This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Dowelled Joint is formed by placing the meeting edges of two boards true and square, with iron or hard wood pins or pegs called dowels inserted between them, as shown in Fig. 106, at equal-spaced intervals and in the middle of their thickness, to keep the face of the work in the same plane, or from buckling. In flooring, however, the dowels are sometimes put in low to avoid disturbance through wear. Dowels are likewise employed in other positions, as, for instance, to strengthen the intersections of window bars.
This is made by grooving the butting edges of boards shot true and square, and joining them by inserting and glueing a slip feather tight into the grooves, as represented in Fig. 109. A slip feather may either be a slip of harder and tougher wood, or else one that is cut out somewhat across the grain. A strip of wrought iron slipped into the opposite grooves is now often called by the same term.
Feather Wedged Joint is the same as fox wedged.
This is another name for a rebated joint, and so called because the rectangular recess termed a rebate or rabbet, Fig. 107, is readily made of any depth or width with a plane called a side fillister, having a vertically sliding fence, with a screw stop on one side which determines the depth of the rebate, for it will not allow the plane to descend further than the distance to which it is set. On the bottom of the sole also there is a shifting or adjustable fence fastened by two screws working in slots, by which the width of the rebate is limited to the extent desired. In front of the grooving or cutting iron there is a cutting point to divide the fibres longitudinally and enable the cutting iron to preserve a clean and square sinking.
Folding Joint is similar to a rule or hinge joint.
This is the same as that of a like name described in Section VI.
Framed Joint is made with a mortise and tenon.
Franked Joint is that produced by the operation called franking, which is sometimes performed at the intersections of the cross or horizontal with the upright or vertical bars of a sash, in order to leave the through bars as strong as possible. In common sash windows the vertical bars extend from rail to rail, but in' casements, so as to better withstand the jar, the cross bars are continued through in one piece. The others have consequently to be cut, fitted, and tenoned into the continuous or through ones, and when in order to effect this their moulded sides have to be cut into, the part notched out therefrom is called the franking, whilst the term franking also signifies the performance of the work. The tenons meet in the centre of the mortise, and are sometimes dowelled. There are other less complicated and perhaps equally sound methods of uniting the bars. One of these is to cut a thin tenon in the shorter bar and scribe the moulding of the through bar, as shown in Fig. 133. Another plan, but one more likely to produce a faulty bar owing to notching being necessary as well as mortising, is to mitre all the mouldings at their intersection.