Terms not found here can be found in the lists of definitions in other parts of this book, or in common dictionaries.

Abacus

The uppermost member of a capital.

Abattoir

A slaughter-house.

Abbey

The residence of an abbot or abbess.

Abutment

That part of a pier from which the arch springs.

Acanthus

A plant called in English bear's-breech. Its leaves are employed for decorating the Corinthian and the Composite capitals.

Acropolis

The highest part of a city; generally the citadel.

Acroteria

The small pedestals placed on the extremities and apex of a pediment, originally intended as a base for sculpture.

Aisle

Passage to and from the pews of a church. In Gothic architecture, the lean-to wings on the sides of the nave.

Alcove

Part of a chamber separated by an estrade, or partition of columns. Recess with seats, etc., in gardens.

Altar

A pedestal whereon sacrifice was offered. In modern churches, the area within the railing in front of the pulpit.

Alto-relievo

High relief; sculpture projecting from a surface so as to appear nearly isolated.

Amphitheatre

A double theatre, employed by the ancients for the exhibition of gladiatorial fights and other shows.

Ancones

Trusses employed as an apparent support to a cornice upon the flanks of the architrave.

Annulet

A small square moulding used to separate others; the fillets in the Doric capital under the ovolo, and those which separate the flutings of columns, are known by this term.

Anta

A pilaster attached to a wall.

Apiary

A place for keeping beehives.

Arabesque

A building after the Arabian style.

Areostyle

An intercolumniation of from four to five diameters.

Arcade

A series of arches.

Arch

An arrangement of stones or other material in a curvilinear form, so as to perform the office of a lintel and carry superincumbent weights.

Architrave

That part of the entablature which rests upon the capital of a column, and is beneath the frieze. The casing and mouldings about a door or window.

Archivolt

The ceiling of a vault; the under surface of an arch.

Area

Superficial measurement. An open space, below the level of the ground, in front of basement windows.

Arsenal

A public establishment for the deposition of arms and warlike stores.

Astragal

A small moulding consisting of a half-round with a fillet on each side.

Attic

A low story erected over an order of architecture. A low additional story immediately under the roof of a building.

Aviary

A place for keeping and breeding birds.

Balcony

An open gallery projecting from the front of a building.

Baluster

A small pillar or pilaster supporting a rail.

Balustrade

A series of balusters connected by a rail.

Barge-course

That part of the covering which projects over the gable of a building.

Base

The lowest part of a wall, column, etc.

Basement-story

That which is immediately under the principal story, and included within the foundation of the building.

Basso-relievo

Low relief; sculptured figures projecting from a surface one half their thickness or less. See Alto-relievo.

Battering

See Talus.

Battlement

Indentations on the top of a wall or parapet.

Bay-window

A window projecting in two or more planes, and not forming the segment of a circle.

Bazaar

A species of mart or exchange for the sale of various articles of merchandise.

Bead

A circular moulding.

Bed-mouldings

Those mouldings which are between the corona and the frieze.

Belfry

That part of the steeple in which the bells are hung; anciently called campanile.

Belvedere

An ornamental turret or observatory commanding a pleasant . prospect.

Bow-window

A window projecting in curved lines.

Bressummer

A beam or iron tie supporting a wall over a gateway or other opening.

Brick-nogging

The brickwork between studs of partitions.

Buttress

A projection from a wall to give additional strength.

Cable

A cylindrical moulding placed in flutes at the lower part of the column.

Camber

To give a convexity to the upper surface of a beam.

Campanile

A tower for the reception of bells, usually, in Italy, separated from the church.

Canopy

An ornamental covering over a seat of state.

Cantalivers

The ends of rafters under a projecting roof. Pieces of wood or stone supporting the eaves.

Capital

The uppermost part of a column included between the shaft and the architrave.

Caravansera

In the East, a large public building for the reception of travellers by caravans in the desert.

Carpentry

(From the Latin carpentum, carved wood.) That department of science and art which treats of the disposition, the construction, and the relative strength of timber. The first is called descriptive, the second constructive, and the last mechanical carpentry.

Caryatides

Figures of women used instead of columns to support an entablature.

Casino

A small country-house.

Castellated

Built with battlements and turrets in imitation of ancient castles.

Castle

A building fortified for military defence. A house with towers, usually encompassed with walls and moats, and having a donjon, or keep, in the centre.

Catacombs

Subterraneous places for burying the dead.

Cathedral

The principal church of a province or diocese, wherein the throne of the archbishop or bishop is placed.

Cavetto

A concave moulding comprising the quadrant of a circle.