There are several ways of hanging doors, but this course extends only to the consideration of those hung in solid door frames.

Solid Book Frames consist of two posts, whose upper extremities are tenoned into a "head" or "lintel," and whose feet may be furnished with cast-iron shoes 2 (see Figs. 524, 532), each having a projecting stud in the bottom which fits into a sill of hard wood or stone. It is better that the frame should in external doors rest upon a stone step, as in Fig. 524, for wood sills soon decay.

1 From the catalogue of Messrs. Rownson, Drew, and Co.

2 A piece of sheet lead and a slate dowel or a round cast-iron dowel are often substituted for the cast-iron shoe.

The frame is either built in as the masonry progresses, or recesses are left, into which it is afterwards fitted. In the former case the ends of the head are allowed to project beyond the width of the door and posts, forming "horns" (H H, Fig. 532), which serve to keep the frame steady in the masonry. Unless the horns are very long, the mortises are sometimes cut through to their extremities, as shown in Fig. 532.

Door Frames 100413

Fig. 532.

These horns built into the masonry are liable to rot, and may with advantage be cut off and the joint formed with an ordinary mortise and tenon joint, wedged.

The head of the frame must be fixed by being nailed to wood plugs in the wall or by being wedged into a chase in the wall.

The posts and head for ordinary door frames will fit conveniently into brickwork if they are made 4 1/2 inches square. They are, however, frequently made of much lighter scantling, in which case the recesses to receive them should be diminished accordingly, or spaces will be left behind the frame which are seldom solidly filled in.

The scantlings of solid door frames should vary according to the width of the door they have to carry; as they are supported throughout they are not affected by the height of the door.1

Width of opening.

Scantling.

ft.

in.

ft.

in.

in.

ill.

2

3

to

3

0

4

V

3

3

0

to

5

4

5

X

4

5

4

to

7

0

6

X

5

A rebate is formed round the inside of the posts and head, into which the door fits when shut. This rebate is worked through the whole length of the head to the extremities of the horns, the tops of the posts being fitted accordingly.

The inside edge of the rebate on the frame is generally beaded or chamfered, so as to give a finish to the joint between the door and the frame. This bead is not shown in Fig. 532 (see Fig. 523).

Any rebate, chamfer, or bead on the posts should be continued upon the cast-iron shoes where these occur.

The solid frame is generally used for external doors, and its position in the wall is varied according to circumstances.

The frame itself is secured to the masonry either by being nailed to wood plugs, as in Fig. 498, to wood bricks, as in Fig. 500, or by being fastened to forked wrought-iron holdfasts built in, as in Fig. 503, and secured to the frame by a bolt and nut, as in Tig. 534.

In some cases the frame is simply attached to the inside of the jambs of the opening without any reveal, as in Fig. 498; but in order to make a firm job, sinkings or recesses to receive the frame should always be formed in the wall.

When the door is required to open outwards and fold back against the wall, the frame is inserted in recesses formed in the exterior angles of the opening, so that the front face of the frame is flush with that of the wall. An example of this is shown in Fig. 503.

External entrance doors of houses are, however, usually made to open inwards, the frame being fixed in a recess formed on the inside of the wall, as shown in Fig. 533, so that the masonry of the reveal prevents the wind and rain from penetrating between the frame and the wall.

The reveal shown for the external door in Fig. 5 2 3 is only 4 1/2 inches thick, but unless there is a porch or other protection in front of the door it is an advantage to leave as great a thickness as possible of masonry in front of the frame, in order that the door may be protected from the weather.

1 S.M.K Course.

Internal doorways in ordinary houses generally have their jambs covered or lined with wood (see Fig. 523); but in very common buildings the linings are omitted. Moreover, in superior buildings of considerable size and massive construction, the jambs are frequently left with the masonry or brickwork showing.

Fig. 533. External Doorway.

Fig. 533. External Doorway.

Fig. 534. Internal Doorway (without Jamb Linings).

Fig. 534. Internal Doorway (without Jamb Linings).

Fig. 534 illustrates such a case. It is taken from the New Law Courts.