It is believed, therefore, there is considerable advantage, if not absolute necessity, in providing three grades of houses, as follows: First, a house as inexpensive as it is possible to build and still meet the demands of a home for unskilled labor; second, an intermediate grade, to meet the demands mentioned in the previous paragraph; and third, a more expensive grade, for higher wage-earning skilled laborers, shop foremen, or the higher paid men of the clerical staff.

For convenience, the three grades will be referred to respectively as Grade C, Grade B, and Grade A.

Grade C

House shall have the minimum requirements, as before stated.

Grade B

House shall have all the features of a Grade C house, with the following additional conveniences:

1. Room for dining, separate from kitchen.

2. Bathroom shall constitute a minimum requirement in which shall be provided the following fixtures: Enameled roll-rim bathtub, 4 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in.; lavatory, 18 in. by 21 in.; water-closet, porcelain and wash down, syphonic action; enameled low down tank.

3. Rift sawed yellow pine floors in first floor, plain sawed pine in second floor.

4. Provision for refrigerator space adjacent to, but not in, kitchen, which may be built in compartment on rear porch.

5. Front porch, not less than 70 sq. ft.

6. Lighting fixtures in rooms, except bracket in bathroom, to be controlled by switches located conveniently at entrance doors.

7. Hot-air furnaces; cold-air returns to be taken from inside.

8. Laundry trays in basement.

9. Mechanical door bells. 10. Coal bins.

Grade A

House shall contain all the features listed for Grade C and Grade B houses, with the following additional accommodations:

1. The rooms to be larger than the previous minimum requirements.

Square Feet

Single bedroom................................

. 90

Double bedroom...............................

.130

Dining room..................................

. 140

Living room..................................

.180

2. A coat closet shall be provided, either off hall in first floor or in connection with living room.

3. Open fireplace, with basket grate in living room.

4. Rift sawed yellow pine or oak floors in first and second floors.

5. Front porch with minimum of 96 sq. ft. Rear porch.

6. Two-way switches, for controlling one light upstairs and one downstairs.

7. Medicine cabinet in bathroom.

8. Combination gas and electric fixtures for lighting in kitchen and bathroom.

With the exception of combined uses for same room, the grading classification of the houses is not based upon number of rooms. Grade C house, for example, might contain more bedrooms than Grade A house.

References

Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland. Suggested Housing Standards for Families of Small Incomes (Journal of Home Economics, XIX [August, 1927], 444-50). Ford, George B. Standards for Improved Housing Laws (National Municipal Review, XVI [October, 1927], 633-37). Holden, Arthur C, and Associates. Pocket Guide to Good Construction. New York: Printed and distributed by the Devinne-Hallenbeck Co., for Own Your Own Home Exposition, Inc., 1927. Pp. 47. Knowles, Morris. Industrial Housing. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1920.

Standards and requirements for houses for industrial workers (pp. 293-308).

U.S. Bureau of Standards. Recommended Minimum Requirements for Small Dwelling Construction. Elimination of Waste Series. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923. Pp. 108.

Veiller, Lawrence. A Model Housing Law. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1920.

White House Conference on Child Health and Protection. The Home and the Child. New York: Century Co., 1931. Housing and furnishing standards.

Wood, Edith Elmer. The Housing of the Unskilled Wage Earner. New York: Macmillan Co., 1919. Housing standards (pp. 4-17).