There must be free circulation of air through the fuel - air spaces between the paper, wood, and coal.
1 Adapted from Marketing and Housework Manual (Boston: Copyrighted by Little, Brown & Co. , 1930), pp. 114-23. For information on use and care of various types of stoves see ibid., pp. 113-24.
Air entering the stove under the fire causes an upward draft and makes it burn faster.
Lack of air under the fire checks it.
Cold air over the fire checks it.
With the draft and the chimney damper open, the fire burns fiercely, the top of the stove grows very hot, but the oven is not heated.
Proper use of checks and drafts will control a fire.
Ashes in the pan when you start a fire will absorb the heat at first.
When the fire has burned dull red or white the coals are exhausted - burning to white heat melts the coals, makes clinkers, and injures the top of the stove.
Clinkers may be removed by burning oyster shells or quicklime on top of the fire.
If the top of the stove gets red hot, the covers will warp.
Shaking packs an old fire down and stops the draft.
Raking from below or turning a revolving grate removes the ashes without packing the fire.
Too shallow a bed of coals won't burn well.
Coals above the fire-box lining waste heat and injure the top of the stove.
A hard-coal fire must not be poked from the top.
Oil burners may be installed in coal ranges, eliminating many of the disadvantages and much of the difficult care required by a coal fire.
Cabinet range with oven on the level with the eye at the side of the top cookers. There is no adequate reason except lack of space for having the oven so low that one must stoop to it. Oven should be well insulated with automatic control.
Same type range without automatic control.
Box range with oven below the top cookers.
Caution: When using compressed, artificial, or other tank gas, be sure that installation is in accord with best-known practice and follow exactly the directions for use.
Most modern ranges have oven heat regulators, which automatically control amount of gas burned, save gas and permit satisfactory results with less care and guesswork.
Some of the new stoves have "crown tops" which spread the flame, heat larger surface, and save gas.
Most ranges now have pilot lighter for top burners.
Burners should be removable so that they can be cleaned easily.
Choose standard make. Serviced in your community.
As efficient as you can afford; automatic, semi-automatic, or without automatic control.
Remember that "features" increase the cost. Don't pay for automatic features if you never intend to use them. Fundamentals are:
Good oven insulation. Sufficient oven wattage. Enough heating space on the surface. Wiring heavy enough to carry sufficient current. Two types. - Box range - oven below outside heating units. Cabinet - oven at side or above outside heating units. Choice depends upon: Space available.
Height and convenience of worker. Cost a consideration. Finish.-
Black or colored enamel (painted).
White or colored vitreous enamel (baked on).
Small amount of nickel (or none).
Two types of outside cookers: a) Open coil: Heats more quickly, burns itself clean. May burn out if liquids boil over.
b) Closed or solid type: Heats more slowly, holds heat longer, does not burn out when liquids boil over.
Types. a) Without automatic features: Current must be turned on and turned off when desired temperature is reached.
b) Semi-automatic: Like above, but signals when desired temperature is reached.
c) Half automatic: Current must be turned on and dial set, current goes off when desired temperature is reached.
d) Full automatic: Dial set at desired temperature and clock set at determined time, current turned on and off by thermostat when clock registers time and dial hands register desired temperature.
Types. a) Direct burning of the oil brought to the burner by a wick. Utensils set close to the burner.
b) Oil brought to kindler of asbestos, oil mixed with air turned to vapor by heat, lighted gas carried to utensil.
c) Formation of gas by lighting a priming fluid and heating burner before fuel is turned on, gasoline usually used as priming fluid and kerosene or gasoline as fuel.