This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
This is the same as the spigot and socket joint.
Spigot and Socket Joint is formed by inserting the spigot or straight end of one tubular piece into the widened-out end called the socket or faucet of another piece usually of the same diameter. In piping, each piece invariably has a spigot and socket at its opposite ends, the spigot, however, being in many cases nothing more than a plain end. Cast iron piles are sometimes thus united, the lower length being first fixed and the upper part lowered into the socket and strongly bolted thereto. It constitutes a common means of connecting pipes, the part of the socket not occupied by the spigot being filled with some kind of stuffing, as described under Cement Joint, Run Joint, etc. Even when these ends are turned and bored, the joint is all the sounder for the insertion of a little red lead paint. The spigot and socket joint, properly made, preserves unimpaired the fullway or complete carrying capacity of the pipe. In some instances rings or strips of cold lead about ¾ in. wide have been driven into the sockets of cast iron pipes previous to caulking with white yarn and molten lead, but the practice is not usually adopted. Occasionally for water mains the sockets have been securely wedged up with wood taper plugs of proper form to fit the annular cavity.
Heads of wrought iron struts in iron roofs are secured by riveting a flat strip or piece of iron on both sides of the web of the strut, the two pieces embracing likewise the web of the rafter to which they are also riveted or bolted. The foot of the strut if of T-iron is attached to the tie-rod by bending the table and bolting through the flattened-out tie-rod with double nuts and bevelled washer. Cast iron struts are sometimes terminated with, forks or jaws to grip the rafter, and sometimes with a circular box which holds the knobbed ends of the tension and tie-rods, an ornamental boss or cover being added after the ends have been inserted. Struts formed out of wrought iron gas tubing have cast sockets attached for bolting to the other parts. I girders particularly require strutting to give them the proper lateral rigidity, and so do all wrought iron members when fixed to resist compression, the intersecting joints of cross-bracing often furnishing the appropriate means. In some cases, as for instance in bridge work, the struts of the bracing should be well wedged up and washers inserted upon the withdrawal of the wedges previous to completing the joint.
Sulphur Joint is one between metal cramps, corkings, etc, and stone, the cementing medium being sulphur, which is fused and used as described under Run Joint. One great advantage in thus employing sulphur arises from its expanding in cooling, whereas lead contracts and requires to be caulked. The use of sulphur in iron cement is alleged to expose the sockets to fracture through an expansive power which it imparts to the cement. Iron sulphide is very hard, and whilst the efficiency of the cement is doubtless owing to its formation as well as to the expansion of the iron in combining with the sal-ammoniac, practice demonstrates that unless carefully prepared the cement may in time burst the sockets, though, as elsewhere suggested, clumsy caulking may give the initial crack to the disaster, which would perhaps not occur with a faultless socket of uniform thickness.