19. Ventilation

There shall be a clear height of not less than 6 ft. 6 in. from cellar floor to under side of first-floor joist. A minimum clear story height of eight ft. shall generally obtain for first and second stories, but in cases of second-story rooms coming under sloping roofs, it shall be required that flat portions of ceiling be over an area of at least 40 sq.ft. with 3 1/2 ft. minimum flat ceiling width and a clear height of six ft. over an area of at least 80 sq.ft. with a minimum width of seven feet. (Attic rooms not subject to these requirements.)

20. There shall be in all cases an air space, with minimum of eight in. from ceiling to roof, with provision that such space be ventilated directly to outside air.

21. Every bedroom to have at least one window opening directly to outer air.

22. One window to be sufficient for single rooms, two windows for double rooms. No room to have less than 12 sq. ft. of window area.

23. Bathroom to have one window of not less than six sq. ft. area.

24. Water-closet compartment to have one window of not less than 4 1/2 sq. ft. opening directly to outer air.

25. Skylight may be used in lieu of window for bathroom or water-closet compartment.

26. Window frames to be of such design that screens may be used.

27. Water supply

Running water to be required in connection with kitchen plumbing fixtures. (Hot water connection is desirable.)

28. A water-closet in separate compartment, properly ventilated, must be provided when bathroom is omitted.

29. While bathroom is greatly to be desired, it is not to be a minimum requirement; provided convenient and complete bath-house facilities are arranged for and properly maintained for community use.

30. Either laundry trays to be provided in cellar or combination tray and kitchen sink in kitchen.

31. Electricity to be furnished whenever possible. One switch to be provided for throwing on light on entering house and one switch to control cellar light from top of cellar stairs.

There are included in the minimum requirements such provisions as will make possible a house in which any person can live comfortably and decently. A house built under these conditions will not contain many of the features which, while not absolutely necessary, are desired by many workmen's families.

If the term "Industrial Housing" applied only to the lowest-paid unskilled workers, it would be unnecessary to consider any but essential features; however, a large percentage of wage earners are skilled workmen, who, imbued with higher standards of living, not only desire but demand additional features in the house. They are able and willing to pay for such conveniences. It, therefore, seems necessary to arrive at some classification of houses suitable to the corresponding grades of workmen which exist in the personnel of industry.

Many persons have deemed two classifications all that are necessary - one for unskilled workers, and one for skilled workers. This differentiation, however, is considered to be too abrupt and not furnishing sufficient gradation, by men intimately acquainted with the wage earner and his family life. The native unskilled worker must often be provided with a better house than the rank and file of unskilled wage earners, and yet he cannot pay for the houses provided for higher paid skilled workers. On the other hand, if he does not have children, he probably is in a better position to afford these accommodations than the skilled worker with a very large family, who certainly will never be satisfied to drop down to the grade of house provided for unskilled laborers.