When the Arabs and Moors destroyed the kingdom of the Goths, the arts and sciences were mostly in possession of the Musselmen-conquerors; at which time there were three kinds of architecture practised; viz.: the Arabian, the Moorish, and the Lombardian. The Arabian style was formed from Greek models, having circular arches added, and towers which terminated with globes and minarets. The Moorish is very similar to the Arabian, being distinguished from it by arches in the form of a horseshoe. It originated in Spain in the erection of buildings with the ruins of Roman architecture, and is seen in all its splendor in the ancient palace of the Mohammedan monarchs at Grenada, called the Alhambra, or red-house. The style which was originated by the Visigoths in Spain by a combination of the Arabian and Moorish styles, was introduced by Charlemagne into Germany. On account of the changes and improvements it there underwent, it Was, at about the 13th or 14th century, termed the German or romantic style. It is exhibited in great perfection in the towers of the minster of Strassburg, the cathedral of Cologne and other edifices. The most remarkable features of this lofty and aspiring style are the lancet or pointed arch, clustered pillars, lofty towers, and flying buttresses. It was principally employed in ecclesiastical architecture, and in this capacity introduced into France, Italy, Spain, and England.

Mosque At Cairo

Mosque At Cairo.

12. - The Architecture of England: is divided into the Norman, the Early-English, the Decorated, and the Perpendicular styles. The Norman is principally distinguished by the character of its ornaments - the chevron, or zigzag, being the most common. Buildings in this style were erected in the 12th century. The Early-English is celebrated for the beauty of its edifices, the chaste simplicity and purity of design which they display, and the peculiarly graceful character of its foliage. This style is of the 13th century. The Decorated style, as its name implies, is characterized by a great profusion of enrichment, which consists principally of the crocket, or feathered-ornament, and ball-flower. It was mostly in use in the 14th century. The Perpendicular style, which dates from the 15th century, is distinguished by its high towers, and parapets surmounted with spires similar in number and grouping to oriental minarets.