This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
Angle Joint is one occurring at an angle. A mitre is pre-eminently an angle joint, but apart from those thus distinguished there are many others with specific names, such, for instance, as bead and double quirk, Fig. 95, which is common in salient or external angles.
This contains an angle, or is made with an angular piece. The edges of "grounds" bevelled to receive or key the plastering illustrate this kind of joint, which is formed between surfaces whereof one at least is inclined to the face.
This is made by sinking an angular groove and working a corresponding tongue to match. With ordinary stuff it is advisable to keep the groove well within the arris, as shown in Fig. 96, but in mediaeval times the wood used was sufficiently well selected and tough, and the workmanship laborious enough to admit of the groove occupying nearly the whole width of the edge, as in Fig. 97.
Beaded Joint is one disguised by a quirked bead, which is worked on one side of it, as in Fig. 98, in such a way that when well done the joint appears as a second quirk. It is common in matched boarding, hinging, etc.
Contrary to what is the case in the other trades, this kind of joint is not regarded with particular favour, for it occurs in patched and the commoner descriptions of work, notably in floors laid folding in which there are breaks in the longitudinal joints arising from the floor boards being gauged to different widths.
This is formed when two boards with edges shot or ends squared, and either glued or not, abut against or touch each other edge to edge, edge to end, or end to end, but custom gives it a still wider meaning, and the term is applied to the joint made when the edge of one board either plain, beaded, or tongued, is fitted down to the side of another either recessed or not, as in Figs. 99, 100, and 101. In handrailing it occurs when the plane of the joint is perpendicular to the direction of the rail.
Chamfered Joint is made by taking off the arrises of boards, panels, and stiles which butt against each other, thereby leaving a V-shaped recess of some little effect.
This is identical with the similarly-named carpenters' joint.
Circular Joint is found in circular work, as, for instance, at the shutting joints of circular or segmental headed or pointed sashes and casements, and in circular panelling, etc, dovetailed, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 102, the tongued board must be slipped into place endways.