This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Secret Nailed Joint occurs when the heads of nails are concealed from view by an overlapping part. In flooring it is obtained by edge-nailing, that is, by driving the nails in an inclined direction through one and the same edge of the boards only, so as to clear the tongue which confines the edge of the next board, as in Fig. 130.
Shoe Joint is made when the feet of the posts of door frames are fitted with cast iron shoes, having a projecting stub at the bottom for setting and fixing on a stone or wood sill provided with, holes for the stubs. A little white lead should be inserted between the shoe and its contents on the one hand and its bed on the other, and the bead on the post should be struck to match that cast on the shoe.
Shutting Joint is usually an open one, varying in its degree of air-space inversely as the fitness of the stuff and quality of labour expended in its formation. In the case of doors, it is situated between the edge of the lock stile and the rebate in the jamb lining or door post, or between the meeting stiles when the leaves fold. In order that the door in superior work may fit close and open easily, the stile or rebate must be bevelled so that the most distant movable point measured in a horizontal direction from the line of axes of the hinges may just clear the nearest point of the jamb in the same horizontal plane. The thickness of the rebates of casement windows is usually too little to need any bevelling, and a little sticking in opening them is not objected to by those who value the exclusion of wind and rain in the winter season. The shutting joints of sash windows are always bevelled except at the top, that at the meeting rails being shown in Fig. 134, and that between the bottom rail and wood sill in Fig. 135, though the rails are not always checked as shown.
In sash windows the joints between the sash stiles and the pulley stiles are sliding ones, as is likewise the case with those at corresponding parts of lifting shutters, etc., and all other kinds of hatches, covers, and screens which open and close vertically within frames. The joints between runners and the bottom rails of doors, shutters, and sashes, etc, which run, roll, or slide with a horizontal movement from the open to the closed position are, perhaps, more appropriately classed as running joints. In external situations care must be taken that proper capping, grooves, and water bars are provided to keep out wet or to quickly carry off from the joint any that finds its way to it.