# Hicks' Builders' Guide

Comprising an easy, practical system of estimating material and labor for carpenters, contractors and builders. A comprehensive guide to those engaged in the various branches of the building trades.

 Title Hicks' Builders' Guide Author I. P. Hicks Publisher David Williams Year 1894 Copyright 1893, I. P. Hicks Amazon Hicks' Builders' Guide

I. P. Hicks

Illustrated By Numerous Engravings Of Original Drawings Fifth Thousand Price, One Dollar.

Preface
The importance of such a work as Hicks' Builders' Guide will be apparent to all making an inspection of its contents, while every one who will give its pages a few hours of careful consideration and...
Points On Estimating
To the carpenter and contractor there is nothing of more importance than accurate estimating, for it is one on which success in business largely depends. What is it worth ? is a question very frequent...
Linear Measure
This is used in measuring distances where length only is considered - without regard to breadth or depth. It is frequently called lineal measure, meaning measured in a line without regard to breadth o...
Square Measure
This is used in measuring surfaces or things whose length and breadth are considered without regard to hight or depth, as sheeting, flooring, plastering, etc. Fig. 2 shows a square foot. In the measur...
Cubic Measure
This is used in measuring solid bodies or things which have length, breadth and thickness, such as stone masonry, the capacity of bins, boxes, rooms, etc. A cube is a solid body bounded by six equal s...
Items And Quantities
Having explained the terms used in the measurement of material the next step will be to consider the method of estimating the same. In estimating the lumber required for a building there are many part...
Practical Rules For Estimating
To 3 inch flooring add one-third for the matching. To 4 inch flooring add one-fourth for the matching. To 6 inch flooring add one-fifth for the matching. To 4 inch ceiling add one-third for the matchi...
Estimating Sheeting
In estimating sheeting for shingle roofs make no allowance for spreading the boards. Calculate the same as for close sheeting a roof, for what is gained in spreading the boards is generally lost in th...
Estimating Shingles
In estimating shingles allow nine to the square foot when laid 4½ inches to the weather, and eight to the square foot when laid 5 inches to the weather. Common shingles are estimated to average 4 inc...
Estimating Studding
To estimate studding for the outside walls and partitions in houses, estimate them 12 inches from centers, then when they are set the usual distance, 16 inches from centers, there will be enough for a...
Estimating Floor Joists
These are usually placed 16 inches from centers, except for floors which are to carry very heavy weights. In these the joists are frequently placed 12 inches from centers. To estimate them 12 inches f...
Estimating Cornice
A cornice usually consists of several members, the most common kind being known as the five-member cornice, which consists of a planceer, fascia, frieze, crown and bed molding. To estimate the quantit...
Estimating Corner Casings
The width of the average corner casing is about 5 inches, and the easiest and quickest way to estimate material for this purpose is to allow 1 foot board measure to each lineal foot in hight per corne...
Mistakes From Omissions
Having given the reader the essential points and short cuts in estimating material, we will now point out what is considerd a source of frequent mistakes, and give a safeguard for it. In estimating ma...
List Of Items For Estimating Lumber
Sills. Side Sills. End Sills. Middle Sills. Trimmers. Posts. Main Posts. Center Posts. Door Posts. Basement Posts. Girts. Main Girts. Side Girts. Tie Girts. Joists. First Floor. Second Floor. T...
Geometrical Measurement Of Roofs
In the measurement of carpentry work there is probably no part so difficult to master as the accurate measurement of roofs, particularly where they are composed of hips and valleys forming a great var...
Finding The Area Of A Gable
Fig. 13. - Diagram for Finding Area of a Gable. Fig. 14. - Finding Area of Gable when Roof is Less than Half Pitch. Referring to Fig. 13, A B C represents the gable of a building of which A C is...
Finding The Area Of A Triangle
Let A B C represent a right-angled triangle, as shown in Fig. 15. If we divide the triangle horizontally half way on the perpendicular, then the triangle E B D will equal in area the triangle shown by...
Plain Gable Roofs
Fig. 17 - Plan of Gable Roof. Figs. 18, 19 and 20. - Side and End Elevations of a Gable Roof. The gable roof is the most common in use, and is formed by two sets of rafters which meet at the . r...
Hip Roofs
Fig. 21. - Plan of Hip Roof with Deck. Fig. 22.-Side Elevation of Roof shown in Fig. 21. Fig. 23. - Size and Shape Necessary to Cover Roof. Fig. 24. - Plan of Pyramidal Roof. Fig. 25. - ...
Hip And Valley Roofs
Fig. 27 - Front Elevation of Roof Shown in Fig. 26. Fig. 28 - Plan of Roof with Four Gables. Let Fig. 26 represent the plan of a building having a roof of three gables of equal size and one smal...
The Circle
A circle, Fig. 33, is a plane figure bounded by one uniformly curved line called the circumference. The diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the center and terminating at the circumfe...
To Find The Radius Of A Circle From A Segment
Fig. 34. - Diagram for Finding Radius from a Segment. Fig. 35. - Drawing a Circle Through Three Points. Let A C, of Fig. 34, represent the chord of an arc From the center of A C square up the ri...
Polygons
A plane figure bounded by more than four lines is called a polygon. It must therefore have at least five sides, and the number of sides which it may have is not limited. In this work will be introduce...
Estimating Labor For Carpentry Work
It is. generally claimed that the question of labor is the most difficult and uncertain the carpenter is called upon to solve. Material can often be figured very closely, but just how long it will tak...
Points On Estimating Labor
While the tables show the average day's work with the average rate per square, per lineal foot, and per piece for nearly all kinds of carpentry work, yet I think it proper to show how and why variatio...
Double Floors
Where one floor is laid over another it is worth one-fourth more to lay the second floor than the first. Thus if it is worth 60 cents per square to lay the first floor, it is worth 75 cents per square...
Cornices
A cornice is composed of several members, the most common kind containing five, which are known respectively as planceer, fascia, frieze, crown and bed moldings. It may be estimated at 15 cents per li...
Gutters
Fig. 48. - Cornice with Standing Gutter. These are variously formed on roofs and in cornices and are worth from 4 to 10 cents per lineal foot. A standing gutter on a roof is worth from 4 to 6 cents...
Porches
Fig. 47. - Gutter Formed In the Cornice. Sometimes porches may be estimated by the lineal foot, at from \$2 to \$4 per foot. This, however, is not the best method, its principal advantage being its s...
Estimating Window Frames
The various parts of the work necessary to complete a window frame in a building may be put down as follows: Making frame .......... \$1.25 Hanging blinds .......... .25 ...
Door Frames
The different parts of work required to complete a door frame may be estimated as follows : Making frame .......... \$ 0.90 Setting frame in building .......... .25 C...
Sliding Doors
The different parts of work required to put up sliding doors are worth as follows : Lining partitions and putting up track .......... \$7.00 Setting jambs .......... 1.00 ...
Estimating Labor
Wainscoting Plain wainscoting is worth about 90 cents per square. The cap should be estimated by the foot extra, according to style of finish. Paneled wains-coating is often worth twice or three time...
Recapitulation
In looking over the items which have been variously combined and bringing them to a minimum, it will be seen on what the carpenter has to figure and the easiest way of estimating it. Framing an...
Short Cut In Estimating
As many of the principal parts of construction in common buildings are essentially the same, a short cut may be made in figuring the bulk of the rough work, which includes the framing, raising, sheeti...
Principal Divisions In Estimating
Under each division there will always appear many items on which to figure, but as contractors are supposed to be supplied with specifications, it is useless to enumerate all the items as they may app...
Lathing And Plastering
Lathing is estimated by the square yard and the usual rate is 3 cents per yard. Fifteen lath are counted to the yard, and 6½ pounds of threepenny nails per 1000 lath. Plastering is also estimated by ...
Painting
When a carpenter has to figure upon painting it is better for him to get some reliable mechanic who is in the business to give figures on the work. Painterfigure their work by the square yard. I have ...
List Of Items For Estimating Hardware
Nails, various sizes (see table). Brads. Blind hinges. Window bolts. Axle pulleys. Sash locks. Sash cord. Window weights. Mortise locks. Rim locks. Butts, various sizes. Parlor door hangers...
Form Of Contract
Artcles of Agreement, made on this........................................................day of................, A. D. 18........, by and between..........................., party of the first part a...
Practical Methods Of Construction
As most carpenters are familiar with the usual methods of construction in the line of carpentry, I will only mention a few points on this subject, which seem to me to be more or less neglected. ...
Making Corners
Fig. 48. - An Outside Corner. Fig. 49. - Section of a Corner, Indicating a Better Method of Construction than shown in Previous Figure. It is customary, nowadays, to make the outside corners of ...
Spacing Studding
Fig. 52. - Showing Improper Manner of Running the Lath. Fig. 53. - Showing Proper Method of Spacing Studding. As the second floor joists in buildings usually rest On a ribbon board framed into t...
Corner Blocks
Every workman has experienced more or less difficulty in nailing up corner blocks in casing doors and windows. The trouble all comes from the want of a solid background on which to nail the blocks. Ve...
Mitering And Coping Base
Fig. 55 - Method of Putting up Corner Blocks. Many mechanics have probably experienced more or less difficulty in mitering and coping base, particularly of the hardwood finish and molded-edge patte...
Binding Sliding Doors
I have frequently noticed that a remedy is wanted for binding sliding doors. This question is very frequently asked, and it is not to be wondered at, for not one sliding door in ten put up works in an...
To Prevent Leaks In Bay Windows
It seems to be a very difficult matter for a carpenter to build a bay window that will not leak in a bad rain storm. There are comparatively few bays built that do not have a window or a large double ...
Shingling Hips And Valleys
There are several methods of shingling hips and valleys, but as most mechanics are familiar with the different methods, I will briefly describe only a few of the best and most practical ones. In shing...
Art Of Roof Framlng
Probably no part in the construction of buildings so thoroughly taxes the skill and ingenuity of the builder as the framing of roofs. Many diagrams have been published from time to time showing how to...
Bevel Of Jack Rafters
Fig. 59. - Diagram for Half Pitch Roofs. Before proceeding further with the subject of roof framing we will illustrate a very simple method for obtaining the bevel across the back of jack rafters, ...
Backing Hip Rafters
Fig. 60. - Obtaining: Bevel Across the Back of Jack Rafters. Let us now consider the backing of the hip rafter, an item which on common house and barn framing is of but little importance, yet it is...
Hip Roofs Of Unequal Pitches
Fig. 62. - Diagram Showing how Method Presented in Fig. 58 may be Varied for Roofs of Unequal Pitches. In Fig. 62 is shown the manner in which the method represented in Fig. 58 may be varied to mee...
Great Circle Of Jack Rafters
Fig. 63. - Great Circle of Jack Rafters. The great circle of jack rafters is another modification of Fig. 58 for roofs of unequal pitches. Referring to Fig. 63, let A B represent the long run c f c...
Fig. 65. - Plan of an Irregular Hip Roof. Let us now take the plan of a hip roof building having a long run of common rafter on one side of the hip and a short run on the opposite side. This kind o...
Hips On End Of Building Out Of Square
Fig. 70. - Plan of Hip Roof with One End out of Square. A plan of a hip roof with one end out of square is shown in Fig. 70. Let A B C D represent the plates in the plan ; D E C the angle and run o...
Gables Of Different Pitches
Fig. 73. - Diagram for Finding the Lengths and Bevels of the Jacks on the Rear Side of the Long Hip. Fig. 74. - Plan of Roof having Three Gables of Varying Pitches. Fig. 75. - Finding Lengths ...
Hip And Valley Roof
Fig. 79. - Plan of Hip and Valley Roof. In Fig. 79 is represented the plan of a hip and valley roof. This form of a roof is frequently termed broken-back hip and valley, because the main hips are i...
Hip And Valley Roof. Continued
In Fig. 82 is shown the left side elevation of the roof, in which A B represents the length of the plate line. C D F, the starting points of the hips and valleys, and C and F the points of the main hi...
Octagon Hip And Jack Rafters
Fig. 85. - Finding the Plumb Cut of the Valley Rafters. an Octagon Roof. Fig. 86. - Finding the Lengths and Bevels of Hips and Jacks on Let us now consider the problem of finding the lengths and...
Joining Gables Diagonally
Fig. 87 - Showing how to find the Lengths and Bevels of Jack Rafters in an Octa. gon, Hexagon or Polygon. One of the most difficult problems in roof framing with which the mechanic has to contend -...
Curved Or Molded Roofs
Fig. 91. - Conical Tower Roof with Rafters Concave in Form. Fig. 92. - A Convex Mansard Roof. Fig. 93. - An Ogee Veranda Roof. Having presented to the reader a practical system for almost eve...
Roof Framing By The Steel Square
Fig. 98. - Finding Lengths of Jack Rafters. The lengths and cuts of any rafter, hip, valley or jack on roofs of any pitch may be easily found by a proper application of the steel square and 2-foot ...
Roof Framing Without Drawings
The system to which we shall now refer is one by which the lengths of common rafters, hips, valleys and jacks, with all their different bevels, on roofs of equal pitch, may be easily found without the...
Laying Out Rafters
In laying out rafters, it is very important to set off the length on the work line, as deviations from this rule will often lead to mistakes. The lines indicating the run and rise of a rafter are easi...
Raising Rafters
It is as important to know how to properly put up the frame work of a roof as it is to know how to lay it off correctly. First see that the plates are straight and the angles true, then set up the dec...
Mitering Planceers, Moldings, Etc
As the art of making a common miter joint is universally understood by all mechanics, an explanation of the common miter is unnecessary. We will, therefore, explain the methods of making some of the m...
Mitering Roof Boards And Planceers
Fig. 113. - Plan of Valley in a Roof of Two Pitches. To miter planceers and roof boards in valleys of two pitches it is only necessary to take the figures on the square which cut the bevels across ...
Bevel For Hip Or Valley
A question in roof framing which sometimes comes up in actual practice is how to cut the bevel on the lower end of a hip or valley corresponding to a square cut of the common rafter. This is only used...
Carpentry and Building
A Progressive Monthly of the Building Trades. A Practical Magazine for Architects, Builders and Mechanics, profusely and appropriately illustrated. 24 pages of text (exclusive of advertisements), with...