This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
This is one of the alternative names of a cross joint.
One that is made between two parallel planes, and therefore free from twist or, in other words, out of winding.
Underpinned Joint is made between two blocks when the bed is worked slack towards the back or tail end, producing a joint fine enough at the face but necessitating the upper block to be pinned or propped up at the back part of the bed with a wedge or piece of wood, slate, or stone. It is one of the results of careless or inferior workmanship.
This is a vertical or side joint, which in important work is sometimes strengthened with a cast-iron cramp from 6 in. to 9 in. long, let in and flushed and surrounded with cement. At other times the joint is plugged with lead or else secured with a joggle about 2 in. square, filled in with pebbles and cement, but very often no connection whatever beyond the cementing medium is used.
"Will be found described under Masons' Joint.
This term includes cross, or side, or end, or transverse as well as back joint; but in ashlar masonry the term "joints" by itself is usually understood to signify the side joints in contradistinction to the bed joints. The whole utility and function of bond concentre in the proper disposition of the vertical joints. They should lap well over those of the course below whilst the perpends are truly maintained. In block-in-course walling, however, which forms a sort of transition style between ashlar and rubble, the perpends are not kept, though a good lap is carefully preserved. Where projecting mouldings occur, as in cornices, strings, lintel and sill courses, etc, it is advisable to weather or saddle the upper edges of the vertical joints, and to set and point them in Portland cement or oil mastic of the same colour as the stone, and in some instances the vertical joints of the main cornice are topped with rolls hewn out of the solid and weathered.
Water Joint is a term given to one formed between the stones of a cornice by not weathering them throughout their whole length, but leaving them level or nearly so for about ¾ in. on each side of the joint.
Weather Joint is one made proof against driving rain and wind, and results from careful bedding and pointing, so that it may be throughout full and solid, and wholly devoid of threads or crevices arising from imperfect adhesion between the block and cementing medium, which perhaps depends as much upon the quality of materials as on that of the workmanship, it being impossible to obtain proper adhesion with bad mortar. All open and defective joints, sills, frames, etc, must be carefully pointed up at the completion of a building, and in carrying up the work the stones must be wetted and the mortar not prematurely checked in setting by the incautious use of grout, otherwise countless minute watercourses will be formed after rain between the sides of the stones and the impoverished mortar. Lime will not reject a superfluity of water like Portland cement, nor will it fix upon what it needs with such certainty, and consequently the mortar, of which it forms so important a factor, should be treated with some regard to the conditions that regulate its setting as well as to the porosity or absorptive power of the stones it is intended to fast bind together. Besides the precautions observed in weathering exposed surfaces and saddling the upper parts of the vertical joints of projecting and unsheltered work, it is necessary to throat and undercut the lower surfaces of strings, labels, etc. All projecting stone sills are throated, that is, provided with a shallow and narrow groove on the under side to prevent the return of the drip, and the white-lead joint between the stone and wood sill is still further protected by the insertion of an iron tongue about ¾ in. by ¼ in., which is bedded in red cement in opposite grooves cut in the sills.