This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Underhand Joint is a wiped soldered joint made on a horizontal pipe brought out 2 in. or 3 in. from the wall for the hand to get round. The mode of making it is fully described under Wiped Joint. It is usual when these and similar pipe joints are made to pipes already in place, to tin where possible the new lengths on the bench previous to connecting them.
This will be found described in Section XIV. It should be added that elbow and straight ferrule unions are screwed for iron at one end and inserted into water mains as noticed under Ferrule Joint, the other end being tinned for lead service.
Upright Joint is one made on a vertical pipe either by means of the blowing lamp and strip solder, or else with the copper-bit or grosing iron and molten solder. In the latter case a stout paper funnel may be tied round the joint close under it, or, what is much better, a lead collar made out of a circular disc of sheet lead, with a central hole and small sector abstracted for the pipe and its insertion, should be pressed against and clipped round the pipe about 2 in. below the joint. Either of these plans will prevent the solder running off. It is very necessary that the ends of the pipes should be well fitted and secured together before soldering, so that no solder may find its way through to the bore. It is of course also necessary that the proper shaving and soiling be performed. A splashing or pouring stick consisting of a piece of wood with a groove down its centre is often used to splash on and keep the solder well up to the top of the joint, for by pouring from the ladle into the stick, which is held in the left hand, the solder can be directed above the joint in order to fall and flow upon, and raise and maintain, the temperature of that portion of the pipe, which is so essential to thorough tinning, whilst the solder about the collar performs the same good offices lower down. When enough solder has collected and stops round the joint, the application of the iron will melt it again and reduce it to the necessary pliability whilst the wiping cloth is manipulated so as to dexterously fashion it into shape. When a pipe bursts it is not always necessary to cut the pipe and insert a new piece, for by bringing the pipe up again to its original contour with a few taps, and then shaving it and so on as for a new joint, the region of the injury can be brought to the proper temperature for tinning with the splashing stick until enough solder adheres to work and float with the iron, which keeps it flowing whilst the cloth catches and replaces the falling spatterings and finally surrounds The damaged part with a neatly shaped patch.