In choosing look for:
A range which is plain, with little or no nickel or ornament. A simple, clean arrangement for removal of ashes. A convenient opening for cleaning the flues.
An eight-inch cover is more convenient than smaller ones, and one should be sure that the oven is the size suitable for her needs.
A metal or iron box with a smaller box at the end. Some built-in ranges have small boxes at each end.
Both boxes are surrounded by a larger box, with air spaces, called flues, between.
The small box opens at the top into the air space; and is divided horizontally by a grate. The top part is called the fire box.
The lower part is called the ash box.
The large box, called the oven, is surrounded by air spaces on top, side, and bottom.
Coils of pipe or metal front for water in fire box - other sides of fire box are usually lined with fire brick.
A flat plate, which when shut nearly closes the space opening into the chimney - when closed the heat goes round the oven and heats it; when open the heat goes directly up the chimney - the fire burns more rapidly but the oven does not heat. These dampers may usually be closed in 10 to 15 minutes after the fire is started.
Doors or slides below the fire box which, when open, allow a strong current of air to pass up through fire; and if the chimney damper is closed the oven heats quickly. When the drafts are closed the fire burns more slowly, as most of the air is shut out.
Slides in the small door above the fire box and in the chimney pipe which, when open, let cold air in on top of the fire, force the heat back and deaden the blaze.