The builder should be acquainted with the principles upon which the essential, elementary parts of a building are founded. A scientific knowledge of these will insure certainty and security, and enable the mechanic to erect the most extensive and lofty edifices with confidence. The more important parts are the foundation, the column, the wall, the lintel, the arch, the vault, the dome, and the roof. A separate description of the peculiarities of each would seem to be necessary, and cannot perhaps be better expressed than in the following language of a modern writer on this subject, slightly modified:

The Louvre   Facade Of The Clock Tower

The Louvre - Facade Of The Clock Tower.

Structural Features Of A Building

57. - The Foundation: of a building should be begun at a certain depth in the earth, to secure a solid basis, below the reach of frost and common accidents. The most solid basis is rock, or gravel which has not been moved. Next to these are clay and sand, provided no other excavations have been made in the immediate neighborhood. From this basis a stone wall is carried up to the surface of the ground, and constitutes the foundation. Where it is intended that the superstructure shall press unequally, as at its piers, chimneys, or columns, it is sometimes of use to occupy the space between the points of pressure by an inverted arch. This distributes the pressure equally, and prevents the foundation from springing between the different points. In loose or muddy situations, it is always unsafe to build, unless we can reach the solid bottom below. In salt marshes and flats, this is done by depositing timbers, or driving wooden piles into the earth, and raising walls upon them. The preservative quality of the salt will keep these timbers unimpaired for a great length of time, and makes the foundation equally secure with one of brick or stone.

58 - The Column, or Pillar: is the simplest member in any building, though by no means an essential one to all. This is a perpendicular part, commonly of equal breadth and thickness, not intended for the purpose of enclosure, but simply for the support of some part of the superstructure. The principal force which a column has to resist is that of perpendicular pressure. In its shape, the shaft of a column should not be exactly cylindrical, but, since the lower part must support the weight of the superior part, in addition to the weight which presses equally on the whole column, the thickness should gradually decrease from bottom to top. The outline of columns should be a little curved, so as to represent a portion of a very long spheroid, or paraboloid, rather than of a cone. This figure is the joint result of two calculations, independent of beauty of appearance. One of these is, that the form best adapted for stability of base is that of a cone; the other is, that the figure, which would be of equal strength throughout for supporting a superincumbent weight, would be generated by the revolution of two parabolas round the axis of the column, the vertices of the curves being at its extremities. The swell of the shafts of columns was called the entasis by the ancients. It has been lately found that the columns of the Parthenon, at Athens, which have been commonly supposed straight, deviate about an inch from a straight line, and that their greatest swell is at about one third of their height. Columns in the antique orders are usually made to diminish one sixth or one seventh of their diameter, and sometimes even one fourth. The Gothic pillar is commonly of equal thickness throughout.

59. - The Wall: another elementary part of a building, may be considered as the lateral continuation of the column, answering the purpose both of enclosure and support. A wall must diminish as it rises, for the same reasons, and in the same proportion, as the column. It must diminish still more rapidly if it extends through several stories, supporting weights at different heights. A wall, to possess the greatest strength, must also consist of pieces, the upper and lower surfaces of which are horizontal and regular, not rounded nor oblique. The walls of most of the ancient structures which have stood to the present time are constructed in this manner, and frequently have their stones bound together with bolts and clamps of iron. The same method is adopted in such modern structures as are intended to possess great strength and durability, and, in some cases, the stones are even dovetailed together, as in the lighthouses at Eddystone and Bell Rock. But many of our modern stone walls, for the sake of cheapness, have only one face of the stones squared, the inner half of the wall being completed with brick; so that they can, in reality, be considered only as brick walls faced with stone. Such walls are said to be liable to become convex outwardly, from the difference in the shrinking of the cement. Rubble walls are made of rough, irregular stones, laid in mortar. The stones should be broken, if possible, so as to produce horizontal surfaces. The coffer walls of the ancient Romans were made by enclosing successive portions of the intended wall in a box, and filling it with stones, sand, and mortar promiscuously. This kind of structure must have been extremely insecure. The Pantheon and various other Roman buildings are surrounded with a double brick wall, having its vacancy filled up with loose bricks and cement. The whole has gradually consolidated into a mass of great firmness.

Various Methods Of Erecting Walls

60 - The Reticulated Walls: of the Romans - composed of bricks with oblique surfaces - would, at the present day, be thought highly unphilosophical. Indeed, they could not long have stood, had it not been for the great strength of their cement. Modern brick walls are laid with great precision, and depend for firmness more upon their position than upon the strength of their cement. The bricks being laid in horizontal courses, and continually overlaying each other, or breaking joints, the whole mass is strongly interwoven, and bound together. Wooden walls, composed of timbers covered with boards, are a common but more perishable kind. They require to be constantly covered with a coating of a foreign substance, as paint or plaster, to preserve them from spontaneous decomposition. In some parts of France, and elsewhere, a kind of wall is made of earth, rendered compact by ramming it in moulds or cases. This method is called building in pise, and is much more durable than the nature of the material would lead us to suppose. Walls of all kinds are greatly strengthened by angles and curves, also by projections, such as pilasters, chimneys, and buttresses. These projections serve to increase the breadth of the foundation, and are always to be made use of in large buildings, and in walls of considerable length.

61. - The Lintel, or Beam: extends in a right line over a vacant space, from one column or wall to another. The strength of the lintel will be greater in proportion as its transverse vertical diameter exceeds the horizontal, the strength being always as the square of the depth. The floor is the lateral continuation or connection of beams by means of a covering of boards.

62. - The Arch: is a transverse member of a building, answering the same purpose as the lintel, but vastly exceeding it in strength. The arch, unlike the lintel, may consist of any number of constituent pieces, without impairing its strength. It is, however, necessary that all the pieces should possess a uniform shape, - the shape of a portion of a wedge, - and that the joints, formed by the contact of their surfaces, should point towards a common centre. In this case, no one portion of the arch can be displaced or forced inward; and the arch cannot be broken by any force which is not sufficient to crush the materials of which it is made. In arches made of common bricks, the sides of which are parallel, any one of the bricks might be forced inward, were it not for the adhesion of the cement. Any two of the bricks, however, by the disposition of their mortar, cannot collectively be forced inward. An arch of the proper form, when complete, is rendered stronger, instead of weaker, by the pressure of a considerable weight, provided this pressure be uniform. While building, however, it requires to be supported by a centring of the shape of its internal surface, until it is complete. The upper stone of an arch is called the keystone, but is not more essential than any other. In regard to the shape of the arch, its most simple form is that of the semicircle. It is, however, very frequently a smaller arc of a circle, or a portion of an ellipse.