The measure to which a piece of timber is to be or has been cut.

Scarfing

The joining of two pieces of timber by bolting or nailing transversely together, so that the two appear but one.

Scotia

The hollow moulding in the base of a column, between the fillets of the tori.

Scroll

A carved curvilinear ornament, somewhat resembling in profile the turnings of a ram's horn.

Sepulchre

A grave, tomb, or place of interment.

Sewer

A drain or conduit for carrying off soil or water from any place.

Shaft

The cylindrical part between the base and the capital of a column.

Shoar

A piece of timber placed in an oblique direction to support a building or wall.

Sill

The horizontal piece of timber at the bottom of framing; the timber or stone at the bottom of doors and windows.

Soffit

The underside of an architrave, corona, etc. The underside of the heads of doors, windows, etc.

Summer

The lintel of a door or window; a beam tenoned into a girder to support the ends of joists on both sides of it.

Systyle

An intercolumniation of two diameters.

Taenia

The fillet which separates the Doric frieze from the architrave.

Talus

The slope or inclination of a wall, among workmen called battering.

Terrace

An area raised before a building, above the level of the ground, to serve as a walk.

Tesselated pavement

A curious pavement of mosaic work, composed of small square stones.

Tetrastyle

A building having four columns in front.

Thatch

A covering of straw or reeds used on the roofs of cottages, barns, etc.

Theatre

A building appropriated to the representation of dramatic spectacles.

Tile

A thin piece or plate of baked clay or other material used for the external covering of a roof.

Tomb

A grave, or place for the interment of a human body, including also any commemorative monument raised over such a place.

Torus

A moulding of semi-circular profile used in the bases of columns.

Tower

A lofty building of several stories, round or polygonal.

Transept

The transverse portion of a cruciform church.

Transom

The beam across a double-lighted window; if the window have no transom, it is called a clerestory window.

Thread

That part of a step which is included between the face of its riser and that of the riser above.

Trellis

A reticulated framing made of thin bars of wood for screens, windows, etc.

Tiiglyph

The vertical tablets in the Doric frieze, chamfered on the two vertical edges, and having two channels in the middle.

Tripod

A table or seat with three legs.

Trochilus

The same as scotia, which see.

Truss

An arrangement of timbers for increasing the resistance to cross-strains, consisting of a tie, two struts, and a suspending-piece.

Turret

A small tower, often crowning the angle of a wall, etc.

Tusk

A short projection under a tenon to increase its strength.

Tympanum

The naked face of a pediment, included between the level and the raking mouldings.

Underpinning

The wall under the ground-sills of a building.

University

An assemblage of colleges under the supervision of a senate, etc.

Fault

A concave arched ceiling resting upon two opposite parallel walls.

Venetian-door

A door having sidelights.

Venetian-window

A window having three separate apertures.

Veranda

An awning. An open portico under the extended roof of a building.

Vestibule

An apartment which serves as a medium of communication to another room or series of rooms.

Vestiy

An apartment in a church, or attached to it, for the preservation of the sacred vestments and utensils.

Villa

A country-house for the residence of an opulent person.

Vinery

A house for the cultivation of vines.

Volute

A spiral scroll, which forms the principal feature of the Ionic and the Composite capitals.

Voussoirs

Arch-stones.

Wainscoting

Wooden lining of walls, generally in panels.

Water-table

The stone covering to the projecting foundation or other walls of a building.

Well

The space occupied by a flight of stairs. The space left beyond the ends of the steps is called the well-hole.

Wicket

A small door made in a gate.

Winders

In stairs, steps not parallel to each other.

Zophorus

The same as frieze, which see.

Zystos

Among the ancients, a portico of unusual length, commonly appropriated to gymnastic exercises.