Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 53. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 110. Blainv. Faun. Franc, p. 44. Torpedo vulgaris,...
-199. R. Batis, Linn. (Skate)
Snout sharp, conic, the lateral margins not parallel: skin granulated above: one or three rows of spines on the tail; the points of the lateral rows, when present, directed forwards: colour beneath gr...
-200. R. Oayrhynchus, Linn.? (Sharp-Nosed Ray)
Snout sharp, slender, and very much elongated, the lateral margins parallel near the tip: skin smooth: one or three rows of spines on the tail: colour beneath plain white, without spots. R. Oxyrhin...
-201. It. Marginata, Lacep. (Bordered Ray)
Snout sharp, slender, moderately elongated, the lateral margins nearly parallel at the tip: skin smooth: three rows of spines on the tail: colour beneath white, with a broad dusky border. R. margin...
-202. R. Chagrinea, Mont. (Shagreen Ray)
Snout long and sharp: skin rough above: only two principal rows of spines on the tail, the ridge being without spines: colour beneath white. R. chagrinea, Mont, in Wern. Mem. vol. ii. p. 420. pl. 2...
-203. R. Rnaculata, Mont. {Spotted Ray)
Teeth, in the adult, sharp-pointed: skin smooth: generally three rows of spines on the tail, the middle row continued along the back: colour above brown, with distinct roundish dusky spots. R. macu...
-204. R. Microcellata, Mont. (Small-Eyed Ray)
Teeth obtusely cuneiform: skin rough with minute spines: one row of small hooked spines on the tail, continued along the dorsal ridge to the head: eyes remarkably small. R. microcellata, Mont, in W...
-205. R. Clavata, Linn. (Thorn-Back)
Teeth sharp in the male?, blunt in the female: skin rough; studded with large osseous tubercles terminating in strong spines; one, three, or five, rows of such tubercles on the tail. R. clavata, Li...
-206. R. Radiata, Don. {Starry Ray)
Teeth sharp in both sexes: skin smooth; but thickly studded with strong conical spines, intermixed with more numerous smaller ones, radiating at the base; one or three rows on the tail. R. radiata,...
-207. R. Pastinaca, Linn. (Sting-Ray)
Back smooth. R. Pastinaca, Linn. Sysi. Nat. torn. 1. p. 396. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 82. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 99. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 112. Blainv. Faun. Franc, p. 35. pl. 6. Pastinaca marina, Wi...
-208. R. Giorna, Lacep.? (Gioma Ray)
Body smooth: the margins of the fins straight; horns of one colour: spine very long, situate at the base of the tail.' Riss. Cephaloptera Giorna, Riss. Hist. Nat. de l'Eur. Merid. torn. iii. p. 1...
-Order IX. Cyclostomi. Gen. 77. Petromyzon, Linn. 209. P. Marinus, Linn. (Sea Lamprey)
Greenish or yellowish brown, marbled with dusky: dorsals separate; the posterior one rounded, just reaching to the caudal. P. marinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 394. Block, Ichth. pl. 77. Don. B...
-210. P. Jluviatilis, Linn. (River Lamprey)
Dusky blue above, silvery beneath: dorsals widely separate; the posterior one angular, uniting with the caudal. P. fluviatilis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. I. p. 394. Block, Ichth. pl. 78. f. 1. Don. Br...
-211. P. Planeri, Cuv. (Planer's Lamprey)
Dusky blue above, silvery beneath: dorsals contiguous. P. Planeri, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. II. p. 404. Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 122. Lampetra parva et fluviatilis, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 104. tab. G...
-Gen. 78. Ammoccetes, Dumer. 212. A. Branchialis, Flem. (Pride)
A. branchialis, Flem. Brit. An. p. 164. Blainv. Faun. Franc. p. 3. pl. 2. f. 3, & 4. Petromyzon branchialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. I. p. 394. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 78. f. 2. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 110. P. ...
-Gen. 79. Myxine, Linn. 213. M. Glutinosa, Linn. (Glutinous Hag)
M. glutinosa, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 1080. Flem. Brit. An. p. 164. Nilss. Prod. Ichth. Scand. p. 123. Gastrobranchus csecus, Block, Ichth. pl. 413. Shaw, Nat. Misc. vol. x. pl. 362. Turt. Brit. ...









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