Under each division there will always appear many items on which to figure, but as contractors are supposed to be supplied with specifications, it is useless to enumerate all the items as they may appear under each head. The two principal divisions of lumber and carpentry have been given in full in every detail of the work. Under the other divisions it will only be necessary to mention a few of the essential points to enable any one to estimate them easily and accurately.

Excavations

Excavating for foundation walls, cellars, cisterns, etc, is estimated by the cubic yard, which contains 27 cubic feet. The rate per yard is variable in different localities and according to the location of the grounds and the hardness of the earth to be excavated.

Foundations And Chimneys

Foundations are generally laid of brick or stone. Brick are laid by the thousand, and stone by the perch. The rates and customs of measuring are variable in different localities. The following, however, is the usual custom of measuring brick and stone work. For a foundation the outside measurement of the wall is the one taken. To find the number of perches of stone in walls, multiply the length in feet by the hight in feet, and that by the thickness in feet, and divide the product by 22. No allowance is made for openings, unless they are numerous or of considerable size.

Example And Solution

Take the following example : How many perches of stone in a wall 48 feet long, 8 feet high and 1 foot 6 inches thick? The solution to this is : 48 x 8 x 1½ ½ 22 = 26.18 perches. A perch of stone measures usually 24.75 cubic feet, but when built in a wall 2.75 cubic feet are allowed for mortar and filling. To find the perches of masonry divide the cubic feet by 24.75 instead of 22. In estimating the masonry no allowance is made for openings. A thousand brick are about equal to two perches of stone when laid in a wall. Brick are counted as follows :

For a 4-inch wall 7 ½ bricks to the foot.

For an 8-inch wall 15 bricks to the foot. - For a 12-inch wall 22½ bricks to the foot.

For a 16-inch wall 30 bricks to the foot.

In estimating for the number of brick the openings may be deducted if they are large or numerous. In the measurement of masonry, however, no deduction is made for openings. Seven hundred and fifty brick laid in a wall are equal to 1000 brick, wall count. The customary price allowed for the labor of laying brick is \$2 per 1000, wall count.

A chimney of 1½ by 2 brick makes a flue 4 X 8 inches inside and requires 25 bricks per foot. A chimney of 2 by 2 brick makes a flue 8x8 inches inside and requires 30 bricks per foot, while a chimney of 2 by 2½ brick makes a flue 8 x 12 inside and requires 35 bricks per foot. Chimneys of any size may be estimated by counting the number of brick required for one course and allowing five courses to the foot. A chimney breast for a fire place is usually of 2 x 7 brick and requires 80 to 90 bricks per foot.