This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
One that is contained between parallel planes. To secure this in arch work the bricks must be wedge-shaped.
Pat Joint is an abbreviation for tuck and pat joint, and is the result of tuck or bastard tuck pointing.
Perpendicular Joint is the same as a vertical, or cross, or back joint, or one that is at right angles to a coursing or horizontal joint. In face work, " keeping the perpends " signifies that the visible part of the perpendicular joints are kept exactly over one another, or in the same vertical line throughout the whole height of wall, without which precaution the courses would overrun and bats would have to be worked in, which would greatly detract from the look of the work and the efficiency of the bond.
Piecing Joint occurs when new work is built up against and bonded with old, which must be toothed or racked back, and well brushed and wetted. A chase can be cut forming a slip joint where the new work meets the old at an angle, but in no case must the new by its sinking be allowed to hang upon or strain the old. Iron ties may be built in as the new work is carried up, but not fixed to the old until the former has settled down to its bearing.
This is described generally in the Masons' Section, but various methods of executing the joint will be found under their specific names in this list, as, for instance, under that of bastard tuck pointed. Pointing to old work includes stopping, which consists in refilling the joints after raking out and cleaning. In all cases the work should be well broomed and wetted before inserting the pointing stuff.
Gauged work is set in putty, made by dissolving lime in water, running it through a sieve, and bringing it to a thick creamy consistency; the joint also finished off by tuck pointing is indicated if not made with a composition called putty, and which is either white, black, or red; it is laid on after the work is stopped. The white putty is a mixture of chalk lime, which must be well screened, and silver sand or marble dust, a small quantity of oil or size being added to the lime whilst dry. Black and red putty are both made with grey lime and fine well-washed sand, the former being coloured with lamp or vegetable black, and the latter with Spanish brown. Vegetable black mixes the most readily with the other ingredients.
Radiating Joint occurs in arch work, and in the facing of thick brick piers, etc.
Raised Joint is the same as the joint of similar name made by the mason.
Raked Joint is met with when the joints are raked or hacked out with a hooked iron point, previous to outside plastering or inside rendering where they have not been left sufficiently rough to afford a key; the same term is also applied to joints in face work which are slightly sunk or recessed for effect or to give light and shade.
Before pointing old work, and previous to tuck pointing, etc, it is necessary to rake out and clean and brush the joints to a depth of ¾ in., or thereabouts.